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Behavioral and Experimental paradigms from BIRN, NIF, Cog Po and Cognitive Atlas.


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Definition Synonym RelatedTo Has role
Accelerating rotarod test A rotarod test in which the speed of the rotating rod is accelerated during the trial (Adapted from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotarod_performance_test) accelerated rotarod test
Acoustic startle response test Test of the acoustic startle reflex response, an exaggerated flinching response to unexpected auditory stimuli. acoustic startle
acoustic startle test
Pre-pulse inhibition paradigm
Fear-potentiated startle paradigm
Auditory function test
Action imitation task A task in which a participant sees another person perform an action and later performs the same action him-herself. Imitation can be immediate or delayed. It can be instructed or elicited implicitly (without the participantand's conscious awareness). The actions imitated can be familar-meaningful actions or unfamilar-meaningless actions.
Action observation paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which subjects view images of moving body parts (Brain Map). Action Observation
Action observation task Subjects view images of actions in order to learn the action themselves.
Acupuncture task subjects are stimulated with Chinese acupuncture (CAO). A behavioral paradigm where subjects are stimulated with Chinese acupuncture, a procedure in which thin needles are passed through the skin to specific points (BIRNLEX). acupuncture paradigm Cognitive Atlas Concept
Adult attachment interview Standardized interview used to assess developmental and attachment history.
Alternating runs paradigm A type of task-switching paradigm in which two different tasks are presented in alternating runs or blocks
Animal naming task animals are presented, usually pictorially, and participants are asked to name them aloud
Anti saccade paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which subjects fixate a target and are instructed to make a saccade in the opposite direction of a stimulus (modified from Brain Map by OTF) Anti-saccades paradigm
Antisaccade-prosaccade task Subjects view a fixation point and a visual target is presented. Subjects are instructed to make a saccade away from the target (antisaccade) or to the target (prosaccade).
Attention networks test involves presenting participants with flanker stimuli in which a target item (
Attentional blink task attentional processing of a first stimulus interferes with and-or delays the allocation of attention to a second stimulus if the second is presented before the processing of the first has been completed.
Audio-visual target-detection task This task pairs auditory and visual stimuli. Participants are asked to indicate when the paired stimuli are presented in synchrony, or to identify the locations of the stimuli among distracting visual and auditory information.
Auditory oddball paradigm An oddball discrimination paradigm that involves responding to auditory stimuli that are dissimilar to the majority of auditory stimuli presented.
Autism diagnostic observation schedule Series of structured and semi-structured tasks that involve social interaction between the examiner and the subject. Subject is given opportunities to exhibit social and communication behaviors relevant to Austism
Ax-cpt task A version of the continuous performance task in which subjects are told to make one response for the letter X when it was preceded by the letter A, and another response for all other stimuli.
Backward digit span task a test used to measure working memory, attention, concentration, and mental control. In a typical test of memory span, a list of random numbers or letters is read out loud or presented on a computer screen at the rate of one per second. The test begins with two to three numbers, increasing until the person commits errors. At the end of a sequence, the person being tested is asked to recall the items in reverse of the presented order.
Backward masking a phenomenon wherein presenting one stimulus (a and#34;maskand#34; or and#34;masking stimulusand#34;) immediately after another brief (≤ 50 ms) and#34;targetand#34; stimulus leads to a failure to consciously perceive the first stimulus.
Balloon analogue risk task (BART) On each trial, participants pump a simulated balloon without knowing when it will explode. Each pump increases the potential reward to be gained but also the probability of explosion, whichwipesoutallpotentialgains for that trial. Inmoststudies,balloonexplosionprobabilities are drawn from a uniform distribution, and participants must learn explosion probabilities through trial-and-error.
Behavioral conditioning paradigm
Behavioral investment allocation strategy (BIAS) On each trial, participants choose between two stocks (gain-loss gambles, one stochastically dominating the other) and one bond (a sure gain of $1). They must learn through trial-and-error the characteristics of the stocks, which change over blocks of trials. Feedback on payoffs of the forgone options is presented on each trial.
Behavioral rating inventory of executive function used for evaluating and planning treatment strategies for a wide spectrum of developmental and acquired neurological conditions, including learning disabilities, low birth weight, ADHD, Touretteand#39;s disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Autism; consists of 8 non-overlapping clinical scales that form two broader indexes: Behavior Regulation (three scales) and Metacognition (five scales). A Global Executive Composite score is also produced; completed by parents and teachers, is suitable for children as young as 5 years old.
Benton facial recognition test A tool used to assess deficits in facial recognition.
