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The table below is automatically generated by a query that extracts the definitions from classes that are children of the class "Regional part of brain". There are 433 brain regions here.

  • A complete list of all brain regions in NeuroLex is available here.
Label Id Synonym Definition ExternallySourcedDefinition
Abducens nerve fibers Abducens nerve fibers birnlex_1689 Nerve fibers arising from motor neurons in the abducens nucleus that are contained within the pontine tegmentum
Abducens nucleus Abducens nucleus birnlex_1366 Nucleus of the abducent nerve Nucleus located beneath the floor of the 4th ventricle in the pontine tegmentum, containing motor neurons innervating the lateral rectus muscle of the eye (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 533)
Accessory abducens nucleus Accessory abducens nucleus nlx_144454 A small cluster of neurons in the pontine reticular formation in some mammals, containing the majority of motoneurons innervating the retractor bulbi muscles of the eye
Accessory medullary lamina Accessory medullary lamina birnlex_1626 accessory medullar lamina of pallidum
incomplete medullary lamina of globus pallidus
Thin bundle of myelinated axons that divides the medial pallidal segment into outer and inner portions (Carpenter, Core Text of Neuroanatomy, 3rd ed., 1985, pg. 303).
Accessory nerve fiber bundle Accessory nerve fiber bundle birnlex_916 accessory nerve fibers Fibers of the accessory nerve (11th cranial nerve) contained within the medulla
Adenohypophysis Adenohypophysis birnlex_1581 anterior lobe of pituitary The adenohypophysis, which consists of the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland, contains several types of endocrine cells, which secrete systemic hormones such as adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), GH, LH/FSH, TSH and prolactin in response to hypothalamus-derived releasing hormones (PMID: 22080957). * The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION. (MSH) * The glandular or anterior lobe of the pituitary gland which secretes several hormones. (NCI)
Aggregate regional part of brain Aggregate regional part of brain nlx_anat_20090509 A regional part of brain consisting of multiple brain regions that are not related through a simple volummetric part of hierarchy, e.g., basal ganglia.
Alveus Alveus birnlex_1510 Layer of white matter in hippocampus lying just deep to the stratum oriens layer, continuous with the fimbria of the hippocampus
Amygdala Amygdala birnlex_1241 amygdaloid nucleus
amygdaloid body
archistriatum
Amygdaloid complex
Subcortical brain region lying anterior to the hippocampal formation in the temporal lobe and anterior to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in some species. It is usually subdivided into several groups. Functionally, it is not considered a unitary structure (MM).
Angular gyrus Angular gyrus birnlex_1376 Part of inferior parietal lobule formed by the cortex surrounding the upturned end of the superior temporal sulcus (Nolte, The Human Brain, 6th ed, 2009, pg 659)
Ansa lenticularis Ansa lenticularis nlx_87326 White matter bundle containing part of the projection of the globus pallidus to the thalamus, forming a compact, conspicuous bundle running beneath the internal capsule and hooking around its medial edge (Nolte, The Human Brain, 6th ed., 2009, pg 659)
Ansoparamedian fissure Ansoparamedian fissure nlx_anat_20081256 Fissura Inferior Posterior
Fissura Ansoparamedianus
Fissure between cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIIBi and VIIBii.
Antenna lobe of Manduca Antenna lobe of Manduca nlx_151563 The Antennal lobe is the first olfactory processing center in the insect brain (similar to the olfactory bulb in vertebrates). Manduca is a moth genus of the Sphingidae (hawkmoth) family. The Carolina Sphinx (Manduca sexta) is often used in biological research. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manduca
Anterior cingulate cortex Anterior cingulate cortex birnlex_936 anterior cingulate The frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a collar form around the corpus callosum. It includes both the ventral and dorsal areas of the cingulate cortex. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gray727.svg
Anterior commissure anterior part Anterior commissure anterior part birnlex_969 The part of the anterior commissure that contains fibers interconnecting the anterior olfactory nucleus in each hemisphere. The fibers extend from the commissural region of the anterior commissure anteriorly into the olfactory bulb. Within the commissural portion, the fibers lie in the anterior portion, but cannot be easily distinguished from the posterior fibers on gross dissection. (Adapted from Heimer, 1996)
Anterior commisure Anterior commisure nlx_144088
birnlex_1557
A forebrain white matter structure consisting of a large fiber bundle, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres across the middle line, located in front of the columns of the fornix. On sagittal section it is oval in shape, its long diameter being vertical and measuring about 5 mm. Its fibers can be traced lateralward and backward on either side beneath the corpus striatum into the substance of the temporal lobe. It serves in this way to connect the two temporal lobes, but it also contains decussating fibers from the olfactory tracts. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_commissure)
Anterior horn of lateral ventricle Anterior horn of lateral ventricle birnlex_1279 Part of the lateral ventricle that extends anteriorly into the frontal lobes, bordered by the head of the caudate nucleus on the lateral side (Adapted from Heimer, 1996)
Anterior limb of internal capsule Anterior limb of internal capsule nlx_144257 Portion of internal capsule lying between the lenticular nucleus and the head of the caudate nucleus.
Anterior nuclear group Anterior nuclear group birnlex_1692 anterior nucleus of thalamus
nuclei anterior thalami
nuclei thalamicus anterior
nuclei anteriores thalami
nuclei anteriores (thalami)
anterior thalamus
anterior thalamic nuclei
Mostly gray regional part of anterior thalamic region, consisting of the anterior medial, anterior dorsal and anterior lateral thalamic nuclei in primates. In rodents, it consists of anterior medial and anterior ventral divisions, with several subdivisions of each, according to Paxinos (MM: 2006-10-26)
Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus birnlex_1226 Anterior hypothalamic area Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral preoptic areas and caudally with the tuber cinereum. (MSH)
Anterior olfactory nucleus Anterior olfactory nucleus birnlex_1085 Laminated structure lying caudal to the olfactory bulb in all vertebrates. Based on Nissl stains, the AON has been divided into two basic zones: “pars externa,” a thin ring of cells that encircles the rostral end of the olfactory peduncle, and the remainder, sometimes referred to as “pars cruralis” or “pars principalis”
Anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa Anterior olfactory nucleus pars externa nlx_152598 One of two main divisions of the anterior olfactory nucleus, comprising a thin ring of cells that encircles the rostral end of the olfactory peduncle
Anterior perforated substance Anterior perforated substance birnlex_1096 substantia perforata anterior Regional part of telencephalon lying on the basal surface and bounded by the olfactory trigone rostrally, the diagonal band medially and caudally and the prepiriform cortex laterally. It is characterized by many perforations caused by small blood vessels entering the gray matter (Meyer et al., J. Comp. Neurol 284: 405, 1989).
Aplysia buccal ganglia Aplysia buccal ganglia nlx_152072 This ganglia mediates feeding behavior. Neurons within this ganglia produce either ingestion or rejection rhythmic patterned activity.
Arbor Vitae Arbor Vitae nlx_anat_20090101 The white matter contained within the cerebellum, lying deep to the granule cell layer in the cerebellar cortex, excluding the parts of the cerebellar peduncles that extend outside of the cerebellum. The deep cerebellar nuclei are embedded within the arbor vitae.
Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus birnlex_1638 arcuate periventricular nucleus
Infundibular hypothalamic nucleus
arcuate nucleus
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma. (MSH)
Area postrema Area postrema birnlex_2636 * A small, rounded eminence on each side of the FOURTH VENTRICLE, which receives nerve fibers from the SOLITARY NUCLEUS; SPINAL CORD; and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as an emetic chemoreceptor. (MSH) * one of the ventricular organs, a highly vascular mound of tissue along the margin of the caudal part of the fourth ventricle; consists of many large capillaries, many glial, and some small nerve cells; receives fibers directly from the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves; its efferent fibers go directly to the nucleus solitarius and the parabrachial nuclei and indirectly to other areas; it lies outside of the blood brain barrier and appears to function as a chemoreceptor trigger zone for emesis. (CSP)
Area prostriata of DMVH2003 Area prostriata of DMVH2003 nlx_149262 Cytoarchitecturally defined region within the isthmus of the cingulate cortex located posterior to the parasubiculum of the isthmus, bordering area 17 posteriorly, further divided into an anterior and posterior portion based on cytoarchitectureal and immunocytochemical criteria
Association cortex Association cortex oen_0001107 Association area Region of the cerebral cortex that integrates diverse sensory or motor information for purposeful action.
Auditory cortex Auditory cortex oen_0001105 Neocortical areas that are functionally activated predominantly to sound, with the shortest latency.
Banks of superior temporal sulcus Banks of superior temporal sulcus birnlex_862 Component of the temporal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the superior temporal gyrus and the caudal boundary the middle temporal gyrus. Within the FreeSurfer definition, this reflects primarily the posterior aspect of the superior temporal sulcus (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Barrel Barrel nlx_333 A cytoarchitectural unit of the barrel cortex characterized in Nissl preparations a dense ring of cell bodies which has, roughly, the shape of a circle or an ellipsoid. As originally described by Woolsey and Van der Loos, this ring represents the side of the barrel and surrounds an area of lower cell density which they named the hollow. Each barrel is separated from its neighbors by a clear, nearly acellular area termed the septum. In tangentially oriented sections, a septum can be seen to separate a barrel from its neighbors.
Barrel cortex Barrel cortex nlx_81 Barrel field The term primary somatosensory area, barrel field refers to one of 6 subdivisions of the primary somesthetic area of the cerebral cortex in the mouse (Dong-2004) and the rat (Swanson-2004). It is defined as dark-staining regions in Nissl and other types of stains of layer four of the somatosensory cortex of rodents where somatosensory inputs from the contralateral side of the body come in from the thalamus, in particular input from the whiskers. Each barrel ranges in size from 100-400 um in diameter. (modified from BrainInfo and Wikipedia)
Barrington's nucleus Barrington's nucleus nlx_144457 pontine micturition center collection of cell bodies located in the rostral pons in the brainstem involved in the supraspinal regulation of micturition (urination). The PMC makes connections with other brain centers to control micturition, including the medial frontal cortex, insular cortex, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). The PAG in particular acts a relay station for ascending bladder information from the spinal cord and incoming signals from higher brain areas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontine_micturition_center)
Basal forebrain Basal forebrain birnlex_1560 A region of the brain consisting of ventral and rostral subcortical regions of the telencephalon, including among others, the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, amygdala, ventral pallidum, substantia innominata, and basal nucleus of Meynert. The term basal forebrain refers to a "heterogeneous set of structures on the medial and ventral cerebral hemisphere." It comprises the substantia innominata, basal nucleus, anterior perforated substance, islands of Calleja and overlying parts of the striatum and globus pallidus. It extends caudally into pars reticulata of the substantia nigra and rostrally includes the nucleus accumbens, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of stria terminalis and septal nuclei (Mai-2004).
Basal ganglia Basal ganglia birnlex_826 Subcortical masses of gray matter in the forebrain and midbrain that are richly interconnected and so viewed as a functional system. The nuclei usually included are the caudate nucleus (caudoputamen in rodents), putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra (pars compacta and pars reticulata) and the subthalamic nucleus. Some also include the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum.
Basal ganglia of rodent Basal ganglia of rodent nlx_65680 rodent basal ganglia The basal ganglia of the rodent
Basal nuclear complex Basal nuclear complex birnlex_1629 basal nuclei of the forebrain
Basal ganglia
basal nuclei
Cerebral nuclei
The deep nuclei of telencephalic origin found in the basal region of the forebrain, The deep nuclei found in the basal forebrain. Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres. (MeSH definition of Basal Ganglia in UMLS).
Basal nucleus Basal nucleus birnlex_1107 Nucleus basalis
Magnocellular basal nucleus
Nucleus basalis of Meynert
Ch4
magnocellular corticopetal cell complex
One of four major groupings of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain containing neurons that project widely to the cortex and amygdala (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 3rd ed, 2005, pg 488)
Basolateral nuclear complex Basolateral nuclear complex birnlex_2679 basolateral nuclear group
vicarious cortex
pars basolateralis (Corpus amygdaloideum)
amygdalar basolateral nucleus
amygdaloid basolateral complex
deep nuclei
basolateral nucleus of the amygdala
A set of amygdalar nuclei comprising the lateral nucleus (LA), the basal nucleus (BA), and the accessory basal nuclei (ABN). These nuclei are bordered laterally by the external capsule and medially by the central amygdalar nucleus as well as the amygdalohippocampal area. This definition refers to the rat Basolateral nuclear complex.
Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis oval nucleus Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis oval nucleus nlx_77783 Part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis, comprising a distinct, large, egg-shaped collection of neurons that, together with the juxtacapsular (Ju) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei, encompass the anterolateral area of the BST (Ju and Swanson, 1989)
Bed nucleus of stria terminalis Bed nucleus of stria terminalis birnlex_724 bed nucleus stria terminalis (Johnson)
interstitial nucleus of stria terminalis
intercalate nucleus of stria terminalis
bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
nucleus of the stria terminalis
bed nuclei of the stria terminalis
Nucleus defined on the basis of Nissl stain whose cells are embedded in, and surround the stria terminalis at its rostral extreme, where it splits into multiple bundles directed ventrally toward different parts of the hypothalamus. The nucleus wraps around the anterior commissure. It is bounded laterally by the internal capsule, medially by the lateral septal nucleus and the anterior column of the fornix, and dorsally by the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle. Some authors have expanded the definition on the basis of other stains and connectivity studies to include cell groups distributed through the dorsal part of substantia innominata between the classical nucleus and the amygdala. The extended nucleus of stria terminalis by that definition is classified as part of the extended amygdala ( Olmos-2004 ). The nucleus is found in the human, the macaque, the rat and the mouse. Adapted from Brain Info.
Body of caudate nucleus Body of caudate nucleus birnlex_1217 Part of caudate nucleus lying just dorsal to the thalamus
Body of fornix Body of fornix birnlex_739 Part of fornix adjacent to the crura where they join together at the midline underneath the corpus callosum
Body of lateral ventricle Body of lateral ventricle birnlex_1287 central part of lateral ventricle Part of lateral ventricle consisting of the central portion that lies dorsally, bounded by the thalamus on the ventral side (Adapted from Heimer, 1996)
Brachium of superior colliculus Brachium of superior colliculus birnlex_1065 superior quadrigeminal brachium
superior brachium
Bundle of fibers that passes over the medial geniculate nucleus (in humans) to reach the superior colliculus. Contains afferents from the retina.
Brainstem Brainstem birnlex_1565 brain stem The lower portion of the brain through which the forebrain sends information to, and receives information from, the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Major functions located in the brainstem include those necessary for survival, e.g., breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and arousal. (NIDA Media Guide Glossary). Note that the definition of brainstem varies in different nomenclatures, for example, some definitions include the diencephalon. The part of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It consists of the Mesencephalon, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata (MeSH).
The term brain stem refers to a composite substructure of the brain. It includes the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata. Some authors include the cerebellum and/or parts of the diencephalon. A discussion of differences in the use of this term is presented in Anthoney-94 (NeuroNames).
Broca's area Broca's area FMAID: 242176 Convolution of Broca Part of left frontal lobe of human located in the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus named for the French physician Pierre-Paul Broca (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed, 1995, pg 446). According to FMA, it comprises Brodmann's area 44 and part of area 45. Broca's area is generally considered to be involved in speech and language processing and production (e.g., speech articulation, lexical semantics, and syntax/syntactic decoding); but has also been shown to be related to non-verbal frequency discrimination, working memory, complex hand movements, associative sensorimotor learning and sensorimotor integration, imitation, musical processing, and hallucinations in those with Schizophrenia (http://www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/179813.html).
CA1 CA1 birnlex_1197 CA1 field of hippocampus
CA1 field
cornu ammonis 1
Regio superior
field CA1 of hippocampus
Part of hippocampus proper bounded by CA2 and the subiculum, characterized by pyramidal neurons that receive projections from pyramidal neurons of CA3 via the Schaffer collaterals.
