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Drug of abuse

Name: Drug of abuse
Description: Any substance that is defined by the national institutes of drug abuse as being an abused drug.
Synonym(s): abused drug
Super-category: Defined class
*Id: nlx_chem_1003011
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Label Id Synonym Definition Has role
Alkyl nitrite Alkyl nitrite nlx_chem_100301 With a long history of safe medical use in treating angina, as well as an antidote to cyanide poisoning, several alkyl nitrites which are used in over-the-counter products, such as air fresheners and video head cleaners, are often inhaled with the goal of enhancing sexual pleasure and have also been part of the club culture from the 1970s disco scene to the 1980s and 1990s rave scene. (Adapted from Wikipedia) Drug of abuse role
Inhalant
Drug
Alprazolam Alprazolam CHEBI:2611 TUS-1
alprazolam
Alplax
Alpronax
Alviz
Bestrol
Cassadan
Constan
D 65MT
Esparon
Frontal
Intensol
Niravam
Restyl
Solanax
Tafil
Tranax
Trankimazin
Tranquinal
Xanax
Xanax XR
Xanor
A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of panic disorders, with or without agoraphobia, and in generalized anxiety disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238) Pharmacology: Alprazolam, a benzodiazepine, is used to treat panic disorder and anxiety disorder. Unlike chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, and prazepam, alprazolam has a shorter half-life and metabolites with minimal activity. Like other triazolo benzodiazepines such as triazolam, alprazolam may have significant drug interactions involving the hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A4 isoenzyme. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance to hypnosis. Unlike other benzodiazepines, alprazolam may also have some antidepressant activity, although clinical evidence of this is lacking. Mechanism of action: Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors BNZ1, which mediates sleep, and BNZ2, which affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anti-anxiety Agents. Benzodiazepines. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
Amobarbital Amobarbital CHEBI:2673 Isomytal
Amytal
amylobarbitone
Amytal sodium
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565) Pharmacology: Not Available Mechanism of action: Amobarbital (like all barbiturates) works by binding to the GABAA receptor at either the alpha or the beta sub unit. These are binding sites that are distinct from GABA itself and also distinct from the benzodiazepine binding site. Like benzodiazepines, barbiturates potentiate the effect of GABA at this receptor. This GABAA receptor binding decreases input resistance, depresses burst and tonic firing, especially in ventrobasal and intralaminar neurons, while at the same time increasing burst duration and mean conductance at individual chloride channels; this increases both the amplitude and decay time of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In addition to this GABA-ergic effect, barbiturates also block the AMPA receptor, a subtype of glutamate receptor. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Amobarbital also appears to bind neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
Amphetamine Amphetamine CHEBI:2679 (+/-)-Benzedrine
(+/-)-Desoxynorephedrine
(+/-)-beta-Phenylisopropylamine
1-Methyl-2-phenylethylamine
1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane
3-Methoxy-a-methylbenzeneethanamine
3-Methoxyamphetamine
3-Methoxyphenylisopropylamine
Amfetamine
Amphetamine Sulfate
DL-alpha-Methylphenethylamine
Fenylo-izopropylaminyl
Methamphetamine HCL
Phenylisopropylamine
(1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2-propyl)amine
alpha-Methylbenzeneethaneamine
beta-Aminopropylbenzene
beta-phenyl-isopropylamine
dl-1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane
dl-Amphetamine
dl-Benzedrine
m-Methoxy-a-methylphenethylamine
m-Methoxyamphetamine
Actedron
Adipan
Allodene
Anorexide
Anorexine
Benzebar
Benzedrine
Benzolone
Desoxyn
Dexampex
Dexedrine
Dextrostat
Elastonon
Fenamin
Ferndex
Finam
Isoamycin
Isoamyne
Isomyn
Mecodrin
Methampex
Norephedrane
Novydrine
Oktedrin
Ortedrine
Paredrine
Percomon
Phenamine
Phenedrine
Profamina
Propisamine
Psychedrine
Raphetamine
Rhinalator
Simpatedrin
Simpatina
Sympamin
Sympamine
Sympatedrine
Weckamine
Amphetamine is a chiral compound. The racemic mixture can be divided into its optical antipodes: levo- and dextro-amphetamine. Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, comprising a broad range of psychoactive derivatives, e.g., MDMA (Ecstasy) and the N-methylated form, methamphetamine. Amphetamine is a homologue of phenethylamine. Pharmacology: Amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, non-catechloamine sypathomimetic agents, are used in combination to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or narcolepsy. Adderall consists of equivalent amounts of amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, and dextroamphetamine sulfate. Mechanism of action: Amphetamines stimulate the release of norepinephrine from central adrenergic receptors. At higher dosages, they cause release of dopamine from the mesocorticolimbic system and the nigrostriatal dopamine systems. Amphetamine may also act as a direct agonist on central 5-HT receptors and may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO). In the periphery, amphetamines are believed to cause the release of noradrenaline by acting on the adrenergic nerve terminals and alpha- and beta-receptors. Modulation of serotonergic pathways may contribute to the calming affect. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adrenergic Agents. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors. Amphetamines. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Dopamine Agents. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Sympathomimetics Drug