Birmingham object recognition battery a set of standardized procedures for assessing neuropsychological disorders of visual object recognition which includes tests to assess low-level aspects of visual perception (using same-different matching of basic perceptual features, such as orientation, length, position and object size), intermediate visual processes (e.g., matching objects different in viewpoint), access to stored perceptual knowledge about objects (object decision), access to semantic knowledge (function and associative matches) and access to names from object (picture naming).
Block design test The Block Design is a subtest of Perceptual Reasoning index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV. The Block Design test measures spatial perception, visual abstract processing, and problem solving.
Block tapping test tool used for assessment of visual short-term memory and implicit visual-spatial learning. An examiner taps a series of blocks and the subject must repeat in the correct sequential order. If the sequence is correct, the examiner adds another tap to the next sequence.
Boston naming test assesses the ability to name pictures of objects through spontaneous responses and need for various types of cueing, inferences can be drawn regarding language facility and possible localization of cerebral damage.
Braille reading task Blind subjects read Braille words with their finger(s).
Breath-holding Subjects hold their breath as examiner measures mean blood flow velocity divided by time to find the breath-holding index (BHI). Measures cerebral hemodynamic auto-regulation.
Breathhold paradigm A behavioral paradigm that requires subjects to hold their breath one or more times.
Brixton spatial anticipation test No definition submitted yet.
California verbal learning test The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is a neuropsychological test which can be used to assess an individual's verbal memory abilities. Neuropsychological assessment
California verbal learning test-ii A comprehensive and detailed assessment of verbal learning and memory available for older adolescents and adults. In addition to recall and recognition scores, it measures encoding strategies, learning rates, error types, and other process data.
Cambridge face memory test a test with high reliability and validity that assesses the ability to learn and then recognize six new faces.
Cambridge gambling task A behavioral task intended to measure risky decision making by subjects. A token is hidden under one of six boxes that are each one of two colors.Different trials have different ratios between box colors(3:3,4:2,5:1).On each trial,participants choose a color on which to bet.The color with the higher probability (more boxes) is associated with lower potential gains and lower potential losses of points than is the color with lower probability.
Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery is a computer-based cognitive assessment system consisting of a battery of neuropsychological tests, administered to subjects using a touch screen computer. The 22 tests in CANTAB examine various areas of cognitive function, including: * general memory and learning, * working memory and executive function, * visual memory, * attention and reaction time (RT), * semantic-verbal memory, * decision making and response control. The CANTAB endeavours to import the accuracy and rigour of computerised psychological testing whilst retaining the wide range of ability measures demanded of a neuropsychological battery. It is suitable for young and old subjects, and aims to be culture and language independent through the use of non-verbal stimuli in the majority of the tests.
Catbat task No definition submitted yet.
Category fluency test a psychological test in which participants have to say as many words as possible from a category in a given time (usually 60 seconds), this category can be semantic, such as animals or fruits, or phonemic, such as words that begin with letter p.
Cattell culture fair intelligence test No definition submitted yet.
Chewing-swallowing Subjects chew an oral stimulus that is not food (e.g., gum) or swallow their own saliva. If the oral stimulus is food or liquid that is swallowed, then the correct paradigm class is Eating-Drinking.
Chimeric animal stroop task A task in which participants are shown pictures of chimeric animals (such as a duckand#39;s head attached to a cowand#39;s body) and asked to name animal that the head belongs to while ignoring the identity of the body, or vice versa.
Choice reaction time task Choice reaction time tasks require distinct responses for each possible class of stimulus. For example, the subject might be asked to press one button if a red light appears and a different button if a yellow light appears.
Choice task between risky and non-risky options a choice made between two or more options when one of those options has some probability
Classical conditioning Subjects are presented with paired stimuli in an attempt to study associative learning or get a subject to react to the conditioned stimulus in the same manner as the unconditioned stimulus, demonstrating a learned association between the two.
Classical conditioning paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which subjects are presented with paired stimuli (usually involving presentation of an eye puff with an auditory tone) in an attempt to study associative learning.
Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals-3 3rd edition of an assessment used to evaluate the nature and extent of language difficulties in school children and adolescents.
Color trails test No definition submitted yet.
Color-discrimination task is a behavioral task where a subject is to make specific responses when presented with particular colors. The responses to the various colors are then evaluated to see if the subject was able to discern between different colors.
Color-word stroop task A task in which single words (including names of colors) are presented in colored ink, and the subject is asked to name the color of the ink as quickly as possible. The ink color may either match or conflict with the color name. Accuracy and response time are measured.
Complex span test No definition submitted yet.
Conditional stop signal task A task in which an external stimulus signals the participant to interrupt an already-initiated motor response, but only for a subset of possible responses.