CA1 alveus CA1 alveus nlx_anat_1005038 Part of alveus lying in area CA1, deep to the stratum oriens of CA1 and continuous with the alveus of CA2
CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare birnlex_4123 CA1 s. lacunosum moleculare Part of stratum lacunosum-moleculare lying in area CA1, superficial to CA1 stratum radiatum and bounded by the pial surface, continuous with stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA2 and the subiculum stratum moleculare
CA1 stratum oriens CA1 stratum oriens birnlex_4116 CA1 s. oriens
Field CA1 stratum oriens
Part of stratum oriens lying in area CA1, superficial to the alveus of CA1 and deep to the pyramidal cell layer of CA1. It is continuous with the stratum oriens of CA2 and bounded by the subiculum
CA1 stratum pyramidale CA1 stratum pyramidale birnlex_4110 CA1 pyramidal cell layer
CA1 s. pyramidale
CA1 stratum pyramidale hippocampi
Part of pyramidal cell layer lying in area CA1, superficial to the CA1 stratum oriens, and deep to the stratum radiatum of CA1, continuous with the pyramidal cell layers of CA2 and the subiculum. It is characterized by pyramidal cell bodies that are generally smaller in size than those in the other hippocampal sectors.
CA1 stratum radiatum CA1 stratum radiatum birnlex_4119 CA1 part of stratum radiatum Part of stratum radiatum lying in area CA1, superficial to the CA1 pyramidal cell layer and deep to the CA1 stratum lucidum-moleculare, continuous with the stratum radiatum of CA2 and bounded by the subiculum. It contains the Schaffer collateral projection from CA3.
CA2 CA2 birnlex_1362 CA2 field of hippocampus
CA2 field
Part of hippocampus proper bounded by areas CA3 and CA1, characterized by a narrow layer of large pyramidal cells, similar in size to CA3 pyramidal cells, but which lack the mossy fiber input from the dentate gyrus (adapted from Paxinos, G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pg. 460)
CA2 alveus CA2 alveus nlx_anat_1008001 Part of alveus lying in area CA2 deep to CA2 stratum oriens continuous with the alveus of CA1
CA2 stratum lacunosum moleculare CA2 stratum lacunosum moleculare birnlex_4124 Part of stratum lacunosum-moleculare lying in area CA2, superficial to the CA2 stratum radiatum, that is continuous with the stratum lacunosum-moleculare in areas CA3 and CA1
CA2 stratum oriens CA2 stratum oriens birnlex_4115 Part of stratum oriens lying in area CA3 deep to the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and continuous with stratum oriens of area CA2 and bounded by the dentate gyrus hilus.
CA2 stratum pyramidale CA2 stratum pyramidale birnlex_4111 CA2 stratum pyramidale hippocampi
stratum pyramidale of CA2
CA2 pyramidal cell layer
pyramidal cell layer of CA2
Part of pyramidal cell layer in area CA2, lying superficial to the CA2 stratum oriens, and deep to the stratum radiatum of CA2, continuous with the pyramidal cell layers of CA1 and CA3
CA2 stratum radiatum CA2 stratum radiatum birnlex_4120 stratum radiatum of CA2 Part of stratum radiatum in area CA2, lying superficial to the pyramidal cell layer and deep to CA2 stratum lacunosum-moleculare, continuous with the stratum radiatum of CA1 and CA3.
CA3 CA3 birnlex_1204 CA3 field of hippocampus
CA3 field
Part of hippocampus proper bounded by the hilus of the dentate gyrus and area CA2, characterized by large pyramidal cells and a dense projection from dentate gyrus granule cell mossy fibers
CA3 alveus CA3 alveus nlx_anat_1005039 Part of alveus lying within hippocampal sector CA3
CA3 stratum lacunosum moleculare CA3 stratum lacunosum moleculare birnlex_4125 CA3 part of stratum lacunosum moleculare Part of stratum lacunosum-moleculare in area CA3. It is bounded by the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA2 and CA1. It is bounded superficially by the pial surface and deep by the CA3 stratum radiatum. It is continuous with the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA2.
CA3 stratum lucidum CA3 stratum lucidum nlx_78258 Stratum lucidum
CA3 s. lucidum
Cytoarchitectural layer in CA3 consisting of a relatively acellular zone lying just above the pyramidal cell layer, occupied by mossy fiber axons originating from the dentate gyrus (adapted from Paxinos G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd edition, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995).
CA3 stratum oriens CA3 stratum oriens birnlex_4117 CA3 s. oriens Part of stratum oriens lying in area CA3 deep to the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and continuous with stratum oriens of area CA2 and bounded by the dentate gyrus hilus.
CA3 stratum radiatum CA3 stratum radiatum birnlex_4121 CA3 s. radiatum Part of stratum radiatum in area CA3, lying superficial to the stratum lucidum and deep to CA3 stratum lacunosum-moleculare.
Caudal anterior cingulate cortex Caudal anterior cingulate cortex birnlex_967 Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral boundary was the first appearance of the genu of the corpus callosum whereas the caudal boundary was established as the first appearance of the mammillary bodies. The medial boundary was the medial aspect of the cortex. The supero-lateral boundary was the superior frontal gyrus whereas the infero-lateral boundary was the corpus callosum (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Caudal middle frontal gyrus Caudal middle frontal gyrus birnlex_1083 Component of the middl frontal gyrus. The rostral boundary of the middle frontal gyrus was the rostral extent of the middle frontal gyrus whereas the caudal boundary was the precentral gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries were designated as the superior frontal sulcus and the inferior frontal sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Caudal part of spinal trigeminal nucleus Caudal part of spinal trigeminal nucleus birnlex_2637 trigeminal caudal nucleus The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation. (MSH)
Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus birnlex_1373 Caudate Subcortical nucleus of telecephalic origin consisting of an elongated gray mass lying lateral to and bordering the lateral ventricle. It is divided into a head, body and tail in some species.
Caudomedial Nidopallium Caudomedial Nidopallium nlx_144027 Nidopallium caudomediale
Caudomedial neostriatum
Secondary avian auditory forebrain region
Caudomedial lobule Caudomedial lobule nlx_149279 Region of cortex in the region of the isthmus between the cingulate and parahippocampal cortex in primate brain comprising a rostrally oriented bulge that is made up, in part, of portions of the retrosplenial cortex.
Caudoputamen Caudoputamen nlx_anat_100312 Caudate-putamen
Caudate putamen
Regional part of telencephalon in some species, e.g., rodent, equivalent to the dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen). Unlike the dorsal striatum of primates, for example, the caudoputamen is not split into separate nuclei by the fibers of the internal capsule. Rather, the internal capsule splits into fiber bundles which course through the structure.
Cell group Cell group nlx_532 A group of cells that may not be contained within macroscopic anatomical boundaries, e.g., A9 dopaminergic cell group; massa intercalata of the amygdala
Central amygdaloid nucleus Central amygdaloid nucleus birnlex_2682 central nucleus of amygdala
central nucleus of the amygdala
The output region of the amygdala responsible for controlling responses (Phelps & LeDoux, 2005, PMID: 16242399).
Central cervical spinocerebellar tract Central cervical spinocerebellar tract nlx_41715 Afferents from the neck and head to the cerebellum.
Central gray substance of medulla Central gray substance of medulla birnlex_2638 central gray matter The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation. (MSH)
Cerebellar Paravermis Cerebellar Paravermis nlx_anat_20081236 Intermediate zone A region on either side of the midline of the cerebellum that lies lateral to the vermis and medial to the hemisphere. It contains the cerebellar cortical zones C1, C2 and C3 and receives climbing fibre input from the inferior olive and projects to the nucleus interpositus. Here, the term is used to denote the functionally related C1, C3 and Y (but not the C2) zones (Nature glossary: http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v6/n4/glossary/nrn1646.html#df1).
Cerebellar cortex Cerebellar cortex birnlex_1566 The superficial gray matter of the cerebellum. It consists of three main layers, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer and the granule cell layer, and the white matter laminae lying deep to the granule cell layer.
Cerebellar penducular complex Cerebellar penducular complex birnlex_970 cerebellar peduncles and decussations
cerebellar peduncles
The term cerebellar peduncles refers to the three peduncles of the cerebellum. They are the superior cerebellar peduncle, the middle cerebellar peduncle and the inferior cerebellar peduncle (Carpenter-83). (NeuroNames)
Cerebellar white matter Cerebellar white matter birnlex_1562 Regional part of cerebellum consisting of the myelinated axons lying deep to the granule cell layer, excluding the deep cerebellar nuclei and the cerebellar peduncles.
Cerebellum Cerebellum birnlex_1489 Cerebellar Part of the rhombencephalon that lies in the posterior cranial fossa behind the brain stem, consisting of the cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei and cerebellar white matter. A portion of the brain that helps regulate posture, balance, and coordination. (NIDA Media Guide Glossary)
Cerebral aqueduct Cerebral aqueduct birnlex_1261 aqueduct of Sylvius Part of ventricular system of brain consisting of a narrow channel in the midbrain connecting the third and fourth ventricles. (Maryann Martone)
Cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex birnlex_1494 Cortex The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon. It consists of the neocortex (6 layered cortex or isocortex), the hippocampal formation and the olfactory cortex. The cerebral cortex is a sheet of neural tissue that is outermost to the cerebrum of the mammalian brain. It plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. It is constituted of up to six horizontal layers, each of which has a different composition in terms of neurons and connectivity.
Cerebral white matter Cerebral white matter birnlex_711 White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. It is composed of myelinated nerve cell processes, or axons, which connect various grey matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other and carry nerve impulses between neurons. Cerebral and spinal white matter do not contain dendrites, which can only be found in grey matter along with neural cell bodies and shorter axons (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Cerebrum Cerebrum birnlex_1042 Gross division of the brain. The term cerebrum has several definitions ranging in generality from equivalence to the term "brain" to the sum of the left cerebral hemisphere and right hemisphere, to a composite structure consisting of the cerebral cortex and adjacent cerebral white matter. A thorough discussion of the nature and history of the different definitions is presented in Anthoney-94 (NeuroNames). The term cerebrum has several definitions ranging in generality from equivalence to the term "brain" to the sum of the left cerebral hemisphere and right hemisphere, to a composite structure consisting of the cerebral cortex and adjacent cerebral white matter. A thorough discussion of the nature and history of the different definitions is presented in Anthoney-94 (NeuroNames).
For most authors, this is the cerebral hemispheres plus the basal ganglia, but most clincians do not include the basal ganglia (MSH).
Chemoarchitectural part Chemoarchitectural part nlx_anat_20090501 Regional part of an anatomical region that is revealed by the use of a stain that reveals chemoarchitecture.
Choroid plexus Choroid plexus UBERON:0001886 a structure consisting of modified ependymal cells in the ventricles of the brain responsible for the production of cerebral spinal fluid (CSFF).
Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle nlx_27388 Choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle
Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle nlx_32548 Part of choroid plexus contained in the lateral ventricle
Choroid plexus of third ventricle Choroid plexus of third ventricle nlx_18606 Part of choroid plexus contained in the third ventricle
Cingulate gyrus Cingulate gyrus birnlex_798 cingulate region
cingulate area
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and interhemispheric commissure and forms part of the limbic system. (MSH) One of three essential structures comprising the limbic lobe, the other two being the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. (CSP)
Circumventricular organ Circumventricular organ nlx_anat_20090312 Brain region located around or in relation to the ventricular system that is highly vascularized and distinguished by the lack of a blood brain barrier.
Claustrum Claustrum birnlex_1522 insular claustrum
claustrum proper
Lamina of gray matter in the forebrain separated from the cortex in most species by the extreme capsule. (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd Ed., 1981, pg 225).
Copula pyramidis Copula pyramidis nlx_153834 Copula of the pyramis A part of the cerebellar hemisphere in the mouse ( Paxinos-2001 ) and the rat ( Swanson-1998 ) that corresponds laterally to the pyramis of the vermis of the cerebellum. It is regarded as the rodent homolog of the 'lateral belly' of the the biventer lobule of the human (Voogd-1990) (Adapted from NeuroNames: http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/centraldirectory.aspx?ID=1894)
Corona radiata Corona radiata nlx_anat_090903 Fan shaped white matter mass comprised of afferent and efferent fibers from the cerebral cortex arranged in radially arrayed bundles, converging towards the internal capsule (Carpenter, Core Text of Neuroanatomy, 3rd ed, 1985, pg. 30; Heimer, The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed., 1995, pg 84).
Cortical amygdaloid nucleus Cortical amygdaloid nucleus birnlex_2700 posterior amygdaloid area
posterior cortical nucleus
posterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus
Three layered structure that is located in the caudal aspect of the amygdala bordering the periamygdaloid cortex laterally.
Corticomedial nuclear complex Corticomedial nuclear complex birnlex_2680 corticomedial nuclear group
pars corticomedialis (Corpus amygdaloideum)
amygdalar corticomedial nucleus
superficial nuclei
These structures are referred to as nuclei but have a layered cortical like structure. These areas include the anterior amygdaloid area, posterior amygdaloid area, the periamygdaloid cortex, and the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract.
Cranial nerve nucleus Cranial nerve nucleus nlx_28532 cranial nerve nuclei Nucleus that receives projections from or contains neurons that send projections through one of the cranial nerves
Cuneate fasciculus of medulla Cuneate fasciculus of medulla birnlex_1242 Part of cuneate fasciculus found in the medulla
Cuneocerebellar tract Cuneocerebellar tract birnlex_1238 cuneocerebellar fibers White matter tract that originates from the cuneate and external cuneate nuclei. It relays ascending spinal fibers in the dorsal funiculus and conveys information from forelimbs to the cerebellum.
Cuneus cortex Cuneus cortex birnlex_1396 cuneate lobule
cuneus gyrus
cuneus of hemisphere
cuneus
Component of the occipital lobe. The rostral boundary was the first coronal slice above the calcarine sulcus where the cuneus cortex becomes visible whereas the caudal boundary was the last slice where the calcarine sulcus was visualized. The medial boundary was the most medial portion of the occipital and parietal cortices. The superio-lateral boundary was the parieto-occipital fissure whereas the inferolateral boundary was the pericalcarine cortex (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Dentate gyrus Dentate gyrus birnlex_1178 fascia dentata Part of the hippocampal formation forming a "V" or "U" shaped structure with the opening bounded by hippocampal area CA3. It consists of 3 layers from superficial to deep: molecular, granule cell and polymorphic or hilar layer.
Dentate gyrus hilus Dentate gyrus hilus birnlex_1482 Hilus
Polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus
dentate gyrus polymorphic layer
hilus of dentate gyrus
Layer of the dentate gyrus lying deep to the granule cell layer, within the opening of the "C" or "V" formed by the granule cell layer characterized by loosely packed polymorphic cells
Dentate gyrus molecular layer Dentate gyrus molecular layer birnlex_4127 Molecular layer of dentate gyrus
DG molecular layer
dentate gyrus molecular layer
dentate gyrus stratum moleculare
The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus that is bounded by the pial surface superficially and the dentate gyrus granule cell layer deep. It is divided into 2 or more sublayers.