Drug of abuse role
Amyl Nitrite Amyl Nitrite CHEBI:2691 3-Methylbutanol nitrite
3-Methylbutyl nitrite
Amilnitrit
Amilnitrite
Amyl nitrit
Amyl nitrite I
Amyl nitrosum
IPN
Isoamyl nitrite
Isopentyl nitrite
Nitramyl
3-methylbutyl ester
Nitrous acid
isopentyl ester
Pentanoli nitris
Pentyl nitrite
Aspiral
Vaporole
3-methylbutyl nitrite
C5H11NO2
amyl nitrite
snappers
poppers
Amyl Nitrite is an antihypertensive medicine. Amyl nitrite is employed medically to treat heart diseases such as angina and to treat cyanide poisoning. Like other alkyl nitrites, amyl nitrite is bioactive in mammals, being a vasodilator which is the basis of its use as a prescription medicine. As an inhalant, it also has psychoactive effect which has led to illegal drug use. Pharmacology: Amyl nitrite, in common with other alkyl nitrites, is a potent vasodilator. It expands blood vessels, resulting in lowering of the blood pressure. Alkyl nitrite functions as a source of nitric oxide, which signals for relaxation of the involuntary muscles. Physical effects include decrease in blood pressure, headache, flushing of the face, increased heart rate, dizziness, and relaxation of involuntary muscles, especially the blood vessel walls and the anal sphincter. There are no withdrawal symptoms. Mechanism of action: Amyl nitrite's antianginal action is thought to be the result of a reduction in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure (afterload) and decreased cardiac output because of peripheral vasodilation, rather than coronary artery dilation. As an antidote (to cyanide poisoning), amyl nitrite promotes formation of methemoglobin, which combines with cyanide to form nontoxic cyanmethemoglobin. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Vasodilator Agents Drug
Drug of abuse role
Inhalant
Anabolic steroid Anabolic steroid CHEBI:50786 anabolic steroids
steroids
anabolic-androgenic steroid
Drug of abuse role
Anabolic agent
Drug
Barbiturate Barbiturate CHEBI:22693 A class of drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and, by virtue of this, they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics and as anticonvulsants. They have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. (Wikipedia) Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system depressant
Anesthetic drug
Anticonvulsant drug
Drug
Benzedrine Benzedrine nlx_chem_100304 bennies The trade name of the racemic mixture of amphetamine (dl-amphetamine) and marketed in the form of inhalers. Benzedrine was used to enlarge nasal and bronchial passages and it is closely related to other stimulants, such as dextroamphetamine (d-amphetamine) and methamphetamine. While the drug was initially used for medical purposes, as a bronchodilator, early users of the Benzedrine inhaler discovered that it had a euphoric stimulant effect, resulting in it being one of the earliest synthetic stimulants to be widely used for recreational (i.e., non-medical) purposes.(Adapted from Wikipedia) Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system stimulant
Drug
Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepine CHEBI:22720 sleeping pills A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring. Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system depressant
Drug
Biphetamine Biphetamine nlx_chem_100305 black beauty
black beauties
Drug of abuse role
Drug
Boldenone Boldenone CHEBI:34584 C19H26O2
Equipoise
Ganabol
Equigan
Ultragan
Boldenone undecyclenate
Boldenone Undeclynate
An anabolic androgenic steroid that has formula C19H26O2.

Chemical name: 1,4-androstadiene-3-one-17β-ol

Chemical name: (17beta)-17-hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one
Drug of abuse role
Butane Butane CHEBI_37808 C4H10 An alkane that has formula C4H10. Drug of abuse role
Inhalant
Chlordiazepoxide Chlordiazepoxide CHEBI:3611 A-Poxide
Abboxide
Apo-Chlordiazepoxide
Chloradiazepoxide
Chlordiazachel
Chlordiazepoxid
Chlordiazepoxide Base
Chlordiazepoxide Hcl
Chlordiazepoxidum
Chloridazepoxide
Chloridiazepide
Chloridiazepoxide
Chlorodiazepoxide
Chlozepid
Clopoxide
Clordiazepossido
Contol
Decacil
Elenium
Helogaphen
Ifibrium
Kalmocaps
Librax
Librelease
Librinin
Libritabs
Librium
Limbitrol
Limbitrol Ds
Lygen
Menrium
Mesural
Methaminodiazepoxide
Mildmen
Multum
Napoton
Napton
Novo-Poxide
Psicosan
Radepur
Risolid
Silibrin
Tropium
Viopsicol
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Chlordiazepoxide has antianxiety, sedative, appetite-stimulating and weak analgesic actions. The precise mechanism of action is not known. The drug blocks EEG arousal from stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. The drug has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses. Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses which did not cause sedation. Chlordiazepoxide revealed a "taming" action with the elimination of fear and aggression. The taming effect of chlordiazepoxide was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals. Mechanism of action: Chlordiazepoxide binds to stereospecific benzodiazepine (BZD) binding sites on GABA (A) receptor complexes at several sites within the central nervous system, including the limbic system and reticular formation. BZDs enhance GABA-mediated chloride influx through GABA receptor channels, causing membrane hyperpolarization. The net neuro-inhibitory effects result in the observed sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, and muscle relaxant properties. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Anti-anxiety Agents. Benzodiazepines. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