Conditioned place preference paradigm A behavioral conditioning paradigm where the animal is presented with a positive stimulus (e.g., food or the effects of a drug of abuse) paired with placement in a distinct environment containing various cues (e.g., tactile, visual, and/or olfactory). When later tested in the normal state, measures of the preference for the compartments previously associated with the positive stimulus, e.g., approaches or amount of time spent in the compartment, serves as an indicator of preference and a measure of reward learning. This paradigm is commonly used in animal studies to evaluate preferences for environmental stimuli that have been associated with a positive or negative reward. The technique is often used to determine the addiction potential of drugs. (adapted from Wikipedia) environmental place conditioning
conditioned place preference
CPP
Conditioning paradigm
Continuous performance task A task in which subjects are presented with a stream of letters, and must respond to one of the letters and refrain from responding to any other letters.
Continuous recognition paradigm In the continuous recognition paradigm, study and test phases are not separate entities, but rather, items are continuously presented and the participant is instructed to respond to an item as and#34;oldand#34; if it has been seen before (generally presented a second time) in this continual stream of item presentation. Items that were correctly called and#34;oldand#34; are the subsequently remembered trials, and items that were and#34;missedand#34; (not called old upon second presentation) make up the subsequently forgotten trials.
Counting stroop task No definition submitted yet.
Counting-calculation Subjects count, add, subtract, multiply, or divide various stimuli (numbers, bars, dots, etc).
Covert braille reading paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which a subject reads aloud with fingers.
Covert visual reading paradigm
Cued explicit recognition Subjects view a list of items (words, pictures, sounds, or abstract patterns) prior to scanning. During scanning, probe words are presented and subject recall if the words are familiar or unfamiliar.
Cups task On each trial, participants choose between a risky and safe option. Each trial involves either gains or losses. The options are presented as a choice of cups. The risky option involves two to five cups, one containing a gain (loss) of $2, $3 or $5, and the others containing $0. If the latter option is selected, the payoff from one cup is selected at random. The safe cup offers a sure gain (loss) $1.
Deception task Subjects are asked to perform a task and either lie or be truthful in their responses.
Deductive reasoning paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which subjects are required to utilize problem-solving skills and logic to determine the correct solution; feedback is sometimes given.
Deductive reasoning task Participants generate or evaluate conclusions based on given or well-known premises.
Delayed discounting task A task for identifying preferences over tradeoffs between costs and benefits occurring at different times.
Delayed match to sample task Subjects view an item(s). After a brief delay a probe item is presented and subjects are asked to recall if the probe item was presented before the delay (during encoding). Stimuli can be words, pictures, or abstract patterns.
Delayed matching to sample paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which subjects view three or more items.. After a brief delay a probe item is presented and subjects are asked to recall if the probe item was presented in the the previous list. Stimuli can be words, pictures, or abstract patterns. If the stimuli are letters, the task is coded as a Sternberg Task.
Delayed nonmatch to sample task A task in which an target is presented and then removed from view. This target must be maintained in working memory for a delay, after which it is presented with non-target(s). The participantand#39;s task is to identify the non-target.
Delayed recall test A task in which participants are given information to remember (list of words or paragraph) and which they are asked to reproduce after some span of time.
Delayed response task No definition submitted yet. Delayed response paradigm
Devils task This task is a forerunner to the BART: on each trial, participants decide howmany of seven treasure chests to open. They are informed that six boxes contain a prize and one box contains a ‘devil’ that will cause themto lose all their potential gains on that trial. Similar to the BART, participants make sequential choices and, after opening each chest, decide whether to continue to the next chest or cash in their earnings to that point.
Dichotic listening task No definition submitted yet.
Digit cancellation task No definition submitted yet.
Digit span task A task in which participants are presented with sequentially presented digits and are then asked to recall the items. The number of digits that can be correctly recalled provides an estimate of working memory capacity.
Digit-symbol coding test a neuropsychological test sensitive to brain damage, dementia, age and depression; consists of (e.g. nine) digit-symbol pairs (e.g. 1--,2-� ... 7-Λ,8-X,9-=) followed by a list of digits. Under each digit the subject should write down the corresponding symbol as fast as possible. The number of correct symbols within the allowed time (e.g. 90 or 120 sec) is measured.
Directed forgetting task No definition submitted yet.
Divided auditory attention During the performance of an unrelated task, subjects simultaneously respond to auditory stimuli (tone or word discrimination, with or without distractors). Also often co-coded with Tone Monitor-Discrimination.