Diagonal band Diagonal band birnlex_1551 diagonal band of Broca A white fibre bundle descending in the precommissural septum toward the base of the forebrain, immediately rostral to the lamina terminalis; at the base, the bundle turns in the caudolateral direction; traveling through the ventral substantia innominata alongside the optic tract, it fades before reaching the amygdala. (Mondofacto: http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?Broca%27s%20diagonal%20band)
Diencephalon Diencephalon birnlex_1503 Interbrain Part of the brain consisting of the paired caudal parts of the prosencephalon from which the Thalamus; Hypothalamus; Epithalamus; and Subthalamus are derived.(MeSH)
Dopaminergic cell group A13 Dopaminergic cell group A13 nlx_91101 A13 A group of cells that fluoresce for dopamine and are distributed in clusters that, in the primate, are ventral and medial to the mammillothalamic tract of the hypothalamus; a few extend into the reuniens nucleus of the thalamus (Felten-1983). In the mouse A13 is located ventral to the mammillothalamic tract of the thalamus in the zona incerta (adapted from Brain Info)
Dorsal accessory olive Dorsal accessory olive nlx_anat_100310 Regional part of inferior olivary complex
Dorsal acoustic stria Dorsal acoustic stria birnlex_1698 white matter structure containing fibers arising from the cochlear nuclear complex
Dorsal column nucleus Dorsal column nucleus nlx_153860 Dorsal column nuclei A pair of nuclei in the brainstem. The name refers collectively to the cuneate nucleus and gracile nucleus, which are present at the junction between the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata. Both nuclei contain secondary neurons of the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway,
Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus birnlex_986 A fiber bundle containing fibers from nuclei of the hypothalamus that project to the dorsal tegmental nucleus and other regions of the midbrain and the pons, as well as fibers originating in the pontine reticular formation and the medullary reticular formation that project to the thalamus and other regions of the forebrain (Carpenter-83). In NeuroNames it is a composite structure consisting of the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of hypothalamus, the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of midbrain, the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of pons and the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of medulla. (NeuroNames) The term dorsal longitudinal fasciculus refers to a pathway containing fibers from nuclei of the hypothalamus that project to the dorsal tegmental nucleus and other regions of the midbrain and the pons, as well as fibers originating in the pontine reticular formation and the medullary reticular formation that project to the thalamus and other regions of the forebrain (Carpenter-83). In NeuroNames it is a composite structure consisting of the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of hypothalamus, the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of midbrain, the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of pons and the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of medulla. (NeuroNames)
Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of hypothalamus Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of hypothalamus birnlex_898 Part of dorsal longitudinal fasciculus located within the hypothalamus
Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of medulla Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of medulla birnlex_1257 Part of dorsal longitudinal fasciculus located in the medulla
Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of midbrain Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of midbrain birnlex_893 Part of dorsal longitudinal fasciculus located in the midbrain tegmentum
Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of pons Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of pons birnlex_1707 Part of dorsal longitudinal fasciculus located within the pons
Dorsal nucleus of lateral geniculate body Dorsal nucleus of lateral geniculate body birnlex_1595 nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars dorsalis
dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus
Part of lateral geniculate nucleus that receives major input from the retina and has reciprocal connections with the primary visual cortex and the thalamic reticular nucleus (adapated from Paxinos, The Rat Nervous System, 2nd ed, Academic Press, 1995)
Dorsal raphe nucleus Dorsal raphe nucleus birnlex_982 Dorsal raphe
dorsal nucleus raphe
dorsal nucleus raphé
The dorsal raphe nucleus is the largest of the raphe nuclei and is responsible for the majority of GABAergic projections to the forebrain
Dorsal tegmental nucleus pars dorsalis Dorsal tegmental nucleus pars dorsalis nlx_anat_20090407 Dorsal tegmental nucleus of Gudden pars dorsalis Part of dorsal tegmental nucleus characterized by round, small cells that are lightly stained in Nissl preparations.
Dorsal tegmental nucleus pars ventralis Dorsal tegmental nucleus pars ventralis nlx_anat_20090408 Dorsal tegmental nucleus of Gudden pars ventralis
pars ventralis of the dorsal tegmental nucleus of Gudden
pars ventralis of the dorsal tegmental nucleus
Cytoarchitectural part of the dorsal tegmental nucleus based on cell size. The pars ventralis is characterized by medium sized oval or triangular cells that stain darkly in NIssl stains.
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex UBERON:0009834 Part of prefrontal cortex. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC or DLPFC), according to a more restricted definition, is roughly equivalent to Brodmann areas 9 and 46. According to a broader definition DL-PFC consists of the lateral portions of Brodmann areas 9 – 12, of areas 45, 46, and the superior part of area 47. These regions mainly receive their blood supply from the middle cerebral artery. With respect to neurotransmitter systems, there is evidence that dopamine plays a particularly important role in DL-PFC.DL-PFC is connected to the orbitofrontal cortex, and to a variety of brain areas, which include the thalamus, parts of the basal ganglia (the dorsal caudate nucleus), the hippocampus, and primary and secondary association areas of neocortex, including posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital areas check dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex (http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0009834).
Dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus Dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus birnlex_1558 An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the third ventricle. (MSH)
Endopiriform nucleus Endopiriform nucleus nlx_anat_091033 Layer 4 of piriform cortex
layer IV of piriform cortex
An elongated nucleus consisting largely of multipolar spiny cells lying deep to the piriform cortex. According to Price (1990; pp. 979-998 in The Human Nervous System, G. Paxinos, (Ed.), Academic Press, San Diego), it is part of the claustrum.
Entorhinal cortex Entorhinal cortex birnlex_1508 entorhinal area Component of the temporal lobe on the mesial surface. The rostral and caudal boundaries of the entorhinal cortex are the rostral end of the collateral sulcus and the caudal end of the amygdala respectively. The medial boundary is the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the lateral boundary is the collateral sulcus. (DK) The cytoarchitecturally well-defined area of multilaminate cerebral cortex on the medial aspect of the parahippocampal gyrus, immediately caudal to the olfactory cortex of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the hippocampus, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Entorhinal cortex layer 2 cell island Entorhinal cortex layer 2 cell island nlx_anat_090822 cell island of entorhinal cortex
entorhinal cell island
cell island of entorhinal cortex layer II
entorhinal cortex layer II cell island
entorhinal cortex layer II cell cluster
Clumps of polygonal cells that stain darkly in Nissl preparations in layer 2 of entorhinal cortex
Epithalamus Epithalamus birnlex_1710 Most dorsal part of the thalamus, comprising the pineal gland and habenular nuclei in most vertebrates. In a few vertebrates, it also includes the parietal eye. (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed, 2005, pg. 345-346.
External capsule External capsule nlx_16247 Thin band of white matter that separates the medial aspect of the putamen from the lateral aspect of the globus pallidus external division
Extrastriate cortex Extrastriate cortex nlx_anat_200905010 extrastriate areas A group of cortical areas related by direct or indirect connectivity to the striate area 17 and functionally involved primarily in vision. They include the parastriate area 18, the peristriate area 19 and adjacent areas in the parietal lobe and temporal lobe (Adapted from BrainInfo and Zilles-1990).
Extreme capsule Extreme capsule nlx_21887 Thin band of fibers separating the claustrum from the insular cortex
Facial (accessory) nucleus Facial (accessory) nucleus nlx_157278 Accessory facial nucleus
dorsal facial nucleus
A small cluster of neurons dorsal to the facial nucleus in the pontine tegmentum. It has been reported for the human (Brain Info: http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/centraldirectory.aspx?ID=1924)
Facial nucleus Facial nucleus birnlex_903 Facial motor nucleus Nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum containing motor neurons that innervate the muscles of the face. Some neurons that project to the cerebellum have also been identified in some species.
Fasciculus Fasciculus birnlex_872 A bundle of anatomical fibers, as of muscle or nerve (American Heritage Dictionary 4th ed) A bundle of anatomical fibers, as of muscle or nerve.
Field H1 of Forel Field H1 of Forel nlx_86272 thalamic fasiculus
field H1
Forel's field H1
Predominantly white matter structure in the subthalamus, corresponding to the thalamic fasiculus (adapted from Wikipedia)
Field L Field L nlx_144026 The primary thalamorecipient forebrain auditory region. This term is mainly used in avian neuroanatomy
Fimbria of hippocampus Fimbria of hippocampus birnlex_1502 fimbria of the fornix
fimbria
fimbria-fornix
Part of fornix lying closest to the hippocampal formation continuos with the alveus.
Forebrain Forebrain birnlex_1509 prosencephalon The part of the brain developed from the most rostral of the three primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube and consisting of the DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (MSH) * part of the brain developed from the most rostral of the three primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube (brain) from which the diencephalon and telencephalon are derived; also called the forebrain. (CSP), The part of the brain developed from the most rostral of the three primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube and consisting of the Diencephalon and Telencephalon.
Fornix Fornix birnlex_705 White matter structure carrying axons connecting the hippocampal formation to other brain regions. It is typically divided into the columns (crus), body, commissure and the pre-commissural and post-commissural fornix (MM). Prominent white matter structure containing axons that connect hippocampus to the hypothalamus and septal nuclei. (http://www.sylvius.com/?s=052). It is divided into several subregions which include the body, crux and columns.
Fourth ventricle Fourth ventricle birnlex_1256 4th ventricle Part of the ventricular system of the brain, forming a single large irregularly shaped cavity located on the midline of the rhombencephalon, between the medulla, pons and the isthmus ventrally and the cerebellum dorsally. It is continuous with the cerebral aqueduct anteriorally and the central canal of the spinal cord posteriorly. It communicates with the subarachnoid space through its lateral and median apertures.
Frontal cortex Frontal cortex nlx_anat_20090601 Anterior portion of the frontal cortex, lying anterior to the central sulcus in humans. It is bounded by the parietal cortex posteriorly and the temporal cortex laterally.
Frontal eye field Frontal eye field nlx_144111 Region of frontal cortex from which conjugate eye movements can be elicted (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 2nd ed., 1981, pg. 546)
Frontal lobe Frontal lobe birnlex_928 The anterior part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH) The anterior part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH)
Frontal lobe of human Frontal lobe of human FMAID: 61824 Frontal lobe of human is the anterior-most of five lobes of the cerebral hemisphere. It is bounded by the central sulcus on its posterior border and by the longitudinal cerebral fissure on its medial border (FMA).
Frontal operculum Frontal operculum birnlex_751 inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis Portion of frontal lobe that overlaps the insular cortex (adapted from Wikipedia)
Frontal pole Frontal pole birnlex_1716 Component of the frontal lobe. The rostral and caudal boundaries of the frontal pole are the superior frontal gyrus and the rostral division of the middle frontal gyrus respectively in human (Christine Fennama-Notestine).
Functional part of brain Functional part of brain nlx_155513 A brain region defined by functional criteria, e.g. auditory cortex, rather than by structural or histological criteria.
Fundus striati Fundus striati nlx_144261 fundus of the striatum
striatal fundus
The ventral portion of the dorsal striatum, linking the caudate nucleus and the putamen anteriorly (adapted from Wikipedia)
Genu of corpus callosum Genu of corpus callosum nlx_144462 genu
genu of corpus callosum
Genu corporis callosi
Part of corpus callosum comprising the "kneelike" anterior bend (adapted from Nolte, The Human Brain, 6th ed., 2009 pg 664)
Gigantocerebellum Gigantocerebellum nlx_89001 Cerebellum of weakly electric fish notable for its large size relative to body weight (Squire et al., Fundamental neuroscience, Elsevier, 2008, pg 752.
Globose nucleus Globose nucleus birnlex_1158 posterior interposed nucleus
Nucleus globosus
posterior interpositus nucleus
One of two nuclei comprising the interpositus cerebellar nuclear complex of the deep cerebellar nuclei. It is recognized in human cerebellum but is not distinguishable in all mammalian species.
Globus pallidus Globus pallidus birnlex_1234 Pale Body Subcortical nucleus, functionally part of the basal ganglia, which consists of two segments the external (or lateral) and internal (or medial) separated by the medial medullary lamina in primates. In rodents, The globus pallidus lateral is separated from the medial segment by the fibers of the internal capsule/cerebral peduncle.
Globus pallidus external segment Globus pallidus external segment birnlex_1610 external part of globus pallidus
lateral segment of globus pallidus
lateral globus pallidus
lateral pallidum
external pallidum
The more lateral of the two segments of the globus pallidus, abutting the putamen in species which have both a caudate and putamen; the caudoputamen in other species.
Globus pallidus internal segment Globus pallidus internal segment birnlex_1555 internal part of globus pallidus
Internal pallidum
medial segment of globus pallidus
globus pallidus internus
The more medial segment of the globus pallidus.
Glycogen body Glycogen body nlx_151880 A gelatinous mass that surrounds the central canal in the lumbosacral sinus in the caudal spinal cord of birds. It is made of specialized cells that contain large amounts of glycogen. The function of this structure is not known, but it does not seem to be related to the normal function of glycogen in animals, which is the storage of energy. (adapted from Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed, 2005, pg. 146 and Wikipedia)
Gracile fasciculus Gracile fasciculus nlx_144039 Axon bundle arising largely from the dorsal root ganglia of the lower spinal cord, ascending in humans in the dorsal funiculus, synapsing within the nucleus gracilis of the lower medulla.
Gracile fasciculus of medulla Gracile fasciculus of medulla birnlex_1282 gracile fascicle (Gall) Part of gracile fasiculus located in the medulla
Gracile nucleus Gracile nucleus birnlex_2643 nucleus gracilis
Golls nucleus
Nucleus in the caudal medulla that receive projections primarily from ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion cells via the posterior column of the spinal cord
Head of caudate nucleus Head of caudate nucleus birnlex_1212 Largest part of the caudate nucleus lying lateral to and protruding into the anterior of the lateral ventricle
Hindbrain Hindbrain birnlex_942 rhombencephalon Part of the brainconstituting the MEDULLA OBLONGATA (myelencephalon) and PONS (metencephalon). (adapted from MSH) * part of the brain developed from the posterior of the three primary brain vesicles of the embryonic neural tube; it comprises the metencephalon (cerebellum and pons) and myelencephalon (medulla oblongata). (CSP) * That part of the brain stem constituting the MEDULLA OBLONGATA (myelencephalon) and PONS (metencephalon). (MSH) * part of the brain developed from the posterior of the three primary brain vesicles of the embryonic neural tube; it comprises the metencephalon (cerebellum and pons) and myelencephalon (medulla oblongata). (CSP)
Hippocampal formation Hippocampal formation birnlex_715 A part of the brain consisting of a three layered cortex located in the forebrain bordering the medial surface of the lateral ventricle. The term hippocampal formation is often used synonymously with hippocampus which consists of the hippocampus proper or Cornu Ammonis, the dentate gyrus and the subicular complex
Hippocampus Hippocampus birnlex_721 Cornu ammonis
Ammon's horn
hippocampus proper
ammon horn
hippocampal
A part of the hippocampal formation consisting of a three layered cortex located in the forebrain bordered by the medial surface of the lateral ventricle, the dentate gyrus and the subiculum. It has 3 subfields termed CA1, CA2 and CA3. The term hippocampus is often used synonymously with hippocampal formation which consists of the hippocampus proper or Cornu Ammonis, the dentate gyrus and the subiculum.
Hippocampus regio inferior of Cajal Hippocampus regio inferior of Cajal nlx_anat_1008014 regio inferior One of two cytoarchitectural division of hippocampus proposed by Ramon y Cajal consisting of a large-celled proximal region of the hippocampus proper. This region corresponds to CA2 and CA3 in the nomenclature proposed by Lorente de No (Adapted from Paxinos, G. The rat nervous system, Ed 2, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995)
Hippocampus regio superior of Cajal Hippocampus regio superior of Cajal nlx_anat_1008015 regio superior One of two cytoarchitectural divisions of the hippocampus proper proposed by Ramon y Cajal consisting of a smaller celled distal region, equivalent to CA1 in the nomenclature proposed by Lorente de No. (adapted from Paxinos G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego 1995)
Horizontal fissure Horizontal fissure nlx_anat_20081255 Fissura Horizontalis
Fissura Intercruralis
Fissure between cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIIA and VIIBi.
Hypoglossal nucleus Hypoglossal nucleus birnlex_2644 hypoglossal nerve nucleus Nucleus forming a longitudinal cell column in the medulla, close beneath the floor of the 4th ventricle, containing motor neurons that innervate the muscles of the tongue (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 453)
Hypophysis Hypophysis birnlex_1353 Pituitary gland
Pituitary
* A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk. (MSH) * epithelial body located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica, attached by a stalk to the hypothalamus from which it receives important neural and vascular outflow; it consists of the anterior lobe, or adenohypophysis, which secretes most of the hormones, the posterior lobe or neurohypophysis, which stores and releases neurohormones that it receives from the hypothalamus, and an intermediate lobe. (CSP)
Hypothalamus Hypothalamus birnlex_734 Ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the third ventricle.