Cocaine Cocaine CHEBI:27958 Benzoylethylecgonine
Benzoylmethylecgonine
Beta-Cocain
Cocain
Cocaina
Cocaine-M
D-pseudococaine
Delcaine
Depsococaine
Dextrocaine
Eritroxilina
Erytroxylin
Isocaine
Isococain
Isococaine
L-Cocain
L-Cocaine
Methyl Benzoylecgonine
Neurocaine
Cocaine hydrochloride
Cocaine HCl
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Cocaine is a local anesthetic indicated for the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities. Mechanism of action: Cocaine produces anesthesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or by blocking conduction in peripheral nerves. This is achieved by reversibly binding to and inactivating sodium channels. Sodium influx through these channels is necessary for the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve. Cocaine is the only local anesthetic with vasoconstrictive properties. This is a result of its blockade of norepinephrine reuptake in the autonomic nervous system. Cocaine binds differentially to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and directly prevents the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. Cocaine also produces a number of indirect actions, which alter other neuromodulatory systems (i.e., opioidergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems). Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Local. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Local Anesthetics. Vasoconstrictor Agents Drug
Drug of abuse role
Codeine Codeine CHEBI:16714 Codeine anhydrous
L-Codeine
Methylmorphine
Morphine monomethyl ether
Norcodeine
N-Methyl
Norcodine
Codicept
Coducept
An opioid analgesic related to morphine but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Codeine, an opiate agonist in the CNS, is similar to other phenanthrene derivatives such as morphine. Codeine, in combination with guaifenesin or iodinated glycerol, is used as a cough suppressant and, as a single agent or in combination with acetaminophen or other products, is used for pain control and as an antidiarrheal agent. Mechanism of action: Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Codeine's analgesic activity is, most likely, due to its conversion to morphine. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Antitussive Agents. Antitussives. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists Drug
Drug of abuse role
Cyclohexyl nitrite Cyclohexyl nitrite nlx_chem_100302 An alkyl nitrite made from cyclohexanol. It acts as an antianginal. (Wikipedia) Drug of abuse role
Inhalant
Drug
Dextroamphetamine sulfate Dextroamphetamine sulfate CHEBI_51064 Dexedrine
Dextroamphetamine
(S)-amphetamine sulfate
bis{(2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine} sulfate
dexys
beans
An amphetamine sulfate that has formula C18H28N2O4S. Drug of abuse role
Drug
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan CHEBI:4470 D-Methorphan
D-Methorphan Hydrobromide
Delta-Methorphan
Demorphan
Demorphan Hydrobromide
Demorphine
Destrometerfano (Dcit)
Dextromethorfan (Czech)
Dextromethorphan Bromhydrate
Dextromethorphan Bromide
Dextrometorfano (INN-Spanish)
Dextrometorphan
Dextromorphan
Dexyromethorphan
L-Methorphan
Levomethorphan
Levomethorphan (Ban:Dcf:Inn)
Levomethorphane (INN-French)
Levomethorphanum (INN-Latin)
Levometorfano (INN-Spanish)
Antussan
Balminil DM
Benylin DM
Calmylin
Canfodion
Cosylan
Creo-Terpin
Delsym
Dormetan
Dormethan
Hihustan M
Koffex DM
Medicon
Methorate Hydrobromide
Methorphan
Metrorat
Novahistex DM
Novahistine DM
Pertussin
Pertussin DM
Robitussin
Romilar
Triaminic DM
Trocal
Tusilan
Tussade
Vicks 44
The d-isomer of the codeine analog of levorphanol. Dextromethorphan shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used antitussives, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Dextromethorphan suppresses the cough reflex by a direct action on the cough center in the medulla of the brain. Dextromethorphan shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used antitussives, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity. Mechanism of action: Dextromethorphan is an opioid-like drug that binds to and acts as antagonist to the NMDA glutamatergic receptor, it is an agonist to the opioid sigma 1 and sigma 2 receptors, it is also an alpha3/beta4 nicotinic receptor antagonist and targets the serotonin reuptake pump. Dextromethorphan is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, where it enters the bloodstream and crosses the blood-brain barrier. The first-pass through the hepatic portal vein results in some of the drug being metabolized into an active metabolite of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, the 3-hydroxy derivative of dextromethorphan. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Analgesics, Opioid. Antitussive Agents. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Drug
Drug of abuse role
Antagonist role
Diazepam Diazepam CHEBI:49575 Methyldiazepinone
Alboral
Aliseum
Alupram
Amiprol
Ansiolin
Ansiolisina
Apaurin
Apo-Diazepam
Apozepam
Armonil
Assival
Atensine
Atilen
Bensedin
Bialzepam
Calmocitene
Calmpose
Cercine
Ceregulart
Diacepan
Dialag
Dialar
Diapam
Diastat
Diazemuls
Diazemulus