Divided auditory attention paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which the subject are asked to respond to an auditory stimuli (tone or word discrimination, with or without distractors), during the performance of an unrelated task. Also often co-coded with Tone Monitor/Discrimination.
Doors and people test Doors and People is a test of long-term memory. It yields a single age-scaled overall score which can be ‘unpacked’ to give separate measures of visual and verbal memory, recall and recognition, and forgetting.
Dot pattern expectancy task No definition submitted yet.
Drawing paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which the subject is asked to draw lines, circles or more complex figures using a pen or stylus.
Dual-task paradigm NO definition submitted yet.
Early social communications scales No definition submitted yet.
Eating paradigm Behavioral paradigm in which the subject ingests food.
Eating-drinking Subjects eat food (e.g., chocolate) or drink liquids (e.g., juice).
Elevated plus maze test A behavioral paradigm that serves as arodent model of anxiety and is also used as a screening test for putative anxiolytic or anxiogenic compounds and as a general research tool in neurobiological anxiety research. The test setting consists of a plus-shaped apparatus with two open and two enclosed arms, each with an open roof, elevated 40–70 cm from the floor. The model is based on rodents' aversion of open spaces. This aversion leads to the behavior termed thigmotaxis, which involves avoidance of open areas by confining movements to enclosed spaces or to the edges of a bounded space. In EPM this translates into a restriction of movement to the enclosed arms. Anxiety reduction in the plus-maze is indicated by an increase in the proportion of time spent in the open arms (time in open arms/total time in open or closed arms), and an increase in the proportion of entries into the open arms (entries into open arms/total entries into open or closed arms). Total number of arm entries and number of closed-arm entries are usually employed as measures of general activity. (adapted from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elevated_plus_maze) Anxiety test
Embedded figures test In the embedded Figures Test, the research participant is shown a complex background figure and asked to describe it. After this, the participant is shown a target (such as the outline of a triangle) and asked to locate the target amid the background figure.
Emotional regulation task No definition submitted yet.
Encoding paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which a subject views stimuli (words, pictures, letters) and are instructed to memorize them.
Encoding task Subjects view stimuli (words, pictures, letters) and are instructed to memorize them.
Episodic recall Subjects recall items from episodic memory (autobiographical history, long-term event memories). This class is commonly used in generating a type of emotion linked to a specific memory. This class does NOT include tasks which probe semantic memory (memory of facts or concepts) in which subjects are asked to recall stimuli that were memorized prior to scanning - those are coded as Cued Explicit Recognition.
Episodic recall paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which subjects recall items from episodic memory (autobiographical history, long-term event memories).
Eriksen flanker task A task in which participants view stimuli (typically arrows) presented one at a time and to which they must make a simple lexical response. These stimuli are surrounded by either distracting or facilitating items. Distracting items are typically associated with an opposite response (and#34;incongruentand#34; = pointing in opposite direction to target stimulus), whereas facilitating items are typically associated with the same response as the target stimulus (and#34;congruentand#34; = pointing in the same direction as the target stimulus).
Extradimensional shift task A task in which multiple (typically two) stimuli are presented simultaneously and the subject must select the stimulus that matches the currently relevant rule. The relevant rule alternates or and#34;shiftsand#34; among multiple (typically two) rules. The rule represents the relevant task and#34;dimensionand#34;. The stimulus-response mappings are unique and constant within each possible rule dimension.
Eye Saccade paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which a subject makes a rapid eye movement relative to an initial target (JB).
Face monitor-discrimination Subjects are presented with human faces and are instructed to view them passively or discriminate according to their order, gender, location, emotion, or appearance. If the subjects view the faces passively, then the experiment is NOT co-coded with Passive Viewing.
Face n-back task Task in which face stimuli are presented one at a time in a continuous stream, and the objective is to detect when the current face matches the face presented n previously (1,2, or 3 faces before).
Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence a standard instrument for assessing the intensity of physical addiction to nicotine. Smoking Rating scale
Nicotine use assessment
Cognitive Atlas Concept
Fear conditioning paradigm Classical conditioning paradigm where a painful or otherwise aversive stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus leading to the neutral stimulus provoking a state of fear.
Film viewing Subjects view movie or film clips passively or are required to make a discrimination when the clip is over.
Finger tapping task Subjects tap their fingers according to a visual, auditory, or no cue.
Fixation task Subjects fixate on a visual target.
Flashing checkerboard Subjects view a flashing checkerboard.
Flexion-extension Subjects move (flex and extend) their hands, arms, legs, feet, lips, tongue, etc.