Induseum griseum Induseum griseum nlx_49940 dorsal hippocampal continuation Thin layer of cortex lying on the dorsal surface of the corpus callosum. It has been debated whether it is more related to the hippocampus or the olfactory bulb (Shipley et al., Olfactory System In Paxinos The Rat Nervous System, 2nd ed)
Inferior cerebellar peduncle Inferior cerebellar peduncle birnlex_1691 restiform body Regional part of medullary white matter (according to Neuronames) primarily found at the level of the open medulla, consisting of a large bundle of fibers projecting to and projecting from the cerebellum. The icp is continuous with the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and also contains a large number of fibers originating in the inferior olivary complex (MM).
Inferior colliculus Inferior colliculus birnlex_806 Part of the midbrain tectum, consisting of paired predominantly gray matter elevations on the dorsal aspect of the midbrain, located caudal to the superior colliculus, dorsal to the periaqueductal gray of the cerebral aqueduct and rostral to the cerebellum. According to Neuronames, the inferior colliculus comprises the central, pericentral and external nucleus and two predominantly white matter structures, the brachium of the inferior colliculus and the commissure of the inferior colliculus (MM).
Inferior frontal gyrus Inferior frontal gyrus birnlex_873 Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the inferior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the precentral gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries are the lateral bank of the inferior frontal sulcus and the medial bank of the lateral orbital sulcus and/or the circular insular sulcus respectively (Christein Fennema-Notestine).
Inferior horn of the lateral ventricle Inferior horn of the lateral ventricle birnlex_1292 temporal horn of lateral ventricle The part of the lateral ventricle extending downward and anteriorly in the temporal lobe.
Inferior parietal cortex Inferior parietal cortex birnlex_1194 inferior parietal lobule Component of the parietal lobe. The inferior parietal cortex label includes the inferior parietal gyrus and the angular gyrus and lies inferior to the superior parietal gyrus. The rostral and caudal boundaries were the supramarginal gyrus and the parieto-occipital incisure respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the superior parietal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Inferior pulvinar nucleus Inferior pulvinar nucleus birnlex_830 nucleus pulvinaris thalami
nucleus pulvinaris inferior
nucleus pulvinar pars inferior
nucleus pulvinaris inferior thalami
One of four subdivisions recognized in the primate pulvinar based on initially on topography, located ventrally between the medial and lateral geniculate bodies (Carpenter, A core text of neuroanatomy, 3rd ed., 1985, pg 238)
Inferior temporal gyrus Inferior temporal gyrus birnlex_1577 gyrus temporalis inferior Component of the temporal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the rostral extent of the inferior temporal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is designated as the temporo-occipital incisure on the cortical surface. The occipitotemporal sulcus is the medial boundary and the inferior temporal sulcus is the lateral boundary (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Inferior vestibular nucleus Inferior vestibular nucleus nlx_144004 Descending vestibular nucleus
spinal vestibular nucleus
One of the nuclei comprising the vestibular nuclear complex, characterized by bundles of longitudinal fibers running through it. Multiple cell groups are often identified within it.
Insula Insula birnlex_1117 Insular cortex
central lobe
insular gyrus
insular lobe
insular region
insulary cortex
island of Reil
Lobus insularis
Gray matter of the insular region of the neocortex. In gyrencephalic animals, it is part of the insular lobe and lies in the depths of the lateral fissure and covered by portions of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. It includes Brodmann areas 13-16.
Interanterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus Interanterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus nlx_144468 interanterodorsal nucleus of thalamus a group of nerve cells that bridges the midline of the thalamus between the anterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus of the left and right sides. According to Crosby (1962), it is more developed and consistently present in rodents than in primates (adapted from Brain Info).
Intercalated amygdaloid nuclei Intercalated amygdaloid nuclei birnlex_2683 Massa intercalata
Massa intercalata of amygdala
intercalated nucleus of the amygdala
intercalated nuclei of amygdala
intercalated masses of nucleus amygdaloideus
Discrete clusters of cells intercalated among the major amygdaloid nuclei. They stain darkly in Nissl stains and have been identified in all mammals. The main groups lie between the lateral-basolateral nuclear coplex and the central and medial nuclei. Additional cell groups have been described by some in other locations (Millhouse, O. E. The intercalated cells of the amygdala. J Comp Neurol 247: 246-271, 1986)., Groups of cells located between the lateral basolateral amygaloid nuclear complex and the central nucleus of the amygdala. They stain darkly in Nissl stains and have been identified in all mammals. (Millhouse, O. E. The intercalated cells of the amygdala. J Comp Neurol 247: 246-271, 1986)
Intermediate acoustic stria Intermediate acoustic stria birnlex_768 commissure of Held
intermediate acoustic stria (Held)
intermediate acoustic stria of Held
White matter structure containing axons arising from cochlear nuclear complex (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed, 1985, pg 609)
Internal capsule Internal capsule birnlex_1659 White matter regional part of brain which is flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the cerebral cortex and the brainstem and spinal cord. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu. (Adapted from MSH by Maryann Martone).
Internal medullary lamina of thalamus Internal medullary lamina of thalamus birnlex_1621 Predominantly white regional part of thalamus consisting of a Y shaped bundle of fibers that runs the anterior-posterior length of thalamus and divides the thalamus into roughly three regions (MM: 2006-10-26)
Interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure Interstitial nucleus of the posterior limb of the anterior commissure nlx_35944 A group of cells extending caudally with the posterior part of anterior commissure ventral to the striatum in the mouse (Paxinos-2001) and the primate (Fudge-2009) (from Braininfo.org)
Interthalamic adhesion Interthalamic adhesion nlx_144100 massa intermedia Median gray matter mass that connects the two thalami; present in a large percentage of humans (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed., 1995, pg 76n).
Isla magna of Calleja Isla magna of Calleja nlx_55138 Large island of Calleja
insula magna
Regional part of telencephalon; the most prominent of the islands of Calleja located medially in the nucleus accumbens (adapted from Braininfo.org).
Islands of Calleja Islands of Calleja birnlex_1113 Islets of Calleja Small clusters of granule cells located in the olfactory tubercle and also within the Island of Calleja magna that lies between the septum and the nucleus accumbens
Islands of Calleja of olfactory tubercle Islands of Calleja of olfactory tubercle nlx_50741 Islets of Calleja Part of olfactory tubercle defined by dense aggregations of granule cells
Isthmus of cingulate gyrus Isthmus of cingulate gyrus birnlex_1541 isthmus of cingulate cortex
isthmus of the gyrus fornicatus
cingulo-parahippocampal isthmus
Component of the cingulate cortex comprising the region linking the posterior cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. The rostral and caudal boundaries were the posterior division of the cingulate cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the medial wall (area unknown) and the precuneus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Juxtarestiform body Juxtarestiform body birnlex_1101 Fibers interconnecting the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei, traveling medial to the restiform body (inferior cerebellar peduncle) (Nolte, The Human Brain, 6th ed., pg 497)
Lamina dissecans of entorhinal cortex Lamina dissecans of entorhinal cortex nlx_17980 lamina dissecans
layer IV of entorhinal cortex
Acellular layer of entorhinal cortex, usually identified as layer IV in some nomenclatures (Paxinos, The rat nervous system, Academic Press, 1995, pg 473-474).
Lateral agranular field Lateral agranular field nlx_144408 agranular lateral field "The lateral agranular field (AGl) lies between AGm and the SI cortex and is widest rostrally....Compared to AGm, AGl has a more homogeneous appearance of the superficial layers, layer II is less densely packed, and layer V is broader and contains larger, more densely staining cells." (Donoghue and Wise, 1982)
Lateral amygdaloid nucleus Lateral amygdaloid nucleus birnlex_2687 lateral nucleus of amygdala
medial principal nucleus
lateral principal nucleus of amygdala
The sensory interface of the amygdala where plasticity is mediated (Phelps & LeDoux, 2005, PMID: 16242399).
Lateral lemniscus (birnlex 976) Lateral lemniscus (birnlex 976) birnlex_976 A fiber bundle that runs through the medulla, pons and midbrain that arises in the cochlear nucleus and projects to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. The brainstem nuclei include the superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Fibers leaving these brainstem nuclei ascending to the inferior colliculus rejoin the lateral lemniscus. In that sense, this is not a 'lemniscus' in the true sense of the word (second order, decussated sensory axons), as there is third (and out of the lateral superior olive, fourth) order information coming out of some of these brainstem nuclei. Adapted from Wikipedia.org (MM).
Lateral medullary lamina Lateral medullary lamina birnlex_1634 lateral medulary stria
external medulary lamina of lentiform nucleus
outer medulary lamina
lateral medulary lamina of globus pallidus
external medulary lamina of globus pallidus
medulary lamina of pallidum
external medullary lamina
Thin band of myelinated fibers lying on the lateral (external) surface of the globus pallidus, external segment, separating it from the putamen. (Carpenter, A core text of neuroanatomy, 3rd ed., 1985, pg 303).
Lateral occipital cortex Lateral occipital cortex birnlex_735 lateral occipital gyrus Component of the occipital lobe. The rostral and caudal boundaries of the lateral occipital cortex were the superior parietal gyrus and as the last visible portion of occipital cortex respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the cuneus/pericalcarine cortex and the inferior temporal/inferior parietal gyri respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Lateral orbital frontal cortex Lateral orbital frontal cortex birnlex_1244 Component of the orbtial frontal cortex The rostral boundary is the first slice where the lateral orbital gyrus is apparent with the frontomarginal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the disappearance of the lateral orbital gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries are the midpoint of the olfactory sulcus and the lateral bank of the lateral orbital sulcus and/or the circular insular sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Lateral paragigantocellular nucleus Lateral paragigantocellular nucleus nlx_143582 nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis Nucleus located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The PGL was originally identified by cytoarchitectural criteria in the human medulla (Olszewski and Baxter, 1954). In humans, the PGL is located in the ventrolateral quadrant of the rostral medullary tegmentum between the nucleus subtrigeminalis caudally, trapezoid body and the superior olive rostrally, nucleus gigantocellularis medially, spinothalamic tract fibers laterally, inferior olive ventrally, and the nucleus ambiguous dorsally (Olszewski and Baxter, 1954). In the rat, the PGL has been further subdivided into retrofacial PGL (caudal to the facial nucleus), and more rostrally located juxtafacial PGL (medial to the facial nucleus), based upon different connectivity.
Lateral septal nucleus Lateral septal nucleus birnlex_1321 lateral septal nucleus (Cajal)
lateral septum nucleus
lateral parolfactory nucleus
Lateral septum
Regional part of the septal nuclei, lying dorsal and slightly lateral to the medial septal nucleus. The lateral septum receives the bulk of projections of areas projecting to the septal nuclei (Adapted from Brodal, 1981).
Lateral superior olivary nucleus Lateral superior olivary nucleus birnlex_1675 One of two recognized nuclei comprising the superior olive. The lateral superior olivary nucleus is much less prominent in humans than in many rodents and carnivores. In the latter species, it is frequently described as S- or V-shaped.
Lateral ventricle Lateral ventricle birnlex_1263 Part of the ventricular system of the brain in each of the cerebral hemispheres. The lateral ventricle in each hemisphere is separated from the other by the septum and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, In species, particularly those with well developed cortex, the lateral ventrical may be subdivided into anterior, posterior and temporal horns and a body
Lateral vestibular nucleus Lateral vestibular nucleus nlx_144002 Deiter's nucleus
lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiters)
nucleus of Deiters
Nucleus vestibularis lateralis
One of the nuclei comprising the vestibular nuclear complex. In some mammals, e.g., primates, it is further subdivided into subnuclei. It therefore differs in appearance and topology in different mammals.
Left frontal lobe Left frontal lobe birnlex_1787 The frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain
Left occipital lobe Left occipital lobe birnlex_1782 The occipital lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain
Left parietal lobe Left parietal lobe birnlex_1728 Parietal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain
Left temporal lobe Left temporal lobe birnlex_1784 Temporal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain
Lemniscus Lemniscus birnlex_881 A bundle or band of sensory nerve fibers. ribbon, from Greek lemniskos
Limbic lobe Limbic lobe birnlex_1128 Part of cerebral hemisphere located on the medial surface, forming a ring around the brain stem
Limen of insula Limen of insula birnlex_1493 Limen insulae
angulus gyri olfactorii lateralis
Gyrus ambiens
The anterior basal part of the insular cortex, which separates the lateral surface of the insula from the anterior perforated substance (Heimer, The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed., 1995, pg 80).
Lingual gyrus Lingual gyrus birnlex_740 medial occipitotemporal gyrus
lingula of cerebral hemisphere
Component of the occipital lobe. The rostral boundary of the lingual gyrus was the posterior extent of the parahippocampal gyrus whereas the caudal boundary was the most posterior coronal slice where the gyrus could be visualized. The medial and lateral boundaries were the medial portion of the temporal and occipital cortices and the medial bank of the collateral sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Lissauer's tract of medulla Lissauer's tract of medulla birnlex_1267 Part of Lissauer's tract located in the medulla
Lissauer's tract of spinal cord Lissauer's tract of spinal cord nlx_143967 dorsolateral fasciculus of spinal cord White matter tract in spinal cord laying between the substantia gelatinosa and the surface of the spinal cord.
Lobe of cerebral cortex Lobe of cerebral cortex birnlex_922 cerebral lobes
lobes of the brain
Divisions of the cerebral cortex from gross anatomical observation based on the locations of major sulci and fissures in gyrencephalic animals, including both the gray matter and underlying white matter. From 4-6 lobes have been defined.
Locus ceruleus Locus ceruleus birnlex_905 Locus caeruleus
Substantia ferruginea
Nucleus Pigmentosus Pontis
Locus coeruleus
blue nucleus
A noradrenergic nucleus in the brain stem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic; also implicated in physical dependence and withdrawal. (Adapted from Wikipedia)
Magnocellular part of red nucleus Magnocellular part of red nucleus birnlex_720 magnocellular red nucleus Caudal region of the red nucleus located in the midbrain, containing mostly large cell bodies.
Mammillary body Mammillary body birnlex_865 One of two hemispherical bulges on the base of the posterior hypothalamus (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, pg 455).
Mammillary peduncle Mammillary peduncle birnlex_1486 Peduncle of mammillary body White matter bundle in the posterior hypothalamus containing ascending afferent fibers to the mammillary bodies from the ventral and dorsal tegmental nuclei (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 671).
Mammillothalamic tract Mammillothalamic tract nlx_24081 mammillo-thalamic tract A fiber pathway that originates from neurons in the posterior hypothalamic region and projects to various nuclei of the anterior nuclear group of the thalamus. It is a composite structure that consists of the mammillothalamic tract of the hypothalamus and the mammillothalamic tract of the thalamus (Carpenter-1983). (from Brain Info.org)
Mammillothalamic tract of hypothalamus Mammillothalamic tract of hypothalamus birnlex_855 Mammillothalamic tract of hypothalamus Part of mammillothalamic tract contained within the hypothalamus
Matrix compartment of caudate nucleus Matrix compartment of caudate nucleus nlx_anat_20090504 Matrix compartment located in the caudate nucleus
Matrix compartment of neostriatum Matrix compartment of neostriatum nlx_anat_20090503 Matrix compartment
matrix
striatal matrix
striatal matrix compartment
The larger of two chemoarchitectural compartments identified in the neostriatum through differential staining for various biochemical markers. It usually is identified through differentially high staining for acetylcholinesterase and calbinin D28K.
Matrix part of head of caudate nucleus Matrix part of head of caudate nucleus nlx_anat_1010005 Matrix compartment located in the head of the caudate nucleus
Matrix part of tail of caudate nucleus Matrix part of tail of caudate nucleus nlx_anat_1010006 Matrix compartment located in the tail of the caudate nucleus
Medial accessory olive Medial accessory olive nlx_anat_100309 Regional part of the inferior olivary complex
Medial geniculate body Medial geniculate body birnlex_1670 corpus geniculatum mediale
medial geniculate complex
medial geniculate nucleus
Nuclear complex of the thalamus situated on the caudal, subpial aspect of the thalamus (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 622).