Diazepam Intensol
Diazepan
Diazetard
Dienpax
Dipam
Dipezona
Dizac
Domalium
Duksen
Duxen
Evacalm
Faustan
Freudal
Frustan
Gewacalm
Gihitan
Kabivitrum
Kiatrium
Lembrol
Levium
Mandrozep
Morosan
Neurolytril
Novazam
Novo-Dipam
Paceum
Pacitran
Paranten
Paxate
Paxel
Plidan
Quetinil
Quiatril
Quievita
Relaminal
Relanium
Renborin
Ruhsitus
Saromet
Sedapam
Sedipam
Seduksen
Seduxen
Serenack
Serenamin
Serenzin
Servizepam
Setonil
Sibazon
Sibazone
Sonacon
Stesolin
Tensopam
Tranimul
Tranqdyn
Tranquase
Tranquirit
Tranquo-Puren
Tranquo-Tablinen
Umbrium
Unisedil
Usempax Ap
Valaxona
Valeo
Valiquid
Valitran
Valium
Valrelease
Vatran
Zetran
Zipan
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid activity. It is used in the treatment of severe anxiety disorders, as a hypnotic in the short-term management of insomnia, as a sedative and premedicant, as an anticonvulsant, and in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p589) Pharmacology: Diazepam, a benzodiazepine, generates the same active metabolite as chlordiazepoxide and clorazepate. In animals, diazepam appears to act on parts of the limbic system, the thalamus and hypothalamus, and induces calming effects. Diazepam, unlike chlorpromazine and reserpine, has no demonstrable peripheral autonomic blocking action, nor does it produce extrapyramidal side effects; however, animals treated with diazepam do have a transient ataxia at higher doses. Diazepam was found to have transient cardiovascular depressor effects in dogs. Long-term experiments in rats revealed no disturbances of endocrine function. Injections into animals have produced localized irritation of tissue surrounding injection sites and some thickening of veins after intravenous use. Mechanism of action: Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors which mediate sleep, affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anti-anxiety Agents. Anticonvulsants. Antiemetics. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives. Muscle Relaxants, Central Drug
Drug of abuse role
Ethanol Ethanol nlx_chem_20090205 Absolute Alcohol
Absolute Ethanol
Alcohol
Alcohol Anhydrous
Dehydrated
Diluted
Alcool Ethylique
Alcool Etilico
Alkohol
Alkoholu Etylowego
Aminoethanol
Beta-Aminoethanol
Beta-Aminoethyl Alcohol
Beta-Ethanolamine
Beta-Hydroxyethylamine
Caswell No
426
Dehydrated Ethanol
Denatured Alcohol
Denatured Ethanol
ETA
Etanolo
Ethanol 200 Proof
Ethanol Anhydrous
Ethanol Extra Pure
Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol Anhydrous
Anhydrous
Denatured
Ethyl Hydrate
Ethyl Hydroxide
Ethylol
Ethylolamine
HSDB 531
Methylcarbinol
USAF EK-1597
Aethanol
Aethylalkohol
Alcare Hand Degermer
Algrain
Anhydrol
Colamine
Denatured Alcohol Cd-10
Denatured Alcohol Cd-5
Denatured Alcohol Cd-5a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-1
Denatured Alcohol Sd-13a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-17
Denatured Alcohol Sd-23a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-28
Denatured Alcohol Sd-30
Denatured Alcohol Sd-39b
Denatured Alcohol Sd-39c
Denatured Alcohol Sd-3a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-40m
Envision Conditioner Pdd 9020
Ethanol Absolute
Ethanol Absolute Bp
Ethanol
Silent Spirit
Ethyl Alcohol & Water
10%
20%
30%
40%
5%
50%
60%
70%
80%
95%
96%
Glycinol
Jaysol
Jaysol S
Methylated Spirit Mineralised
Pyro
Reagent Alcohol
Spirit
Synasol
Tecsol
Tecsol C
Thanol
Thiofaco M-50
EtOH
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations. Mechanism of action: The sedative effects of ethanol are mediated through binding to GABA receptors and glycine receptors (alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits). In its role as an anti-infective, ethanol acts as an osmolyte or dehydrating agent that disrupts the osmotic balance across cell membranes. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anti-Infective Agents, Local. Central Nervous System Depressants. Disinfectants. Solvents Drug
Drug of abuse role
Fentanyl Fentanyl DB00813 Fentanila (INN-Spanish)
Fentanyl citrate
Fentanylum (INN-Latin)
fentanyl
Actiq
Duragesic
Duragesic-100
Durogesic
Fentanest
Fentanil
Nasalfent
Pentanyl
Phentanyl
Rapinyl
Sentonil
Sublimaze
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078) Pharmacology: Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic. Fentanyl interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. In clinical settings, Fentanyl exerts its principal pharmacologic effects on the central nervous system. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Fentanyl may increase the patient's tolerance for pain and decrease the perception of suffering, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Fentanyl depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex, and constricts the pupils. Mechanism of action: Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Fentanyl's analgesic activity is, most likely, due to its conversion to morphine. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists Drug
Drug of abuse role
Flunitrazepam Flunitrazepam DB01544 Flunitrazepamum (inn-latin)
Narcozep
Primun
Rohypnol
Roipnol
A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of diazepam that can cause anterograde amnesia. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Flunitrazepam is a powerful hypnotic drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative. It has powerful hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. The drug is sometimes used as a date rape drug. In the United States, the drug has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical use, and is considered to be an illegal drug. It has however been approved in the United Kingdom and other countries. Mechanism of action: Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to benzodiazepine receptors BNZ1, which mediates sleep, and BNZ2, which affects affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anti-anxiety Agents. Benzodiazepines. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