Forced swimming paradigm A paradigm where an animal is forced to swim in a cylinder filled with water, and from which it cannot escape, for a period of time long enough to induce stress. Forced swimming test
Forward digit span task A method of short-term memory measurement in which a person listens to someone say a series of single-digit numbers and must repeat them back in the same order they were given.
Free word list recall Subjects view a list of words and after a delay are asked to freely recall the words presented.
Glasgow coma scale is a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment. A patient is assessed against the criteria of the scale, and the resulting points give a patient score between 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) and either 14 (original scale) or 15 (the more widely used modified or revised scale).
Go-no-go task A task in which stimuli are presented in a continuous stream and participants perform a binary decision on each stimulus. One of the outcomes requires participants to make a motor response (go), whereas the other requires participants to withhold a response (no-go). Accuracy and reaction time are measured for each event. Go events typically occur with higher frequency than no-go events.
Grasping task Subjects grasped or gripped a presented stimulus with their hand or mimicked grasping one that was not physically presented (i.e., was imaginary or presented as a picture or video).
Gray oral reading test - 4 measures growth in oral reading and aids in the diagnosis of oral reading difficulties. Five scores provide information on oral reading skills in terms of: Rate, accuracy, fluency, comprehension, overall reading ability, and comprehension. The test consists of two parallel forms, each containing 14 developmentally sequenced reading passages with five comprehension questions following each passage.
Haptic illusion task No definition submitted yet.
Hayling sentence completion test Participants are given the beginnings of sentences to complete. The sentences appear to have expected answers. In the first condition, participants must complete the sentence with a-the word that makes sense. In the second condition, participants are asked to complete sentences by saying semantically unrelated words, thereby making the sentence nonsensical.
Heat sensitization-adaptation A long (~ 30 seconds or more) heat stimulus is applied to the skin and the participant rates the experienced sensation continuously on a visual analogue scale
Heat stimulation A heat stimulus is applied to the skin and the participant rates the experienced sensation on a visual analogue scale
Hooper visual organization test a neuropsychological test of visual spatial ability that presents participants with a line drawing of a common object that has been broken into fragments, and asks participants to name what the object would be if reassembled.
Imagined movement Subjects imagine performing some movement (e.g., finger tapping, reaching).
Imagined objects-scenes Subject generate vivid images of objects, places, concepts, hypothetical events (not in their past), or the completion of tasks.
Immediate recall test involves presenting a subject with material that is to be memorized. Once the material is removed the subject is to immediately demonstrate everything that they remember from the material.
Inductive reasoning aptitude is a measurable aptitude for how well a person can identify a pattern within a large amount of data.
International affective picture system a database of photographs used in emotion research.
Intradimensional shift task A task in which multiple (typically two) stimuli are presented simultaneously and the subject must select the stimulus that matches the currently relevant rule. The rule represents the relevant task and#34;dimensionand#34;. The stimulus-response mappings within this dimension alternate or and#34;shiftand#34; among multiple (typically two) alternatives.
Ishihara plates for color blindness a test for red-green color deficiencies that consists of a number of colored plates, called Ishihara plates, each of which contain a circle of dots appearing randomized in color and size. Within the pattern are dots which form a number visible to those with normal color vision and invisible, or difficult to see, for those with a red-green color vision defect.
Isometric force Subjects use their hands or fingers to apply isometric force or complete a precision grip task.
Item recognition paradigm A behavioral paradigm where sets of target items are presented at the outset and the recognition of one or more of those items vs unfamiliar items is tested using a probe item.
Item recognition task No definition submitted yet.
Kanizsa figures An ambiguous figure in which the illusory contour of a square (or triangle) appears in the middle of four (or three) truncated solid squares (or circles). It is an illustration of the perceptual ability to make sense of an incomplete figure by creating a and#39;wholeand#39; image from the separate elements (Gestalt organization).
Keep-track task A task in which subjects are first shown a set of categories to keep track of for a particular trial (e.g., animals, colors, and countries). They are then presented with words (including words from each category), and must remember the last word that was presented from each of the categories and recall those words at the end of the trial.
Letter comparison No definition submitted yet.
Letter fluency test is a test that requires generation of words cued with a specific letter and depends on phonemic abilities.
Letter n-back task A task in which participants view a continuous stream of letter stimuli. The object of the task is to identify letter repetitions that occur n-trials preceding to the current stimulus.
Letter naming task Participants are presented with letters and asked to give the name for each letter as it appears or as the researcher points to it.