Medial lemniscus of medulla Medial lemniscus of medulla birnlex_1570 Part of medial lemniscus located within the medulla
Medial lemniscus of midbrain Medial lemniscus of midbrain birnlex_1296 Part of medial lemniscus located within the midbrain
Medial lemniscus of pons Medial lemniscus of pons birnlex_781 Part of medial lemniscus located within the pons
Medial longitudinal fasciculus Medial longitudinal fasciculus nlx_144065 Fiber bundle running longitudinally along the midline in the midbrain, pons and medulla, containing fibers that interconnect the cranial nerve nuclei controlling eye movements (Heimer, L. The Human Brain, 2nd ed., 1995, pg. 245)
Medial medullary lamina Medial medullary lamina birnlex_1501 internal medullary lamina of pallidum Thin sheet of white matter dividing the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus in primates
Medial nucleus of trapezoid body Medial nucleus of trapezoid body birnlex_2595 Nucleus in the pontine tegmentum of most mammals that receives projections from the ventral cochlear nucleus via the large specialized synapse, the Calyx of Held. It is not clear whether a well defined nucleus is present in humans, although humans may possess scattered cells with similar input.
Medial orbital frontal cortex Medial orbital frontal cortex birnlex_1249 Component of the orbtial frontal cortex. The rostral boundary is the first slice where the medial orbital gyrus became visible whereas the caudal boundary is the disappearance of the medial orbital gyrus/gyrus rectus. The medial and lateral boundaries are the cingulate cortex on the \\u2018inflated\\u2019 surface and the medial bank of the superior frontal gyrus (or the cingulate gyrus when visible) respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Medial prefrontal cortex Medial prefrontal cortex nlx_152054 Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
DMPFC
Region of prefrontal cortex comprising the rostral insular cortex and the rostromedial tip of the cingulate gyrus, also referred to as the infrslimbic and prelimbic areas (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 5th ed., 2013, pg 1072). Medial prefrontal cortex includes parts of Brodmann area 9 in the dorsomedial prefrontal region.
Medial septal nucleus Medial septal nucleus birnlex_1668 Medial septum Cells lying generally in front of Regional_part_of_septal_nuclei, lying ventral to and slightly medial to the lateral septal nucleus. Neurons in this nucleus give rise to the bulk of efferents from the septal nuclei. A major projection from the medial septal nucleus terminates in the hippocampal formation (Adapted from Brodal, 1981).
Medial superior olivary nucleus Medial superior olivary nucleus birnlex_1682 One of two subnuclei of the superior olive located within the caudal pontine tegmentum. Appears as a parasagittal row of transversely oriented bipolar neurons in transverse sections of human, with elongated somata in humans and other primates and large caliber dendrites.
Median eminence Median eminence birnlex_925 Median eminence of hypothalamus
Median eminence of posterior lobe of pituitary gland
Median eminence of neurohypophysis
eminentia medialis
Elevation on the ventral surface of the brain located at the zone of attachment between the hypothalamic floor and the hypophysis (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, pg. 446). * Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND. (MSH) * raised area on the infundibular neurohypophysis which contains the primary capillary network of the hypophyseal portal system. (CSP)
Medulla oblongata Medulla oblongata birnlex_957 myelencephalon
medulla
The lower portion of the hindbrain and brainstem located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure contains several descending and ascending tracts, lower cranial nerve nuclei, a significant proportion of the reticular system of the brainstem and other structures (adapted from NCI Thesaurus). * The lower portion of the brainstem located between the pons and brainstem. This structure contains several descending and ascending tracts, lower cranial nerve nuclei, a significant proportion of the reticular system of the brainstem and other structures. (NCI) * caudal subdivision of the hindbrain interposed between the spinal cord and the pons; adult derivative of the myelencephalon, the most caudal subdivision of the developing brain; it has two subdivisions the open medulla bordering on the fourth ventricle and the closed medulla which surrounds the rostral part of the central canal. (CSP)
Medullary reticular formation Medullary reticular formation birnlex_1020 Part of reticular formation located in the medulla
Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve birnlex_1010 mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus Elongated nucleus located in the midbrain tegmentum that receives proprioceptive input from both teh extraocular and the masticatory muscles. Contrary to the general rule, the cell bodies that give rise to these sensory fibers are located within the mesencephalic nucleus rather than in a peripheral ganglion. Some of the sensory fibers in the mesencephalic root give off collaterals to the trigeminal motor nucleus, thereby providing the anatomic basis for the monosynaptic jaw reflex. (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed. 1996, page 248).
Metencephalon Metencephalon birnlex_965 Anterior part of the hindbrain ventral to the cerebellum.
Midbrain Midbrain birnlex_1667 Mesencephalon Part of the brain that develops from the middle of the 3 primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube, between the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon, later forming the tectum and cerebral peduncles. (CSP)
Midbrain raphe nuclei Midbrain raphe nuclei birnlex_1676 Midbrain raphe Midline nuclei found in the midbrain, includes the dorsal raphe nucleus and the rostral linear nucleus of raphe.
Midbrain reticular formation Midbrain reticular formation birnlex_1235 Part of the reticular formation located in the midbrain tegmentum
Midbrain tectum Midbrain tectum birnlex_1032 tectum Dorsal part of the midbrain, consisting of the superior and inferior colliculi and the pretectal nuclei (MM).
Middle cerebellar peduncle Middle cerebellar peduncle birnlex_1529 brachium pontis Regional part of medullary white matter (according to Neuronames) primarily found at the level of the pons, consisting of a very large bundle of fibers originating in the pontine nuclei projecting to the cerebellum (MM).
Middle frontal gyrus Middle frontal gyrus birnlex_1451 Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Middle temporal area Middle temporal area nlx_anat_20090308 The term "middle temporal visual area" was first used by Allman and Kaas (1971) for a region of the owl monkey brain located on the "caudal third of the middle temporal gyrus." Functionally, it contains "a complete representation of the contralateral half of the visual field... This representation of the visual field (MT) corresponds to a histologically distinct area adjacent and rostral to area 19... The horizontal meridian divides MT into a lateral portion representing the upper visual quadrant and a medial portion representing the lower quadrant. The center of gaze is represented in the caudal portion of MT bordering area 19."
Middle temporal area (Rhesus macaque) Middle temporal area (Rhesus macaque) nlx_151686 V5 Originally described by Dubner and Zeki (1971) in rhesus macaques as "a well defined, and seemingly condensed, projection from the striate cortex" in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Unlike neurons in areas 17, 18, and 19 (V1, V2, V3), cells in this region "are relatively insensitive to form and position but have specific requirements of direction of movement." This region was later referred to as the middle temporal area (MT) after the presumed homologous region in owl monkeys. Zeki later termed it V5 (the fifth cortical visual area).
Middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus birnlex_1653 gyrus temporalis medius Component of the temporal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the rostral extent of the superior temporal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the temporo-occipital incisure on the cortical surface. The superior temporal sulcus is the medial boundary and the inferior temporal sulcus is the lateral boundary (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Motor cortex Motor cortex oen_0001104 Motor area Region of the cerebral cortex that leads to muscle action
Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve birnlex_1222 motor trigeminal nucleus
trigeminal motor nucleus
trigeminal nucleus
Nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum containing cells that give rise to motor innervation of the jaw through the trigeminal nerve. It receives both crossed and uncrossed fibers from the cerebral cortex (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed., 1996, pg 248).
Neocortex Neocortex birnlex_2547 neopallium
homotypical cortex
isocortex
Part of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that has six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83) (NN) * The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is composed of NEURONS arranged in six layers. (MSH) * the newer, 6 layered portion of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization characteristic of the most highly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP) * The term neocortex refers to those areas of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that have six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83) (NN) * The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is composed of NEURONS arranged in six layers. (MSH) * the newer, 6 layered portion of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization characteristic of the most highly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP)
Neurohypophysis Neurohypophysis birnlex_1586 posterior lobe of pituitary
neural lobe of pituitary
The neurohypophysis not only consists of the nerve endings of the oxytocin- and vasopressin-secreting neurons of the hypothalamus, but also receives both dopamine- and opiate peptide-containing nerve fibers. This secondary innervation may regulate hormone secretion at the level of the nerve terminals by an action similar to presynaptic inhibition (PMID: 7088170). * Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the INFUNDIBULAR STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (MSH) * The neural or post-neural lobe of the pituitary gland which stores and releases vasopressin, oxytocin, and neurophysins. (NCI) * posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, making up the neural portion, including the infundibulum or neural stalk, continuous with the hypothalamus; serves as a reservoir for neurohormones vasopressin, oxytocin, and neurophysin. (CSP)
Nucleus accumbens Nucleus accumbens birnlex_727 nucleus accumbens septi
accumbens nucleus
A region of the brain consisting of a collection of neurons located in the forebrain ventral to the caudate and putamen. (caudoputamen in rodent) and continuous with these structures. There is no distinct boundary between the nucleus accumbens and the caudate/putamen, but in rodents, it can be identified by its lack of traversing fiber bundles in comparison to the dorsal striatum. Its principle neuron is the medium spiny neuron. Together with the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), the nucleus accumbens forms the striatum.
Nucleus incertus Nucleus incertus nlx_144477 Central Gray pars 0
Central Gray part alpha
Charles Watson. - 5th ed.)
Distinct cell group in caudoventral regions of the pontine periventricular gray, adjacent to the ventromedial border of the caudal dorsal tegmental nucleus.
Nucleus of CNS Nucleus of CNS nlx_28443 nucleus A spatially aggregated collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS, consisting of one or more subpopulations that share cell type, chemical phenotype, and connections, and including nearby cells that share the same cell type, chemical phenotype, and connections. (CUMBO)
Nucleus of field H of Forel Nucleus of field H of Forel nlx_144081 Nucleus of the subthalamus comprising cells lying scattered among fiber tracts, at the level of the mesodiencephalic junction, immediately rostral to the red nucleus and ventrolateral to the ventral tegmental area (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, p 478)
Nucleus of optic tract Nucleus of optic tract birnlex_868 nucleus of the optic tract
optic tract nucleus
Predominantly gray matter structure consisting of large multipoloar cells lying aong axons of the brachium of the superior colliculus, lyaing adjaent to the dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic system. In several species, cells of this nucleus receive inpu from the contralateral retina (Sefton and Dreher in Paxinos, G. The rat nervous system, 1995, pg. 862).
Nucleus of the stria medullaris Nucleus of the stria medullaris nlx_144458 Small nucleus in the thalamus lying between the fornix and the stria medullaris.
Nucleus paramedianus dorsalis Nucleus paramedianus dorsalis nlx_143549 nucleus paramedianus dorsalis Small nucleus in the brainstem of human, located adjacent and medial to the nucleus prepositus in the dorsal medulla, described in several atlases of human brain stem. In transverse sections, it is oval with its long axis aligned with the dorsal border of the brainstem. It begins at about the same A-P level as the nucleus prepositus, just rostral to the hypoglossal nucleus. It includes calretinin immunoreactive large cells with oval or polygonal cell bodies. Cells are not immunoreactive for either calbindin or parvalbumin, but a few fibers immunoreactive to each protein are found within its central region. Cells in PMD are also immunoreactive to nNOS, and immunoreactivity to a neurofilament protein shows many labeled cells and fibers. According to Baizer et al., no equivalent structure was observed in the cat, rat, mouse or monkey atlas although they did not look at the brains of the great apes.
Nucleus retroambigualis Nucleus retroambigualis nlx_144482 a group of neurons in the medulla at the caudal end of the nucleus ambiguus, from which the cranial part of the accessory nerve originates (adapted from Brain Info)
Obex Obex nlx_151877 Small fold of tissue found at the caudal end of the 4th ventricle on the surface of the brain in the caudal medulla. It also marks the location of the dorsal column nuclei (Adapted from Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, pg 135.
Occipital cortex Occipital cortex nlx_94204 Gray matter of neocortex located in the occipital lobe in organisms that have distinct lobes, located in the occipital pole and continuous with the gray matter of the parietal cortex and temporal cortex
Occipital cortex of human Occipital cortex of human FMAID: 67325 human occipital cortex Gray matter located in the occipital lobe of humans which occupies the posterior-most portion of the hemisphere. Anteriorly, it shares an arbitrary border with the gray matter of the parietal lobe and temporal lobe. Medially, it is bounded by the longitudinal cerebral fissure (adapted from FMA).
Occipital lobe Occipital lobe birnlex_1136 Posterior part of the cerebral hemisphere (MSH)
Oculomotor nuclear complex Oculomotor nuclear complex birnlex_1240 oculomotor nucleus Nuclear complex containing subnuclei that give rise to the axons of the occulomotor nerve, both motor and parasympathetic fibers, situated at the midline at the level of the superior colliculus in the midbrain tegmentum (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 533-534).
Olfactory bulb Olfactory bulb birnlex_1137 main olfactory bulb Structure of the vertebrate telencephalon involved in olfaction.
Olfactory bulb (main) internal plexiform layer Olfactory bulb (main) internal plexiform layer nlx_63363 Lamina of the main olfactory bulb lying deep to the mitral cell layer and superficial to the granule cell layer. (in Shepherd, The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, ed 5, Fig. 5.2, page 167)
Olfactory bulb main external plexiform layer Olfactory bulb main external plexiform layer nlx_96 Cytoarchitectural part of the olfactory bulb, lying superior to the mitral cell layer and inferior to the glomerular layer. The EPL is mostly neuropil composed almost entirely of mitral and tulfted cell dendrites and granule cell dendrites and their synaptic inputs.
Olfactory bulb main glomerular layer Olfactory bulb main glomerular layer nlx_anat_1005011 The glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb, lying deep to the olfactory nerve layer. It contains the glomeruli, neuropil rich spheroid structures surrounded by a distinctive shell of small neuros and glial cells (Paxinos, the Rat Nervous System, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1995).
Olfactory bulb main olfactory nerve layer Olfactory bulb main olfactory nerve layer nlx_anat_1005010 Superficial layer of the main olfactory bulb containing axons from the olfactory nerve and glial cells
Olfactory cortex Olfactory cortex birnlex_2707 Aggregate brain region defined as those areas of cerebral cortex receiving direct synaptic input from the olfactory bulb (Price, 1973). The most recognized structure is the piriform cortex (prepyriform area), but other areas are often included, e.g., the olfactory tubercle.
Olfactory entorhinal cortex Olfactory entorhinal cortex birnlex_2705 A part of the entorhinal area defined on the basis of connectivity. It is the rostral portion, which receives a projection from the olfactory bulb (Price-90)-Adapted from Brain Info
Olfactory peduncle Olfactory peduncle nlx_152599 The region connecting the olfactory bulb with the basal forebrain
Olfactory trigone Olfactory trigone birnlex_4042 Trigonum olfactorium A small triangular area in front of the anterior perforated substance. Its apex, directed forward, occupies the posterior part of the olfactory sulcus, and is brought into view by throwing back the olfactory tract (adapted from Wikipedia)
Olfactory tubercle Olfactory tubercle nlx_143578 anterior perforated space
anterior perforated substance
Tuberculum olfactorium
Region in the ventral telencephalon, prominent in rodents, but present in all mammals, consisting of a laminated cortical part and the cap/hilus region. It is traditionally viewed as part of the olfactory cortex but recognized by some as having a striatal character. According to many authors, the structure of the OT transitions from cortical like to striatal like along the lateral medial axis. (Maryann Martone)
Olivary pretectal nucleus Olivary pretectal nucleus birnlex_1037 Small distinct nucleus in the pretectum of mammals involved in the pupillary light reflect. In rats, it is an olive shaped (anterior) nucleus lying ventral to the brachium of the superior colliculus (Paxinos, The rat nervous system, 2nd ed, 1995, pg. 862). Physiologically, it is identified by neurons sensitive to luminance changes.
Opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus Opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus birnlex_823 pars opercularis gyri frontalis inferioris Component of the inferior frontal gyrus.defined as the first gyrus from the precentral gyrus.