GHB GHB CHEBI:16724 Xyrem
gamma-hydroxybutyrate
Gamma-OH
Gamma hydroxy butyrate
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
Sodium Oxybate
4-hydroxybutanoic acid
4-hydroxybutyrate
4-hydroxybutanoate
A hydroxy monocarboxylic acid anion that has formula C4H7O3; a central nervous system (CNS) depressant that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2002 for use in the treatment of narcolepsy (a sleep disorder). GHB is also a metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA); thus, it is found naturally in the brain, but at concentrations much lower than doses that are abused. Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system depressant
Drug
Heroin Heroin CHEBI:27808 diacetyl-morphine
Diacetylmorphine
diacetylmorphine-HCl
Diacetylmorphine Hydrochloride
17-methyl-7
8-didehydro-4
5alpha-epoxymorphinan-3
6alpha-diyl diacetate
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed) Drug of abuse role
Isobutyl nitrite Isobutyl nitrite CHEBI:46643 2-methylpropyl nitrite
C4H9NO2
butyl nitrite
N-butyl nitrite
1-butyl nitrite
A nitrite ester that has formula C4H9NO2. Drug of abuse role
Inhalant
Drug
Ketamine Ketamine DB01221 (-)-Ketamine
(S)-(-)-Ketamine
(S)-Ketamine
CI 581 base
Ketamine Base
Ketamine HCL
l-Ketamine
Esketamine
Ketaject
Ketalar
Ketanest
Ketolar
Ketalar SV
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate) and may interact with sigma receptors. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression. Ketamine is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. The anesthetic state produced by Ketamine has been termed dissociative anesthesia in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways of the brain before producing somesthetic sensory blockade. It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways (reticularactivating and limbic systems). Mechanism of action: Ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, it also causes some stimulation of the cardiocascular system. Ketamine has been reported to produce general as well as local anaesthesia. It interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Analgesics. Anesthetics, Dissociative. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. General Anesthetics Drug
Drug of abuse role
LSD LSD CHEBI:6605 lysergic acid diethylamide
acid
LSD-25
Drug of abuse role
Hallucinogen
Drug
Lormetazepam Lormetazepam CHEBI_52993 7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-1
3-dihydro-2H-1
4-benzodiazepin-2-one; Lorazepam; Ativan; Loramet
A 1,4-benzodiazepinone compound having a methyl substituent at the 1-position, a hydroxy substituent at the 3-position, a 2-chlorpophenyl group at the 5-position and a chloro substituent at the 7-position. Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system depressant
Drug
MDMA MDMA CHEBI_1391 3
4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
methylenedioxy-methamphetamine
C11H15NO2
An amphetamine that has formula C11H15NO2. Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system stimulant
Drug
Marijuana Marijuana nlx_chem_100306 cannabis
THC
Any part of, or extract from, the female hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana contains cannabinoids, substances with hallucinogenic, psychoactive, and addictive properties. This agent has potential use for treating cancer pain and cachexia (NCI Thesaurus) Drug of abuse role
Drug
Mescaline Mescaline CHEBI:28346 2-(3
4
5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine
Meskalin
mescalina
mezcalina
C11H17NO3
A phenethylamine alkaloid that has formula C11H17NO3. Drug of abuse role
Hallucinogen
Drug
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine CHEBI_6809 (2S)-N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
C10H15N
An amphetamine that has formula C10H15N. Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system stimulant
Drug
Methamphetamine hydrochloride Methamphetamine hydrochloride CHEBI:35340 Desoxyn Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system stimulant
Drug
Methaqualone Methaqualone nlx_chem_100307 C16H14N2O A nonbarbiturate sedative-hypnotic, unrelated chemically to other sedatives, it is tasteless, odorless and potentially habit-forming. Drug of abuse role
Central nervous system depressant
Drug
Methaqualone hydrochloride Methaqualone hydrochloride nlx_chem_100308 Parest
Optimil
Somnafac
Drug of abuse role
Drug
Methylphenidate Methylphenidate CHEBI:6887 Methyl phenidyl acetate
Methylphenidate HCl
Methylphenidate hydrochloride
Methylphenidatum (INN-Latin)
Methylphenidylacetate hydrochloride
Metilfenidat hydrochloride
Metilfenidato (INN-Spanish)
Metilfenidato (Italian)
Phenidylate
d-methylphenidate HCl
methylphenidate
4311/B Ciba
Calocain
Centedein
Centedrin
Centedrine
Centredin
Concerta
Daytrana
Focalin
Focalin XR
Meridil
Metadate
Metadate CD
Metadate ER
Methylin
Methylin ER
Methylofenidan
Methylphen
Methylphenidan
Methypatch
PMS-Methylphenidate
Plimasine
Riphenidate
Ritalin
Ritalin LA
Ritalin SR
Ritalin hydrochloride
Ritalin-SR
Ritaline
Ritcher Works