Letter number sequencing a task that requires the reordering of an initially unordered set of letters and numbers
Lexical decision task a procedure used in many psychology and psycholinguistics experiments; the basic procedure involves measuring how quickly people classify stimuli as words or nonwords. Subjects are presented, either visually or auditorily, with a mixture of words and pseudowords (nonsense strings that respect the phonotactic rules of a language, like trud in English). Their task is to indicate, usually with a button-press, whether the presented stimulus is a word or not.
Listening span task A task in which subjects must listen to a set of sentences and remember the last word in the sentence. The number of words that can be recalled is the and#34;listening span.and#34;
Macauthur communicative development inventory No definition submitted yet.
Matching familiar figures test No definition submitted yet.
Matching pennies game The game is played between two players, Player A and Player B. Each player has a penny and must secretly turn the penny to heads or tails. The players then reveal their choices simultaneously. If the pennies match (both heads or both tails), Player A receives one dollar from Player B (+1 for A, -1 for B). If the pennies do not match (one heads and one tails), Player B receives one dollar from Player A (-1 for A, +1 for B). This is an example of a zero-sum game, where one playerand#39;s gain is exactly equal to the other playerand#39;s loss.
Maudsley obsessive compulsive inventory assess obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the areas of contamination fears and washing behaviors, checking, slowness, and doubting using 30 dichotomously scored (true-false) items, with each pathological response receiving a score of 1.
Mechanical stimulation A mechanical stimulus is applied to the skin and the participant rates the experienced sensation on a visual analogue scale.
Memory span test No definition submitted yet.
Mental rotation task Subjects view rotated letters, numbers, or objects (2D or 3D) and indicate if they are in their normal or mirror orientation; includes variations, but all tasks include mental rotation of stimuli.
Micturition task Subjects think about voiding urine, provide urine samples, or keep a micturition diary.
Mini mental state examination (Cognitive Atlas Term) The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to screen for cognitive impairment. It is commonly used in medicine to screen for dementia. It is also used to estimate the severity of cognitive impairment at a given point in time and to follow the course of cognitive changes in an individual over time, thus making it an effective way to document an individualand#39;s response to treatment.
Mirror tracing test No definition submitted yet.
Mismatch negativity paradigm behavioral paradigm that assesses a response to non-attended stimuli which are dissimilar to the majority of stimuli presented.
Mixed gambles task Subjects are presented with gambles in which they have a 50% chance of gaining some amount of money and a 50% chance of losing some other amount of money. The subject decides whether or not they would accept the gamble. The amount of the potential gain and loss are varied across trials. Gambles are not resolved during performance of the task; after the end of the task, some gambles are chosen at random and played for real money if they were accepted.
Modified erikson scale of communication attitudes No definition submitted yet.
Morris water maze No definition submitted yet.
Motor sequencing task Participants perform several motoric tasks in a specific sequence-order.
Music comprehension-production Subjects listen to music passively or are asked to sing overtly.
N-back task A task in which items (e.g., letters) are presented one at a time and participants must identify each item that repeats relative to the item that occurred and#34;nand#34; items before its onset.
Naming (Covert) Subjects view objects (pictures, line drawings, etc.) and name them silently.
Naming (Overt) Subjects view objects (pictures, line drawings, etc.) and name them aloud.
Nine-hole peg test a timed test of fine motor coordination; the test involves the subject placing 9 dowels in 9 holes. Subjects are scored on the amount of time it takes to place and remove all 9 pegs.
Non-choice task to study expected value and uncertainty Each of 12 stimuli (circles of different colors, numbers and sizes) is associated with a different reward magnitude and probability. These include all combinations of (100 and 200) point rewards with (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) probabilities, plus 300 and 400 rewards with 0.5 probability. Participants are first trained to learn the probabilities and outcomes associated with each stimulus. Next, on each trial, a stimulus appears in one of four quadrants of the screen, and participants indicate which quadrant using a button press
Non-painful electrical stimulation Subjects are electrically stimulated at a non-painful threshold.
Non-painful thermal stimulation Subjects experience thermal stimulation (heat) at a non-painful threshold.
Nonword repetition task No definition submitted yet.
Novelty suppressed feeding test.
Object alternation task No definition submitted yet.
Object-discrimination task Participants are shown pairs or sets of objects. Experimenters then try to discern whether the participant is able to discriminate between the objects. This can be done by having subjects match identical objects to each other, having certain objects become associated with rewards and measuring accuracy, or measuring time spent observing novel objects compared to time spent observing previously seen objects.
Oculomotor delayed response a task that requires an eye movement to be made to a cued location after a delay
Oddball discrimination paradigm A behavioral paradigm that assesses a response to non-attended stimuli which are dissimilar to the majority of stimuli presented
Oddball task A task in which stimuli are presented in a continuous stream and participants must detect the presence of an oddball stimulus. The oddball is a stimulus that occurs infrequently relative to all other stimuli, and has distinct characteristics (e.g., a different tone among auditory stimuli).