Optic chiasm Optic chiasm birnlex_1416 A location within the visual system of binocular animals where axons of retinal ganglion cells cross contralaterally or remain ipsilatterally towards termination zones in the lateral geniculate nucleus.
Optic recess of third ventricle Optic recess of third ventricle nlx_144280 preoptic recess
supraoptic recess
Recessus opticus
Recessus praeopticus
Recessus supraopticus
Recess in third ventricle lying in front of the optic chiasm at the base of the lamina terminalis
Orbital frontal cortex Orbital frontal cortex birnlex_1049 orbitofrontal cortex Component of the prefontal cortex, frontal lobe, inferior region (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus Orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus birnlex_1207 pars orbitalis gyri frontalis inferioris Component of the inferior frontal gyrus.defined as the first gyrus from the precentral gyrus.the remainder of the inferior frontal gyrus once the pars opercularis and triangularis have been defined (Christine Fennema-Notestine)., NeuroNames
Organum vasculosum lamina terminalis Organum vasculosum lamina terminalis nlx_anat_100313 supraoptic crest
vascular organ of the lamina terminalis
medial prechiasmatic gland
optic recess organ
circumventricular organ that forms the ventral part of the midline anterior wall of the third ventricle
Paleocortex Paleocortex nlx_143559 Part of the allocortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. The other two are archicortex and periallocortex. It consists of very thin, primitive cortex with few clearly defined layers. It is distinguished ontogenetically by the fact that it does not develop through a cortical plate. It includes the olfactory bulb, accessory olfactory bulb, olfactory tubercle, septum, prepyriform area and periamygdalar area ( Stephan-1975 ). (adapted from Brain Info)
Parabigeminal nucleus Parabigeminal nucleus birnlex_1007 Nucleus parabigeminous
Ch8 cell group
Cholinergic cell group that is located ventral to the brachium of the inferior colliculus (in rat) and has reciprocal connectivity with the superior colliculus (Adapted from Paxinos, The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, 1995, pg 865
Parabrachial pigmented nucleus Parabrachial pigmented nucleus nlx_144307 Nucleus identified in the medial ventral tegmental area that borders the red nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle dorsally, the medial lemniscus laterally, the subtantia nigra pars compacta and paranigral nucleus ventrally and the rostral linear nucleus and interfascicular nucleus medially. Generally, the largest nucleus in the ventral tegmental area, occupying an average of 50% of the total volume as measured in rat, cat, monkey and human.
Parahippocampal gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus birnlex_807 hippocampal gyrus Component of the temporal lobe on the mesial surface, posterior to the entorhinal cortex. The rostral and caudal boundaries are the posterior end of the netorhinal cortex and the caudal portion of the hippocampus, respectively. The medial boudnary is designated as the medial aspect off the temporal lobe and the lateral boundary is the collateral sulcus (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Parasubiculum Parasubiculum nlx_anat_091002 parasubicular area A transitional zone between the presubiculum and the entorhinal area in the mouse (Paxinos-2001), the rat (Swanson-1998) and the primate (Zilles-1990). Defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture, it is more similar to the presubiculum than to the entorhinal area (Zilles-1990). (from Brain Info)
Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus birnlex_1407 Nucleus in the anterior part of the hypothalamus. (MSH) * one of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, an elongated plate of large, deeply staining cells located close to the third ventricle in the anterior hypothalamic area; major source of oxytocin and to a lesser extent, of antidiuretic hormone, neurohormones, which are carried to the neurohypophysis along the paraventriculohypophysial tract. (CSP) * Nucleus in the anterior part of the hypothalamus. (MSH) * one of the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, an elongated plate of large, deeply staining cells located close to the third ventricle in the anterior hypothalamic area; major source of oxytocin and to a lesser extent, of antidiuretic hormone, neurohormones, which are carried to the neurohypophysis along the paraventriculohypophysial tract. (CSP)
Parietal cortex Parietal cortex nlx_79282 Gray matter of the parietal region of the neocortex, located in the parietal lobe of gyrencephalic animals. It is continuous anteriorly with the frontal cortex, posteriorly with the occipital cortex and medially with the insular cortex and with the temporal cortex on the posterior/inferior border.
Parietal lobe Parietal lobe birnlex_1148 Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH) Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH)
Parvocellular oculomotor nucleus Parvocellular oculomotor nucleus birnlex_822 Edinger-Westphal nucleus Nucleus that is part of the oculomotor nerve complex consisting of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons situated close to the midline at the level of the superior colliculus (Heimer, the Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 1994, pg 244)
Parvocellular part of red nucleus Parvocellular part of red nucleus birnlex_725 Parvocellular red nucleus Rostral portion of the red nucleus, located in the midbrain but originated from the diencephalon. Contains both large and small cells.
Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus birnlex_1437 peduncular pontine nucleus
pedunculopontine nucleus
Nucleus tegmenti pedunculopontinus
A cell group originally defined by Jacobsohn in 1909 in humans, consisting of large, darkly staining neurons adjacent to the superior cerebellar peduncle at the midbrain-pontine junction. In 1983, Armstrong et al. recognized that these neurons in rats are cholinergic, and closely related to a second cluster of cholinergic cells in the adjacent laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In 1987, Rye et al. defined this cell group in rats, gave references to the earlier literature, and demonstrated that it is NOT the target of the descending pallidal projection, but rather next to a region, the Midbrain Extrapyramidal Area (MEA) that does receive this input. Some modern definitions include many non-cholinergic cells that are interspersed among the cholinergic neurons within the "PPT," but those other cell groups often extend beyond the borders of the cholinergic one, have never been characterized, and many are probably unrelated to it (or have quite different functions). Hence, for this definition, we are restricting the use to the cholinergic cell group, which was originally given this name by Jacobsohn.
Periamygdaloid cortex Periamygdaloid cortex nlx_144210 periamygdaloid area Is located ventral to the basal nucleus and has three subdivisions: the periamygdaloid cortex, the medial division, and the sulcal division.
Pericalcarine cortex Pericalcarine cortex birnlex_1059 Component of the parietal lobe. The rostral boundary of the pericalcarine cortex was the first appearance of the calcarine sulcus whereas the caudal boundary was the most posterior coronal slice where the calcarine sulcus was visualized. The medial and lateral boundaries were the medial portion of the temporal and occipital cortices and the inferomedial end of the calcarine sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Perirhinal cortex Perirhinal cortex nlx_anat_1005006 Perirhinal area Region of cortex near to the rhinal sulcus. It is defined differently in different nomenclatures, due in part to the lack of agreement on the definition of the border of this region. In the rat, the perirhinal cortex occupies only caudal levels of the rhinal sulcus while in the monkey, it occurpies the full rostrocaudal extent of the rhinal sulcus (Burwell et al., Hippocampus, 5: 390-408, 1995).
Pineal body Pineal body birnlex_1184 corpus pineale
epiphysis
conarium
epiphysis cerebri
pineal gland
A midline, cone like structure located in the dorso-caudal roof of the 3rd ventricle, attached by peduncles to the habenular and posterior commissures. The stalk contains nerve fibers, blood vessels, connective tissue and parenchymal cells (Paxinos, The Rat Central Nervous System, 2nd ed, pg 399).
Piriform cortex layer 1a Piriform cortex layer 1a nlx_anat_091004 Superficial part of plexiform layer (layer 1) of piriform cortex that receives afferents from the olfactory bulb by way of the lateral olfactory tract.
Piriform cortex layer 1b Piriform cortex layer 1b nlx_anat_091005 Deeper part of the plexiform (layer 1) of piriform cortex characterized by projection of association fibers from other parts of the piriform cortex and other olfactory areas
Planum polare Planum polare nlx_144291 A portion of the superior temporal gyrus near the temporal pole in the human.
Pons Pons birnlex_733 The part of the central nervous system lying between the medulla oblongata and the mesencephalon, ventral to the cerebellum, and consisting of a pars dorsalis and a pars ventralis. (MeSH)
Pontine nuclear complex Pontine nuclear complex birnlex_1516 pontine gray
pontine nuclei
pontine nucleus
Nuclei in the basal pons, intermingled among the descending axons from the cortex, that receive neocrotcial input and give rise to many axons that cross the midline to enter the contralateral cerebellum (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, pg 135)
Pontine tegmentum Pontine tegmentum birnlex_923 Dorsal portion of the pons, containing cranial nervee nuclei, ascending and descending tracts and reticular nuclei. It is continuous with the reticular formation of the medulla (Carpenter, A Core Text of Neuroanatomy, 3rd ed, 1985, pg 133).
Postcentral gyrus Postcentral gyrus birnlex_1070 Component of the parietal lobe. The appearance and disappearance of the central sulcus were the rostral and caudal boundaries of the postcentral gyrus respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the lateral bank of the precentral gyrus and the lateral fissure and/or the medial bank of the superior parietal gyrus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Posterior cingulate cortex Posterior cingulate cortex birnlex_950 Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral and caudal extent were the caudal anterior and the isthmus divisions of the cingulate cortex respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the corpus callosum and as the superior frontal gyrus and/or paracentral lobule respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Posterior column of fornix Posterior column of fornix birnlex_754 posterior crus of fornix
crus of fornix
posterior pillar of fornix
Part of fornix adjacent to the fimbria comprising flattened bands of fibers that extend from the fimbria, running underneath the corpus callosum
Posterior horn lateral ventricle Posterior horn lateral ventricle birnlex_1297 occipital horn
posterior horn of the lateral ventricle
Part of the lateral ventricle that extends posteriorly into the occipital lobe.
Posterior limb of internal capsule Posterior limb of internal capsule nlx_144258 Portion of internal capsule lying between the globus pallidus and the thalamus (Nolte, The Human Brain, 6th ed., 2009, pg 409, modified by MM)
Posterior nuclear complex Posterior nuclear complex birnlex_1467 posterior thalamic nuclear group
nuclei posteriores thalami
posterior nuclear complex of thalamus
posterior complex of thalamus
Part of thalamus comprising ill defined cellular groups in the caudal thalamus at the meso-diencephalic junction. It is not a homogeneous structure but consists of several distinct cellular groups, including the suprageniculate and limitans nuclei, the magnocellular division of the medial geniculate body, portions of the pulvinar nucleus and an area of mixed cell types intercalated between the ventroposterior nucleus and the nucleus lateral posterior (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 97)
Posterior part of anterior commissure Posterior part of anterior commissure birnlex_977 The main part of the anterior commissure, distinct from the anterior olfactory part, that interconnects the temporal lobes. (Maryann Martone)
Posterolateral fissure Posterolateral fissure nlx_anat_20081259 Fissure between cerebellar lobules IX and X.
Postsubiculum Postsubiculum nlx_144245 Postsubicular cortex Division of subicular cortex characterized by projections from the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and to a lesser extent the anteroventral nucleus, bordered ventrally and laterally by the presubiculum and dorsally and medially by the retrosplenial granular a cortex.. The border is characterized by an abrupt change in the cyto- and chemoarchitecture
PreBotzinger complex PreBotzinger complex nlx_152600 Group of neurons in the ventral medulla, just caudal to the retrofacial nucleus, believed to be involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis
Precentral fissure Precentral fissure nlx_anat_20081252 Fissure between cerebellar lobules I and II.
Precentral gyrus Precentral gyrus birnlex_1455 Component of the frontal lobe. The appearance and disappearance of the central sulcus is the rostral and caudal boundaries of the precentral gyrus respectively. The medial boundary is specific frontal gyri (superior, middle and inferior) whereas the lateral boundary is the medial bank of the central sulcus (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Precentral operculum Precentral operculum birnlex_1141 The ventrolateral lip of the precentral gyrus, which overlies the insula and is bounded by the lateral fissure (Brain Info).
Precerebellar nucleus Precerebellar nucleus nlx_151901 precerebellar nuclei Neuron population that send all or nearly all of its efferents to the cerebellum, including cell populations in the spinal cord, the funicular nuclei, the nucleus solitarius, the principal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, the locus coeruleus, the inferior olive and the pontine nucleus in mammals (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, pg. 256.)
Precommissural fornix Precommissural fornix birnlex_1033 Part of fornix extending from the body that curves ventrally rostral to the crossing of the anterior commissure ending in the septal nuclei
Precuneus cortex Precuneus cortex birnlex_1446 precuneus
quadrate lobule
precuneate lobule
Component of the parietal lobe. The rostral boundary was the posterior extent of the paracentral lobule whereas the caudal boundary was the lingual gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries were the parieto-occipital fissure and the superior parietal gyrus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex nlx_anat_090801 The anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas.

This brain region has been implicated in planning complex cognitive behaviors, personality expression, decision making and moderating correct social behavior. The basic activity of this brain region is considered to be orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals.

The most typical psychological term for functions carried out by the pre-frontal cortex area is executive function. Executive function relates to abilities to differentiate among conflicting thoughts, determine good and bad, better and best, same and different, future consequences of current activities, working toward a defined goal, prediction of outcomes, expectation based on actions, and social "control" (the ability to suppress urges that, if not suppressed, could lead to socially-unacceptable outcomes).

Many authors have indicated an integral link between a person's personality and the functions of the prefrontal cortex. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Premotor cortex Premotor cortex oen_0001102 Premotor area Region of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for planning motor activity.
Preoccipital notch Preoccipital notch birnlex_1436 preoccipital notch
Incisura preoccipitalis
incisura parieto-occipitalis
preoccipital incisura
Incisura praeoccipitalis
Small indentation on the inferior surface of the cerebral cortex at the border of the occiptal and parietal lobes. It is considered as a landmark because the occipital lobe is located just behind the line that connects that notch with the parietoccipital sulcus (adapted from Wikipedia).
Preoptic area Preoptic area birnlex_1706 Preoptic nuclei
area proptica
area praeoptica
Region of hypothalamus between the anterior commissure and optic chiasm. (MSH) * pertaining to the region in or adjoining the part of the third ventricle immediately anterior to the optic chiasm. (CSP)
Prepyramidal fissure Prepyramidal fissure nlx_anat_20081257 Fissura Inferior Anterior
Fissura Parafloccularis
Prebiventral Fissure
Fissure between cerebellar lobules VIIBii and VIII.
Pretectum Pretectum nlx_59721 pretectal region Region of brain lying between the midbrain tectum and the thalamus (Sefton and Dreher, in Paxinos, G The rat central nervous system, 1995, pg 859), Situated at the level of poterior commissure and just rostral to the superior colliculus (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed, 1981, pg 542)
Primary motor cortex Primary motor cortex nlx_143555 primary motor area The part of the cerebral cortex that receives projections from the motor thalamus and which projects to motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. The motor cortex corresponds to Brodmann's area 4 (MM). The primary motor cortex, or M1, is located on the precentral gyrus and on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain. Of the three motor cortex areas, stimulation of the primary motor cortex requires the least amount of electrical current to elicit a movement. http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s3/chapter03.html
Primary olfactory cortex Primary olfactory cortex birnlex_2706 primary olfactory areas The term primary olfactory areas in the primate, refers to a group of structures defined by connectivity, namely, structures that receive axons from the olfactory bulb. They include the anterior olfactory nucleus, the anterior perforated substance, the rostral part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (anterior cortical nucleus of amygdala), and structures in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus, namely, the prepyriform area, most of the periamygdaloid area, and the rostral part of the entorhinal area (Price-90). Note that some authors have regarded the olfactory bulb itself as the primary olfactory area and the areas to which it projects as secondary (Anthoney-94). In the mouse (Dong-2004) and the rat (Swanson-2004), olfactory areas include the olfactory bulb, accessory olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, tenia tecta, prepyriform area, postpiriform transition area, piriform amygdaloid area, nucleus of lateral olfactory tract, and cortical amygdaloid area.