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of dextroamphetamine. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of dextroamphetamine. Mechanism of action: Methylphenidate blocks dopamine uptake in central adrenergic neurons by blocking dopamine transport or carrier proteins. Methylphenidate acts at the brain stem arousal system and the cerebral cortex and causes increased sympathomimetic activity in the central nervous system. Alteration of serotonergic pathways via changes in dopamine transport may result. Drug type: Approved. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adrenergic Agents. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors. Central Nervous System Stimulants. Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors. Sympathomimetics Drug
Drug of abuse role
Morphine Morphine CHEBI_17303 (-)-Heroin hydrochloride
(-)-Morphine
D-(-)-Morphine
Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride
Diamorphine hydrochloride
Heroin hydrochloride
Heroine hydrochloride
Morphin
Morphina
Morphine Sulfate
Morphinum
O'-Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride
Apokyn
Astramorph PF
Avinza
Depodur
Dulcontin
Duramorph PF
Duromorph
Epimorph
Kadian
M-Eslon
MSIR
Meconium
Morfina
Morphia
Morphine Extra-Forte
Morphine Forte
Morphine H
Morphinism
Morphitec
Morphium
Moscontin
Ms Contin
Nepenthe
Oramorph SR
Ospalivina
RMS Uniserts
Rescudose
Roxanol
Roxanol 100
Roxanol UD
Statex
l-Morphine
Morphine hydrochloride
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Morphine is a narcotic pain management agent indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. In clinical settings, morphine exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Morphine appears to increase the patient's tolerance for pain and to decrease discomfort, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Opioids also produce respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. Mechanism of action: The precise mechanism of the analgesic action of morphine is unknown. However, specific CNS opiate receptors have been identified and likely play a role in the expression of analgesic effects. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation. Drug type: Approved. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists Drug
Drug of abuse role
Nandrolone Nandrolone CHEBI:7466 19NTPP
NPP
NTPP
Nadrolone Phenylpropionate
Nandrolin
Nandrolon Phenylpropionate
Nandrolone Phenylpionate
Nandrolone Phenylpropionate
Norandrolone Phenyl Propionate
Norandrostenolone Phenylpropionate
Nortestosterone Phenylpropionate
Testosterone Phenylpropionate
Activin
Deca-Durabolin
Durabol
Durabolin
FTS
Fenobolin
Nandrobolic
Nerobil
Nerobiolil
Nerobolil
Phenobolin
Strabolene
Superanabolon
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of estradiol to resemble testosterone but less one carbon at the 19 position. Pharmacology: Nandrolone is an anabolic steroid occurring naturally in the human body, albeit in small quantities. Nandrolone increases production and urinary excretion of erythropoietin. It may also have a direct action on bone marrow. Nandrolone binds to the androgen receptor to a greater degree than testosterone, but due to its inability to act on the muscle in ways unmediated by the receptor, has less overall effect on muscle growth. Mechanism of action: Nandrolone is an androgen receptor agonist. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anabolic Agents. Androgens Drug
Drug of abuse role
Nicotine Nicotine CHEBI:18723 L-Nicotine
Nicotine Alkaloid
Fumetobac
Habitrol
Nicocide
Nicoderm
Nicoderm Cq
Nicorette
Nicorette Plus
Nicotin
Nicotina
Nicotine Polacrilex
Nicotrol
Nicotrol Inhaler
Nicotrol Ns
Nikotin
Nikotyna
Nicotine bitartrate
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Nicotine, the primary alkaloid in tobacco products binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic-cholinergic receptors on autonomic ganglia, the adrenal medulla, neuromuscular junctions and in the brain. Nicotine exerts two effects, a stimulant effect exerted at the locus ceruleus and a reward effect in the limbic system. Itranvenous administration of nicotine causes release of acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonine, vasopressin, beta-endorphin and ACTH. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance. Nicotine also induces peripheral vasoconstriction, tachycardia and elevated blood pressure. Nicotine inhalers and patches are used to treat smoking withdrawl syndrome. Nicotine is classified as a stimulant of autonomic ganglia. Mechanism of action: Nicotine binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Stimulation of nicotinic receptors leads to a variety of cholinergic and adrenergic effects; tachycardia or bradycardia mediated by either stimulation or interference with sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways, stimulation of receptors in the carotic and aortic bodies, release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla, and stimulation of the chemoreceptor-trigger zone. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anti-craving Agents. Autonomic drugs. Central Nervous System Agents. Ganglionic Stimulants. Nicotinic Agonists Drug
Drug of abuse role
Cholinergic agonist role
Nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide CHEBI_17045 dinitrogen oxide
oxidodinitrogen(N--N)
A nitrogen oxide that has formula N2O. Drug of abuse role
Inhalant
Drug
Opium Opium nlx_chem_100309 Drug of abuse role
Drug
Oxandrolone Oxandrolone CHEBI:7820 Ossandrolone (DCIT)
Oxandrolona (INN-Spanish)
Oxandrolonum (INN-Latin)
oxandrolone
Anavar
Lonavar
Oxandrin
Protivar
Provitar
Vasorome