Olfactory monitor-discrimination Subjects are presented with odors and are instructed to smell them passively or to discriminate according to some feature (pleasant-unpleasant, strong-weak, same-different, etc.).
Open field test A commonly used qualitative and quantitative measure of general locomotor activity and willingness to explore in rodents. Originally developed as a test of emotionality by Calvin Hall (1932). The open field is an arena with walls to prevent escape. Commonly, the field is marked with a grid, and square crossings, rearing, and time spent moving are used to assess the activity of the rodent. In the modern open field apparatus, infrared beams or video cameras with associated software can be used to automate the assessment process. The OFT is also often used to assess anxiety by including additional measures of defecation, time spent in the center of the field, and the first few minutes of activity. The relation between the OFT and other tests of exploratory activity (elevated plus maze and emergence) have been analyzed in two mouse strains. Changes in these measures are often used to assess the sedative or stimulant effects of pharmacological agents (adapted from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Field_(animal_test%)).
Operation span task A task in which subjects are asked to perform a simple mathematical verification (e.g., 4-2 +1 = 3) and then read a word, with a recall test following some number of those verify-read pairs. The maximum number of words that can be recalled is the and#34;operation spanand#34;.
Orthographic discrimination Subjects view letters and discriminate according to some feature (uppercase-lowercase, alphabetic order, same-different spelling of words, vowel-consonant, font size, etc.).
Paced auditory serial addition test No definition submitted yet.
Pain monitor-discrimination task Subjects experience thermal or electrical stimulation at a painful threshold.
Paired associate learning was invented by Mary Whiton Calkins in 1894 and involves the pairing of two items (usually words)�a stimulus and a response. For example, words such as calendar (stimulus) and shoe (response) may be paired, and when the learner is prompted with the stimulus, he responds with the appropriate word (shoe).
Paired associate recall Subjects are shown paired stimuli prior to the task. During the task, subjects are shown a single stimuli and are asked to recall the associated pair. Stimuli may be words, faces, objects, etc.
Pantomime task is when a subject is asked to explain an emotion or how an object is used by only gesturing with their hands and not using speech.
Parrott scale No definition submitted yet
Passive listening Subjects listen to various auditory stimuli and make no response. Stimuli include speech (words, sentences), noise, tones, etc. If the stimulus is tones, then the experiment is co-coded with Tone Monitor-Discrimination.
Passive viewing Subjects view various visual stimuli and make no response. Stimuli include houses, faces, objects, fractals, letter strings, line drawings, complex scenes, etc. If the presented stimuli were faces, the experiments are co-coded with Face Monitor-Discrimination. But if the presented stimuli are words, the experiments are NOT coded as Passive Viewing but rather as Reading (Covert).
Pattern comparison No definition submitted yet.
Phonological discrimination Subjects view or listen to phonemes, syllables, or words and discriminate according to some feature of their sounds (rhyming, number of syllables, homophones, etc.).
Picture naming task participants are shown pictures of objects and asked to identify the item.
Picture set test No definition submitted yet.
Picture-word stroop task No definition submitted yet.
Pitch monitor-discrimination Subjects are presented with various stimuli (human speech and non-speech vocalizations, animal vocalization, mechanical noise, etc.) and are instructed to listen to them passively (also co-coded with Passive Listening), or discriminate based on pitch (pleasant-unpleasant, same-different, duration, familiar-unfamiliar, male-female).
Place preference paradigm
Pointing Subjects look and point at a target (e.g., cursor with their arm, hand, finger, or shoulder.
Porteus maze test No definition submitted yet.
Positive and negative affect scale A psychometric scale to measure positive and negative affects in individuals, and both as states and traits. Positive affect questions assess to what extent the participant is attentive, interested, alert, excited, enthusiastic, inspired, proud, determined, strong and active. Negative affect questions assess to what extent the participant is distressed, upset, hostile, irritable, scared, afraid, ashamed, guilty, nervous, and jittery. Participants answer questions on a Likert scale where 0=very, 1=slightly or not at all, 2=a little, 3=moderately, 4=quite a bit, and 5=very much. The questionnaire asks whether participants have felt these traits and#34;during the past few weeksand#34; (trait) and and#34;during the past few daysand#34; (state).
Posner cueing task Subjects view two stimuli (boxes, letters, etc.) and are cued by an arrow to attend to one of the stimuli. Subjects then discriminate and respond (e.g., press a button when one of the boxes is filled with a diagonal cross, or press the left button for an and#34;Xand#34; and the right button for an and#34;Oand#34;).