Principal anterior division of supraoptic nucleus Principal anterior division of supraoptic nucleus nlx_528 One of two divisions of the supraoptic nucleus observed in mammals, formed by the ascension of the optic chiasm to split the nucleus in two. The principal anterior division consists of a dense cluster of large cells that stain darkly in Nissl preparations adjacent to the optic chiasm, extending as far rostrally to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and caudally into the posterior hypothalamus
Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve birnlex_1120 main sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve Nucleus in the pontine tegmentum. One of trigeminal nerve nuclei that receive sensory input from the trigeminal ganglia. (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd Ed, 1996, page 248).
Pulvinar Pulvinar birnlex_824 pulvinar nucleus
pulvinar thalami
nuclei pulvinares
a set of nuclei located in the posterior thalamus, that projects to all or nearly all extra-striate visual areas.
Putamen Putamen birnlex_809 nucleus putamen Subcortical nucleus of telencephalon , which together with the caudate nucleus, forms the striatum. The putamen lies lateral to the internal capsule and medial to the external medullary lamina, and is separated from the caudate nucleus by the fibers of the internal capsule for most of its length, except at its anterior portion.
Pyramid Pyramid nlx_21189 medullary pyramid
pyramis
White matter structure at the base of the medulla containing the axons of the corticospinal tract (MM)
Raphe Nuclei Raphe Nuclei nlx_anat_20090205 The raphe nuclei are thin plates of cells in and immediately adjacent to the sagittal plane.
Red nucleus Red nucleus birnlex_1478 Nucleus ruber Large round nucleus located in the midbrain tegmentum, consisting of a magnocellular and parvicellular portion in most species studied.
Retrorubral area Retrorubral area nlx_395 A8 The term retrorubral area of the midbrain reticular nucleus refers to a region of the rat brain caudal and dorsal to the ventral tegmental area. It is one of three parts of the midbrain reticular nucleus; the other two are the magnocellular part of the midbrain reticular nucleus and the parvicellular part of the midbrain reticular nucleus (Swanson-2004). BrainInfo distinguishes between the Retrorubral area of the midbrain reticular formation and the retrorubral nucleus.
Retrotrapezoid nucleus Retrotrapezoid nucleus nlx_152601 Group of cells in the rostral medulla close to the ventral surface, near to the trapezoid body
Right frontal lobe Right frontal lobe birnlex_1786 Frontal lobe of the right hemisphere of the brain
Right occipital lobe Right occipital lobe birnlex_1783 Occipital lobe of the right hemisphere of the brain
Right parietal lobe Right parietal lobe birnlex_1729 Parietal lobe of the right hemisphere of the brain
Rostral anterior cingulate cortex Rostral anterior cingulate cortex birnlex_975 Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral boundary was the first appearance of the cingulate sulcus (inferior to the superior frontal sulcus) whereas the caudal boundary was the first appearance of the genu of the corpus callosum. The medial boundary was the medial aspect of the cortex. The supero-lateral boundary was the superior frontal gyrus whereas the infero-lateral boundary was defined as the medial division of the orbitofrontal gyrus (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Rostral linear nucleus Rostral linear nucleus nlx_144319 Nucleus of the medial ventral tegmental area, originally identified in the rat but also in cat, monkey and human, comprising an average of 7% volume of the VTA across the different species, with the largest being present in the cat.
Rostral middle frontal gyrus Rostral middle frontal gyrus birnlex_1090 Component of the middl frontal gyrus The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the superior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the middle frontal gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries are the superior frontal sulcus and the inferior frontal sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Rostral migratory stream Rostral migratory stream birnlex_1702 Unique telencephalic subventricular zones that extend from the lateral ventricles into the olfactory bulbs. Newly produced GABAergic interneurons migrate along the RMS and settle in the bulb.
Rostral spinocerebellar tract Rostral spinocerebellar tract nlx_69382 Cervical equivalent to the ventral spinocerebellar tract (Heimer, L: The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 1995, pg 370). Originates from cells rostral to Clarke's column and sends uncrossed axons through the lateral funiculus to the cerebellum. It reaches the cerebellum partly through the brachium conjunctivum and partly through the restiform body, terminating bilaterally in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum.
Secondary fissure Secondary fissure nlx_anat_20081258 Fissura Secunda
Fissura Retrotonsillaris
Fissura Intraparafloccularis
Fissure between cerebellar lobules VIII and IX.
Secondary olfactory cortex Secondary olfactory cortex birnlex_2709 secondary olfactory cortical area (Carpenter)
area 28 of Brodmann (Crosby)
secondary olfactory areas
Brodmann's area 28; major gateway for neocortical input to the hippocampus; origin of the perforant pathway; a component of the medial temporal lobe memory system. (CSP) * The cytoarchitecturally well-defined area of multilaminate cerebral cortex on the medial aspect of the parahippocampal gyrus, immediately caudal to the olfactory cortex of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the hippocampus, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY. (Stedman, 25th ed) (MSH)
Sensory cortex Sensory cortex nlx_157253 Region of the cerebral cortex that responds with a short latency to sensory signals.
Septal nuclear complex Septal nuclear complex birnlex_1313 Septal nuclei Collection of nerve cells in the medial forebrain lying generally in front of the anterior commissure (Maryann Martone).
Septal pellucidum Septal pellucidum birnlex_1315 Medial septum A triangular double membrane, consisting of glial cells and fibers (Heimer, 1996) separating the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the corpus callosum and the body and columns of the fornix.
Septohippocampal nucleus Septohippocampal nucleus nlx_60880 Part of septal nuclear complex. In the human, it refers to the most caudal of scattered clusters of neurons in the septum pellucidum that extend, on the underside of the corpus callosum, from the level of the medial septal nucleus to the CA fields ( Crosby-1962 ). In the rat it is associated with the lateral septal nucleus throughout its rostro-caudal course toward the CA fields ( Swanson-1998. Adapted from Brain Info.
Septum Septum birnlex_963 Gray matter structure located on the midline of the forebrain consisting of the septum pellucidum (in some species) and the septal nuclei (Heimer, 1996).
Septum pellucidum Septum pellucidum nlx_144186 SP A thin membrane located at the midline of the brain in the forebrain in primates. (NINDS Disorder Index, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/absence_septum_pellucidum/absence_septum_pellucidum.htm)
Serotonergic cell group B7 Serotonergic cell group B7 nlx_97638 B7
serotonin group B7
A group of cells that stain for serotonin located in the central gray of the pons and midbrain
Serotonergic cell group B8 Serotonergic cell group B8 nlx_62751 serotonergic group B8
B8
A group of cells containing serotonin located in the dorsal part of the superior central nucleus and adjacent structures of the pontine reticular formation of the rodent throughout the midline raphe nuclei, originally described by Dahlstrom and Fuxe (1964) using the histochemical fluorescence method developed by Falck and Hillarp. This group has also been identified in the primate.
Serotonergic cell group B9 Serotonergic cell group B9 nlx_53418 B9 A group of cells that fluoresce for serotonin that is located in the pontine tegmentum, ventral to serotonergic group B8. In the nonhuman primate they are found in the ventral part of the superior central nucleus and adjacent structures ( Felten-1983 ). In the rodent they have a more lateral location within the medial lemniscus of the pons and dorsal and medial to it ( Dahlstrom-1964, Paxinos-2001 ) and extends into the midbrain (Halliday et al., in Paxinos, the Rat Central Nervous System, 2nd ed, 1994, pg 931). Adapted from Brain Info
Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area nlx_152051 Nucleus in the medial preoptic area that shows marked sexual dimorphism, being much larger in the male than the female.
Shell of nucleus accumbens Shell of nucleus accumbens nlx_anat_20090307 Nucleus accumbens shell Crescent shaped outer zone of the nucleus accumbens, defined by a combination of chemoarchitecture and afferent and efferent connections. The shell is distinguished from the more centrally located core through the notable reduction in staining for the calcium-binding protein calbindin D28K, which is dense in the core and virtually absent in the shell.
Somatosensory cortex Somatosensory cortex oen_0001106 Somatosensory area Region of the cerebral cortex that responds with a short latency to somatosensory stimuli
Sommer's sector Sommer's sector nlx_anat_1005009 Sommers sector Part of hippocampal formation comprising area CA1 and the subiculum (pg 425, Heimer, L. The human brain and spinal cord, Springer-Verlag, 1995)
Spinal trigeminal tract of medulla Spinal trigeminal tract of medulla birnlex_1477 Part of spinal trigeminal tract located in the medulla
Spinothalamic tract of medulla Spinothalamic tract of medulla birnlex_741 Part of spinothalamic tract in the medulla
Spinothalamic tract of pons Spinothalamic tract of pons birnlex_1719 Part of spinothalamic tract that is in the pontine tegmentum
Stratum lacunosum moleculare Stratum lacunosum moleculare birnlex_1359 Stratum lacunosum-moleculare Layer of the hippocampus lying just superficial to the stratum radiatum and bounded by the pial surface of the hippocampus. The fibers of the perforant pathway fibers from entorhinal cortex and several other brain areas terminate in this layer. Adapted from Paxinos, G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pg. 460) A cytoarchitectural term denoting the outermost layer of the hippocampus (Stephan-75) (NeuroNames).
Stratum lucidum Stratum lucidum birnlex_4108 Layer of hippocampus area CA3 lying superficial to the pyramidal cell layer that contains mossy fiber axons projecting from the dentate gyrus. A slight thickening in this layer marks the border in some species between areas CA2 and CA3. dapted from Paxinos, G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pg. 460) A cytoarchitectural term denoting the layer of the CA3 field of the HIPPOCAMPUS that is deep to the Stratum pyramidale hippocampi and superficial to the Stratum radiatum (Hof-2000).
Stratum oriens Stratum oriens birnlex_4113 polymorphic layer of the hippocampus
oriens layer of the hippocampus
Layer that is part of the CA fields of the hippocampus consisting of a narrow relatively cell free layer located deep to the pyramidal cell layer extending through areas CA1, CA2 and CA3. (adapted from Paxinos The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995) The term Stratum oriens is a cytoarchitectural term denoting the layer of the hippocampus that is deep to the Stratum pyramidale and superficial to the alveus (Stephan-75).
Stratum pyramidale Stratum pyramidale birnlex_1444 Pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus
stratum pyramidale
hippocampal pyramidal cell layer
Pyramidal layer of hippocampus
Layer of the hippocampus containing dense packing of pyramidal cell bodies A cytoarchitectural term denoting the layer of the hippocampus in which pyramidal cells are predominant. Its location is superficial to the Stratum oriens; it is deep to the Stratum radiatum in area CA1 and area CA2 and deep to the Stratum lucidum in area CA3 (Stephan-75) (NeuroNames).
Stratum radiatum Stratum radiatum birnlex_1298 Layer of the hippocampus lying just superficial to the stratum lucidum in CA3 and the pyramidal cell layer in CA1 and CA2 defined by the the location of CA3 to CA3 associational fibers and the Schaffer collaterals in area CA1. Adapted from Paxinos, G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pg. 460) The term Stratum radiatum is a cytoarchitectural term denoting the layer of the hippocampus located deep to the Stratum lacunosum-moleculare and superficial to the Stratum pyramidale (Stephan-75) (NeuroNames).
Stria medullaris Stria medullaris birnlex_1066 stria medullaris of thalamus
stria medullaris (Wenzel - Wenzel)
stria medullaris thalami
stria medullaris thalamica
stria habenularis
White matter pathway located in the superior wall of the third ventricle along the dorsal-medial margin of the diencephalon; contains axons that interconnect the anterior hypothalamus and septal nuclei in the medial basal forebrain with the habenula, a component of the epithalamus. (http://www.sylvius.com/index/s/stria_medullaris.html)
Stria terminalis Stria terminalis birnlex_937 White matter structure in the brain consisting of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. The stria terminalis covers the thalamostriate vein, marking a line of separation between the thalamus and the caudate nucleus as seen upon gross dissection of the ventricles of the brain, viewed from the superior aspect. The stria terminalis extends from the region of the interventricular foramen to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, carrying fibers from the amygdala to the septal, hypothalamic, and thalamic areas of the brain. It also carries fibers projecting from these areas back to the amygdala. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stria_terminalis) White matter structure in the brain consisting of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. The stria terminalis covers the thalamostriate vein, marking a line of separation between the thalamus and the caudate nucleus as seen upon gross dissection of the ventricles of the brain, viewed from the superior aspect. The stria terminalis extends from the region of the interventricular foramen to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, carrying fibers from the amygdala to the septal, hypothalamic, and thalamic areas of the brain. It also carries fibers projecting from these areas back to the amygdala. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stria_terminalis)
Striatal cell bridges Striatal cell bridges nlx_144099 Thin fingers of striatal matter seen within the fibers of the internal capsule running between the caudate nucleus and the putamen.
Striatum Striatum birnlex_1672 neostriatum
caudate putamen
dorsal striatum
* Externally Sourced Definition: A region of the brain consisting of the phylogenetically newer part of the Corpus_striatum (Caudate_nucleus and Putamen).
Striosome Striosome nlx_anat_20090506 Striosomal compartment
patch compartment
One of two compartments identified in the neostriatum, particularly the caudate nucleus, on the basis of differential staining for several biochemical markers such as acetylcholinesterase and calbindin. In individual sections, the striosomes appear as small patches of differentially high or low staining activity. In three dimensions, they form a 3D labyrinth extending throughout the caudate nucleus and in the putamen.
Subbrachial nucleus Subbrachial nucleus nlx_anat_1005003 A group of cells ventral to the nucleus of brachium of inferior colliculus in the mouse (Paxinos-2001).
Subfornical organ Subfornical organ nlx_anat_100314 Group of neurons situated on the ventral surface of the fornix at the level of the foramen of Monro in the third ventricle (adapted from Wikipedia)
Subicular complex Subicular complex birnlex_944 A composite structure of the temporal lobe that includes the subiculum, the presubiculum and the parasubicular area (Amaral-90)
Subiculum Subiculum birnlex_1305 Subicular cortex Part of the hippocampal formation that is bounded by the entorhinal cortex and area CA1. It is characterized on the CA1 border by an abrupt widening of the pyramidal cell layer. A molecular layer is present that is continuous with that of CA1, although the stratum radiatum is no longer present. The stratum oriens is also not present. adapted from Paxinos, G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pg. 468)
Subiculum molecular layer Subiculum molecular layer nlx_anat_1008007 molecular layer of subiculum
subiculum stratum moleculare
Layer of the subiculum characterized by a paucity of cells lying superficial to the subiculum pyramidal cell layer. It is continuous with the stratum radiaum and stratum moleculare-lacunosum of CA1. Adapted from Paxinos, G. The rat central nervous system, 2nd ed, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995, pg. 468)
Subiculum pyramidal cell layer Subiculum pyramidal cell layer nlx_anat_1008010 Subiculum stratum pyramidale Layer of the subiculum cotnatining relatively densely packed pyramidal cells that is continuous with the pyramidal cell layer of CA1 but widens considerably compared to that in CA1.
Submedial nucleus Submedial nucleus birnlex_946 submedial nucleus thalamus
submedial nucleus of thalamus
nucleus submedius thalami
gelatinosus thalamic nucleus
submedial thalamic nucleus
Thalamic nucleus separated from the ventromedial part of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus by the internal medullary lamina (Paxinos The rat nervous system 2nd ed, Academic Press, 1995).
Substantia gelatinosa Substantia gelatinosa nlx_259 Rexed lamina II Gray matter region of spinal cord gray matter that caps the posterior horn at all spinal levels.
Substantia innominata Substantia innominata birnlex_915 A predominantly gray matter structure of the basal telencephalon defined on the basis of Nissl stain. Caudal to the anterior commissure it lies deep to the globus pallidus and dorsal to the amygdala. Rostral to the anterior commissure it lies deep to the striatum. The more rostral portion contains the basal forebrain nucleus ( Anthoney-1994 ). In the late twentieth century the region containing the substantia innominata was resegmented on the basis of neurochemistry and connectivity to constitute the striatopallidal system ( Heimer-1995 ). In this scheme the caudal portion of substantia innominata is located largely in the ventral pallidum and the rostral portion in the ventral striatum. (from Brain Info)
Substantia nigra Substantia nigra birnlex_789 Predominantly gray matter midbrain structure lying dorsal to the crus cerebri and ventral to the midbrain tegmentum. It is divided into a dorsal, cellularly compact region known as the pars compacta and a more ventrally located, containing more loosely packed cells, the pars reticulata. The most lateral region of the reticulata is identified as the pars lateralis (MM).