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroids indicated as adjunctive therapy to promote weight gain after weight loss following extensive surgery, chronic infections, or severe trauma, and in some patients who without definite pathophysiologic reasons fail to gain or to maintain normal weight, to offset the protein catabolism associated with prolonged administration of corticosteroids, and for the relief of the bone pain frequently accompanying osteoporosis. Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Mechanism of action: Oxandrolones interact with androgen receptors in target tissues. Drug type: Approved. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anabolic Agents. Androgens Drug
Drug of abuse role
Oxycodone hydrochloride Oxycodone hydrochloride CHEBI_7859 oxycodone HCL
Oxycontin
14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methyl-4
5alpha-epoxymorphinan-6-one hydrochloride
A hydrochloride that has formula C18H22ClNO4. Drug of abuse role
Drug
Oxymetholone Oxymetholone nlx_chem_100310 Anadrol
C21H32O3
A synthetic anabolic steroid developed by Zoltan 'Anadrol Z' F. in 1960. Its primary clinical applications include treatment of osteoporosis and anaemia, as well as stimulating muscle growth in undernourished or underdeveloped patients. (Wikipedia) Drug of abuse role
Drug
Pentobarbital Pentobarbital CHEBI:7983 Pentabarbital
Pentabarbitone
Pentobarbital Sodium
Pentobarbitone
Pentobarbiturate
Pentobarbituric acid
Sodium Pentobarbital
Dorsital
Ethaminal
Mebubarbital
Mebumal
Nebralin
Nembutal
Nembutal Sodium
Neodorm
Rivadorm
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236) Pharmacology: Pentobarbital, a barbiturate, is used for the treatment of short term insomnia. It belongs to a group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants that induce drowsiness and relieve tension or nervousness. Little analgesia is conferred by barbiturates; their use in the presence of pain may result in excitation. Mechanism of action: Pentobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged. All of these effects are associated with marked decreases in GABA-sensitive neuronal calcium conductance (gCa). The net result of barbiturate action is acute potentiation of inhibitory GABAergic tone. Barbiturates also act through potent (if less well characterized) and direct inhibition of excitatory AMPA-type glutamate receptors, resulting in a profound suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Barbiturates. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
Phencyclidine Phencyclidine nlx_chem_100311 phenylcyclohexylpiperidine Drug of abuse role
Dissociative drug
Anesthetic drug
NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) receptor antagonist
Drug
Phenobarbital Phenobarbital CHEBI:8069 Fenobarbital
Phenobarbitol
Phenobarbituric Acid
Phenylethylbarbiturate
Phenylethylbarbituric Acid
Phenylethylmalonylurea
Adonal
Aephenal
Agrypnal
Amylofene
Aphenylbarbit
Aphenyletten
Barbenyl
Barbinal
Barbiphen
Barbiphenyl
Barbipil
Barbita
Barbivis
Barbonal
Barbophen
Bardorm
Bartol
Bialminal
Blu-Phen
Cabronal
Calmetten
Calminal
Cardenal
Chinoin
Codibarbita
Coronaletta
Cratecil
Damoral
Dezibarbitur
Dormina
Dormiral
Dormital
Doscalun
Duneryl
Ensobarb
Ensodorm
Epanal
Epidorm
Epilol
Episedal
Epsylone
Eskabarb
Etilfen
Euneryl
Fenbital
Fenemal
Fenosed
Fenylettae
Gardenal
Gardepanyl
Glysoletten
Haplopan
Haplos
Helional
Hennoletten
Henotal
Hypnaletten
Hypnette
Hypno-Tablinetten
Hypnogen
Hypnolone
Hypnoltol
Hysteps
Lefebar
Leonal
Lephebar
Lepinal
Lepinaletten
Linasen
Liquital
Lixophen
Lubergal
Lubrokal
Lumen
Lumesettes
Lumesyn
Luminal
Lumofridetten
Luphenil
Luramin
Molinal
Neurobarb
Nirvonal
Noptil
Nova-Pheno
Nunol
Parkotal
Pharmetten
Phen-Bar
Phenaemal
Phenemal
Phenemalum
Phenobal
Phenobarbyl
Phenoluric
Phenolurio
Phenomet
Phenonyl
Phenoturic
Phenyletten
Phenyral
Phob
Polcominal
Promptonal
Seda-Tablinen
Sedabar
Sedicat
Sedizorin
Sedlyn
Sedofen
Sedonal
Sedonettes
Sevenal
Sinoratox
Solfoton
Solfoton Talpheno
Solu-Barb
Sombutol
Somnolens
Somnoletten
Somnosan
Somonal
Spasepilin
Starifen
Starilettae
Stental
Stental Extentabs
Talpheno
Teolaxin
Teoloxin
Thenobarbital
Theoloxin
Triabarb
Tridezibarbitur
Triphenatol
Versomnal
Zadoletten
Zadonal
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It promotes binding to inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype receptors, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Phenobarbital, the longest-acting barbiturate, is used for its anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic properties in the management of all seizure disorders except absence (petit mal). Mechanism of action: Phenobarbital acts on GABAA receptors, increasing synaptic inhibition. This has the effect of elevating seizure threshold and reducing the spread of seizure activity from a seizure focus. Phenobarbital may also inhibit calcium channels, resulting in a decrease in excitatory transmitter release. The sedative-hypnotic effects of phenobarbital are likely the result of its effect on the polysynaptic midbrain reticular formation, which controls CNS arousal. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Anticonvulsants. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
Psilocybin Psilocybin CHEBI_8614 The major hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from Psilocybe mushrooms (also known as Teonanacatl or "magic mushrooms"). Drug of abuse role
Hallucinogen
Drug
Secobarbital Secobarbital CHEBI:9073 (+/-)-Secobarbital
Secobarbital Sodium
Secobarbitale (DCIT)
Secobarbitalum (INN-Latin)