Substantia nigra pars compacta Substantia nigra pars compacta birnlex_990 pars compacta
Substantia nigra compact part
Substantia nigra compacta
Regional part of substantia nigra consisting of a densely packed region of cells, more or less dorsal to the pars reticulata, but extending into the pars reticulata in some species. The dominant neurotransmitter used by pars compacta neurons is dopamine. Pars compacta neurons are pigmented in many species (MM).
Substantia nigra pars lateralis Substantia nigra pars lateralis birnlex_866 pars lateralis Part of the pars reticulata of substantia nigra. It is the lateral, 'most fibrous' part (Poirier-83), which is regarded to be the phylogenetically oldest part of the substantia nigra and the only part found in nonmammalian vertebrates (Crosby-62) (Adapted from Brain Info: http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/centraldirectory.aspx?ID=2159)
Substantia nigra pars reticulata Substantia nigra pars reticulata birnlex_968 pars reticulata
Substantia nigra reticulata
Regional part of substantia nigra consisting of loosely packed cells, generally located ventral and lateral to the pars compacta. Many cells in this region use GABA as a neurotransmitter (MM).
Subthalamic nucleus Subthalamic nucleus nlx_anat_1010002 Body of Luys Lens shaped nucleus lying in the subthalamus
Subventricular Zone Subventricular Zone nlx_144262 subependymal zone The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of two sources of adult-born neurons in the mammalian brain, the other being the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In most adult mammals, the SVZ is a three-layered sheath that lies along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle and consists of type A, B, and C cells. Type A rest along the ventricle wall and are neuronal precursor cells, Type B are adjacent astrocytes, and Type C are immature precursors to the Type A neuroblasts. The neuronal precursor cells travel along the rostral migratory stream ensheathed in a tube of Type B astrocytes, until they reach the olfactory bulb. There they integrate into the existing cellular network and mature into local interneurons. While the majority become adult-born granule cells, a subset become periglomerular cells. Interestingly, the human SVZ differs from other mammals' in several ways. It consists of four layers rather than three: ependymal cells (layer I), a hypo cellular gap (layer II), a ribbon of astrocytes (layer III), and a transitional zone (layer IV). The astrocytes are capable of differentiating into many kinds of tissue including new neurons. However, there is no evidence that the proliferating neurons travel along the rostral migratory stream in a chain to populate the olfactory bulb with new interneurons, as is the case for other mammals.
Superior central nucleus Superior central nucleus birnlex_889 nucleus centralis superior A large cell serotonergic raphe nucleus in the upper pons and lower mesencephalon that is part of the reticular formation
Superior cerebellar peduncle Superior cerebellar peduncle birnlex_1711 brachium conjunctivum A composite structure of the brain stem, which in NeuroNames is subdivided into the superior cerebellar peduncle of pons, the decussation of superior cerebellar peduncle and the superior cerebellar peduncle of midbrain (MM).
Superior cerebellar peduncle of midbrain Superior cerebellar peduncle of midbrain birnlex_1162 Regional part of superior cerebellar peduncle, located in the midbrain, consisting of a large bundle of fibers largely projecting from the deep cerebellar nuclei to the midbrain and thalamus. It is continuous with the superior cerebellar peduncle of the pons. (MM).
Superior colliculus Superior colliculus birnlex_1040 Part of the midbrain tecturm consisting of paired bodies that sit caudal to the thalamus and surround the pineal gland in the mesencephalon of vertebrate brains. It comprises the rostral aspect of the midbrain, posterior to the periaqueductal gray and adjacent superior the inferior colliculus. The inferior and superior colliculi are known collectively as the corpora quadrigemina (Latin, quadruplet bodies). It consists of several identified cellular layers and also comprises the brachium of the superior colliculus and commissure of supeior colliculus from Wikipedia.org and Neuronames (MM).
Superior frontal gyrus Superior frontal gyrus birnlex_1303 Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the superior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the midpoint of the paracentral sulcus on the "inflated" surface. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the frontal lobe and the superior frontal sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Superior olive Superior olive birnlex_900 Part of the superior olivary complex of nuclei in the caudal pontine tegmentum, situated within the trapezoid body in humans. (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd edition, 1981, pg 617). In many species, it comprises a medial superior olivary nucleus and a lateral superior olivary nucleus.
Superior parietal cortex Superior parietal cortex birnlex_1450 superior portion of parietal gyrus
superior parietal gyrus
superior parietal lobule
Component of the parietal lobe. The rostral and caudal boundaries of the superior parietal cortex were the precentral gyrus and lateral occipital cortex respectively. The medial and lateral boundaries were the precuneus and/or cuneus cortex and the infererior parietal cortex respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Superior salivatory nucleus Superior salivatory nucleus birnlex_1131 Nucleus containing parasympathetic neurons giving rise to the parasympathetic division of the facial nerve, innervating the salivary glands (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 703).
Superior temporal gyrus Superior temporal gyrus birnlex_1648 Gyrus temporalis superior Component of the temporal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the rostral extent of the ssuperior temporal sulcus. The caudal boundary is the cauday portion of the superior temporal gyrus (posterior to becoming continuous with the supramarginal gyrus). The medial boundary is the lateral fissure (and when present the supramarginal gyrus), and the lateral boundary is the superior temporal suclus (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Suprachiasmatic nucleus Suprachiasmatic nucleus birnlex_1325 suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus
nucleus suprachiasmaticus
* An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the optic chiasm. (MSH) * small group of nerve cell bodies in the supraoptic region of the hypothalamus, just above the optic chiasm; influences rhythmic aspects of hypothalamic functions in many vertebrate species. (CSP)
Supramarginal gyrus Supramarginal gyrus birnlex_1381 Component of the parietal lobe. The first coronal slice between the superior temporal gyrus and the postcentral gyrus where the supramarginal gyrus appears was the rostral boundary whereas the slice where the supramarginal gyrus becomes continuous with the superior parietal gyrus was the caudal boundary. The medial and lateral boundaries were the lateral banks of the intraparietal sulcus and the medial banks of the lateral fissure and/or the superior temporal gyrus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Supraoptic nucleus Supraoptic nucleus birnlex_1411 supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus Well defined nucleus containing large cells in the anterior hypothalamus located above the beginning of the optic tract on both sides of the brain. At its most anterior end, it is situated above and lateral to the optic chiasm.
Tail of caudate nucleus Tail of caudate nucleus birnlex_1215 Narrowest part of the caudate nucleus, roughtly defined as that portion that curves ventrally from the body of the caudate nucleus, following the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle
Telencephalon Telencephalon birnlex_1115 The telencephalon is the name for a large region within the brain that is attributed many functions. Many people refer to it as the cerebrum; however, it is technically referred to as the telencephalon. As a more technical definition, the telencephalon refers to the cerebral hemispheres and other, smaller structures within the brain, although the telencephalon is one of the larger divisions (in terms of number). It is the anterior-most embryological division of the brain that develops from the prosencephalon. The telencephalon is composed of the following sub-regions; Limbic system; Cerebral cortex or cortices of the cerebral hemispheres, Basal ganglia, Olfactory bulb. The telencephalon comprises what most people think of as the "brain." It lies on top of the brainstem and is the largest and most well-developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The telencephalon is the newest structure in the phylogenetic sense, with mammals having the largest and most well-developed among all species. It emerges from the prosencephalon, the first of three vesicles that form from the embryonic neural tube (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Telencephalon of primate Telencephalon of primate nlx_anat_1005012 primate telencephalon The telencephalon of the primate
Telencephalon of rodent Telencephalon of rodent nlx_anat_1005015 Rodent telencephalon The telencephalon of a rodent
Temporal cortex Temporal cortex nlx_94939 Gray matter of the temporal region of the neocortex, located in the temporal lobe in gyrencephalic animals
Temporal lobe Temporal lobe birnlex_1160 Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH) Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere. (MSH)
Temporal operculum Temporal operculum birnlex_1025 Part of temporal lobe overlaying the insular cortex
Temporal pole Temporal pole birnlex_1055 temporopolar cortex Anterior component of the temporal lobe (rostral boundary) extends caudally to the entorhinal cortex. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the superior or inferior temporal sulci, respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Temporoparietal junction Temporoparietal junction nlx_144255 an area of the brain that locates at the interception of temporal and parietal cortices (at the posterior end of the Sylvian fissure).
Thalamus Thalamus birnlex_954 Subcortical brain region consisting of paired gray matter bodies in the dorsal diencephalon and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain. The thalamus represents the major portion of the diencephalon and is commonly divided into cellular aggregates known as nuclear groups.(MeSH).
Third ventricle Third ventricle birnlex_714 3rd ventricle Part of the ventricular system of the brain, forming a single large cavity in the midline of the diencephalon; it is continuous with the lateral ventricles through the interventricular foramen and the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct. (Maryann Martone. It is bounded anteriorly by the lamina terminalis; much of the medial surface is formed by the thalamus and hypothalamus; part of the hypothalamus forms its floor (Nolte, the Human Brain, 6th ed., 2009, pg 101).
Transverse temporal cortex Transverse temporal cortex birnlex_1389 Component of the temporal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the transverse temporal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the last slice where the transverse temporal cortex could be identified before its merger into the insular cortex. The lateral fissure and the superior temporal gyrus are the medial and lateral boundaries respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Trapezoid body Trapezoid body birnlex_707 Bundles of axons traversing the pontine tegmentum oriented in the mediolateral direction. These fibers are related to the auditory pathway. Nuclei are embedded within these fibers.
Triangular part of inferior frontal gyrus Triangular part of inferior frontal gyrus birnlex_1216 pars triangularis gyri frontalis inferioris Component of the inferior frontal gyrus.defined as the second gyrus from the precentral gyrus (Christine Fennema-Notestine).
Trochlear nucleus Trochlear nucleus birnlex_1488 nucleus of the trochlear nerve Nucleus in the midbrain at the level of the inferior colliculus near the midline, containing the motor neurons giving rise to the trochlear nerve, innervating the contralateral superior oblique extraocular muscle of the eye (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed, 1981, pg. 533).
Tuber cinereum Tuber cinereum birnlex_1189 Layer of gray matter in the hypothalamus that also forms part of the floor of the third ventricle and merges anteriorly into the infundibulum. (MSH)
Tuberal supraoptic nucleus Tuberal supraoptic nucleus nlx_288 retrochiasmatic subdivision Posterior division of the supraoptic nucleus, formed by the ascension of the optic tract splitting the nucleus into two regions. The tuberal SON lies along the posterior tuber cinereum of the hypothalamus. In some species, some neurons lie under the optic chiasm.
Uncinate fasciculus Uncinate fasciculus birnlex_983 Pathway arising from the fastigial nucleus to the vestibular nuclei, reticular formation, motor neurons of brainstem and cervical spinal cord (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed., 2005, pg 261).
Uncinate fasciculus of forebrain Uncinate fasciculus of forebrain nlx_98733 uncinate fasiculus A fiber pathway in the cerebral white matter that connects anterior portions of the temporal lobe with the inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus. It is not readily distinguished in myelin-stained cross-sections (adapted from Brain Info).
Ventral acoustic stria Ventral acoustic stria birnlex_991 White matter structure containing fibers arising from neurons in the cochlear nuclear complex
Ventral nuclear group Ventral nuclear group birnlex_1669 ventral group of dorsal thalamus
ventral tier thalamic nuclei
nuclei ventrales thalami
ventral nuclear mass
ventral nuclei of thalamus
Mostly gray regional part of the lateral thalamic region, consisting of a large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the internal capsule. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei (MM: 2006-10-26)
Ventral pallidum Ventral pallidum birnlex_1674 A composite structure primarily of forebrain with arguable extension into the midbrain. It is part of the striatopallidal system, which is defined on the basis of neurochemistry and connectivity. It includes the portions of the globus pallidus and the substantia innominata located ventral to the anterior commissure; it extends into the anterior perforated substance and, in some respects, pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. Its boundary with the dorsal pallidum is indistinct in sections stained for Nissl substance (Heimer-95) A composite structure primarily of forebrain with arguable extension into the midbrain. It is part of the striatopallidal system, which is defined on the basis of neurochemistry and connectivity. It includes the portions of the globus pallidus and the substantia innominata located ventral to the anterior commissure; it extends into the anterior perforated substance and, in some respects, pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. Its boundary with the dorsal pallidum is indistinct in sections stained for Nissl substance (Heimer-95).
Ventral posterior nucleus Ventral posterior nucleus birnlex_1116 ventrobasal nucleus
ventrobasal complex
nucleus ventralis posterior
nucleus ventrales posteriores
ventral posterior thalamic nucleus
Part of thalamus receiving primary somatic sensory information via the medial lemniscal pathway that projects to the primary somatosensory cortex (adapted from Paxinos, The Rat Nervous System, 2nd Ed, Academic Press, 1995).
Ventral striatum Ventral striatum nlx_57107 A composite structure of the telencephalon that is defined in the striatopallidal system by connectivity and neurochemical staining. It includes the nucleus accumbens, the most ventral portions of the caudate nucleus and the putamen, the rostrolateral portion of the anterior perforated substance, the islands of Calleja and a rostral subcommissural portion of substantia innominata. The boundary between the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum is indistinct in sections stained for Nissl substance (Heimer-1995; adapted from Brain Info).
Ventral tegmental area Ventral tegmental area birnlex_1415 ventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum
ventral tegmental area of Tsai
Unpaired midbrain region situated in the ventromedial portion of the reticular formation. The VTA is medial to the substantia nigra and ventral to the red nucleus, and extends caudally from the posterior hypothalamus in the diencephalon. The VTA contains dopamine neurons that project to various limbic and cortical areas and is a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry.
Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus birnlex_1572 Ventromedial hypothalamus
ventromedial nucleus
ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells. (MSH)
Vermis Vermis birnlex_1106 A subregion of the cerebellar cortex, consisting of the most medial zone of the cerebellar cortex, stradding the midline. May be continuous with the lateral cerebellar hemispheres in some areas of the cerebellum, e.g., dorsally, or separated by deeper fissures in others (e.g., ventrally)
Visual association cortex Visual association cortex nlx_143553 Part of cortex considered to function in higher level visual functions
Visual cortex Visual cortex UBERON:0000411 Visual area A region of cortex that is involved in vision
Visual cortex primary Visual cortex primary nlx_143552 V1
striate cortex
primary visual cortex
Region of visual cortex that receives visual input from the eyes through the lateral geniculate nuclei (Sadato et al., 1996, PMID: 8606771).
Waist area of the parabrachial nucleus Waist area of the parabrachial nucleus nlx_68711 waist subnucleus of the parabrachial nucleus
waist part of the parabrachial nucleus
"The term waist part of the parabrachial nucleus refers to a transition zone between the medial parabrachial nucleus and the lateral parabrachial nucleus where they join in the mouse ( Paxinos-2001 )" (From Neuronames ID 1892)
Wernicke's area Wernicke's area nlx_144087 Triangular area of Wernicke Cortical area located in the middle to posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the left hemisphere. Wernicke's area is primary to language comprehension of individual words (http://www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/180711.html).
White laminae of cerebellum White laminae of cerebellum birnlex_1105 Laminae albae of cerebellar cortex The white laminae of cerebellum is subdivision of the cerebellar cortex comprised of myelinated axons lying deep to the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex.
White matter of the cerebellar cortex White matter of the cerebellar cortex nlx_anat_20081249 White matter that lies deep to the granular cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. It contains afferents to the cerebellar cortex and axons that run between the cerebellar cortex and the deep cerebellar nuclei.
Zona incerta Zona incerta UBERON:0001907 A large, horizontally elongated region of gray matter located in the subthalamus, wedged just below the ventral tier of the thalamus and the subthalamic nucleus.

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Admin, Bandrow, Memartone, Slarson



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