Sodium Secobarbital
Sodium quinalbarbitone
Barbosec
Bipanal
Bipinal sodium
Evronal
Evronal Sodium
Evrronal
Hypotrol
Hyptran
Imesonal
Immenoctal
Immenox
Meballymal
Meballymal sodium
Meballymalum
Novosecobarb
Pramil
Quinalbarbital
Quinalbarbitone
Quinalbarbitone sodium
Quinalspan
Sebar
Seco 8
Secobarbitone
Seconal
Sedutain
Seotal
Somosal
Synate
Trisomnin
Secobarbital (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company under the brand names Seconal and Tuinal) is a barbiturate derivative drug. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, sedative and hypnotic properties. In the United Kingdom, it was known as Quinalbarbitone. Pharmacology: Secobarbital, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli. Little analgesia is conferred by barbiturates; their use in the presence of pain may result in excitation. Mechanism of action: Secobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Barbiturates. GABA Modulators. Hypnotics and Sedatives Drug
Drug of abuse role
Testosterone Testosterone CHEBI:17347 Testosteron
Testosterona (INN-Spanish)
Testosterone Cypionate
Testosterone Enanthate
Testosterone Hydrate
Testosteronum (INN-Latin)
Testostosterone
Trans-Testosterone
testosterone
Andriol
Andro
Andro 100
Andro L
Androderm
Androgel
Android 10
Android 25
Android 5
Androlin
Andronaq
Andronate 100
Andronate 200
Andropatch
Andropository 200
Androsorb
Andrusol
Andryl 200
Beta Testosterone
CDB 111C
Cristerona T
Cristerone T
Delatest
Delatestryl
Depo-Testosterone
Depo-Testosterone Cypionate
Depotest
Everone 200
Geno-Cristaux Gremy
Homosteron
Homosterone
Libigel
Malerone
Malestrone
Malogen
Aquaspension
Mertestate
Metandren
Methyltestosterone
Neo-Hombreol F
Neo-Testis
Neotestis
Oreton
Oreton F
Oreton Methyl
Oreton-F
Orquisteron
Perandren
Percutacrine Androgenique
Primotest
Primoteston
Relibra
Scheinpharm Testone-Cyp
Striant
Sustanon
Sustanone
Sustason 250
Synandrol F
T-Cypionate
Teslen
Testamone 100
Testandrone
Testaqua
Testiculosterone
Testim
Testobase
Testoderm
Testoderm Tts
Testogel
Testoject-50
Testolin
Testopel Pellets
Testopropon
Testosteroid
Testoviron
Testoviron Schering
Testoviron T
Testred
Testred Cypionate 200
Testrin-P
A
Testro Aq
Testrone
Testryl
Virilon
Virilon IM
Virormone
Virosterone
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the leydig cells of the testis. Its production is stimulated by luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted in the testes of males and the ovaries of females although small amounts are secreted by the adrenal glands. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Examples include enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. On average, the adult male body produces about twenty times the amount of testosterone than an adult female's body does. Mechanism of action: The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects. Drug type: Approved. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Androgens Drug
Drug of abuse role
Testosterone cypionate Testosterone cypionate CHEBI_9463 3-oxoandrost-4-en-17beta-yl 3-cyclopentylpropanoate
C27H40O3
Depo- Testosterone
A sterol ester that has formula C27H40O3. Drug of abuse role
Drug
Tetrahydrocannabinol Tetrahydrocannabinol nifext_5031 delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Δ9-THC
Δ1-THC
Delta9-THC
delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol
9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol
The main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. (Wikipedia) Drug of abuse role
Drug
Triazolam Triazolam CHEBI:9674 DEA No
2887
Triazolamum (INN-Latin)
Alti-Triazolam
Apo-Triazo
Clorazolam
Gen-Triazolam
Halcion
Novidorm
Novo-Triolam
Novodorm
Songar
Withdrawn in the United Kingdom due to risk of psychiatric adverse drug reactions. This drug continues to be available in the U.S. Internationally, triazolam is a Schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Pharmacology: A short-acting benzodiazepine used as a hypnotic agent in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries. Triazolam has a shorter half-life than chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, and prazepam and does not generate active metabolites. Mechanism of action: Benzodiazepines bind nonspecifically to bezodiazepine receptors BNZ1, which mediates sleep, and BNZ2, which affects affects muscle relaxation, anticonvulsant activity, motor coordination, and memory. As benzodiazepine receptors are thought to be coupled to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors, this enhances the effects of GABA by increasing GABA affinity for the GABA receptor. Binding of GABA to the site opens the chloride channel, resulting in a hyperpolarized cell membrane that prevents further excitation of the cell. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Small Molecule. Withdrawn. Drug category: Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Anti-anxiety Agents. Benzodiazepines. GABA Modulators Drug
Drug of abuse role
Vicodin Vicodin nlx_chem_100313 is a brand mixture of two drugs: acetaminophen + hydrocodone bitartrate Drug of abuse role
Drug

Contributors

Aarnaud, Bandrow, Memartone, Mimam



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*Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information.

Facts about Drug of abuseRDF feed
CurationStatusuncurated  +
DefinitionAny substance that is defined by the national institutes of drug abuse as being an abused drug.
Idnlx_chem_1003011  +
LabelDrug of abuse  +
ModifiedDate27 October 2011  +
SuperCategoryDefined class  +
Synonymabused drug  +