Probabilistic classification task Subjects are presented with a set of stimuli and must classify those stimuli into one of two categories. In a common version known as the and#34;weather prediction taskand#34; the stimuli are cards with geometric shapes on them and the outcomes are rainy versus sunny weather. The feedback is probabilistic, and performance is measured by the proportion of statistically optimal responses.
Probabilistic gambling task Two cards are drawn without replacement from a deck containing cards numbered from one to ten (one of each). After the first card is presented, participants bet whether the next card will be higher or lower than the first card. Thus there is maximal risk when the first card is five or six, zero risk when it is ten or one. In later version of the task participants bet on whether the second card will be higher or lower before seeing the first card.
Probabilistic reversal learning No definition submitted yet.
Pseudoword naming task Participants are presented (usually one at a time, rather than in list form) with words and pseudowords, which are strings of letters that have no meaning in the language but are still pronounceable and asked to read aloud what they see. In pseudoword choice or decision tasks, they are asked to identify whether the items are words or not.
Pupillary light response paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which the pupillary light reflex response is measured Vision
Pursuit rotor task The pursuit rotor task is a task used in common use in the mid 20th century which involved a participant trying to follow (pursue) a small disc on a rotating turntable. Original mechanical versions had typical rotation rates of 60 RPM, which is probably too fast for mouse-controlled versions. The PEBL version offers a simple version with multiple trials and controllable parameters that can be used as a test of hand-eye coordination.
Pyramids and palm trees task a semantic memory test that presents one word or picture above two others. The participant is then asked to identify which of the bottom items best matches the top item. Semantic memory is necessary for the identification of the analogies, which link conceptually two perceptually, and functionally distinct entities.
Rapid automatized naming test and#34;Participants are required to name, as rapidly as possible, items presented visually on a chart. Each chart contains five rows of 10 stimuli from a category of five items. Categories include colors, lowercase letters, digits, and common objects. The tests are scored for total number of errors and time in seconds taken to complete each chart.and#34; - (Meyer, Wood, Hart, andamp; Felton 1998)
Rapid serial object transformation A task where two sets of differently colored superimposed patterns of dots rotate in opposite directions. The participant is asked to pay attention to on set of dots. One of the sets of dots will then move across the screen and the participant must say which direction the dots are moving.
Reading (Covert) Subjects view words, pseudo-words, Asian characters, phrases, or sentences and read them silently.
Reading (Overt) Subjects view words, pseudo-words, Asian characters, phrases, or sentences and read them aloud.
Reading paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which a subject is asked to read either silently (covert) or aloud (overt)
Reading span task A task that requires participants to read series of unconnected sentences aloud and to remember the final word of each sentence of a series (grouped according to the total number of sentences). With each sentence presented on a card, participants were cued to recall the memorized end-of-sentence words in their original order by a blank card at the end of a series. The number of sentences of a series was incrementally increased until a participantand#39;s reading span, or the maximum number of final words correctly recalled, was found. (From http:--en.wikipedia.org-wiki-Reading-span-task)
Recitation-repetition (Covert) Subjects silently repeat or recite phonemes, words, or well-known text (nursery rhymes, Pledge of Allegiance, months of the year, etc.).
Recitation-repetition (Overt) Subjects repeat or recite phonemes, words, or well-known text (nursery rhymes, Pledge of Allegiance, months of the year, etc.) aloud.
Remember-know task No definition submitted yet.
Resident-intruder paradigm A paradigm in which an animal is placed in the cage of another animal or group of animals of the same species, and allowed to interact in a manner that allows a non-lethal conflict. If animals are allowed to fight on a single occasion only, it is usually regarded as a model of acute stress; if they are allowed to fight on several different occasions, on different days, consecutive or not, it is regarded as a model of chronic stress. After the defeat or in the interval between fights, indicated by the overall behavior and submissive posture (escape, freezing, defensive upright, vocalization), the subordinate animal may also be exposed to threats from the dominant one, by having to stay in a cage or compartment beside or nearby the dominant, exposed to its visual or olfactory cues. (Adapted from Wikipedia)
Response mapping task No definition submitted yet.
Rest Subjects rest passively with their eyes open or closed. Often used as a baseline for comparison for other tasks.
Restraint paradigm A paradigm where a subject is immobilized for a period of time long enough to induce a stress response, e.g., a rat is immobilized inside sized-fit PVC tubes for 30 min.
Retrieval-induced forgetting task No definition submitted yet.
Reversal learning task
Reward task Disambiguation
Rey auditory verbal learning task No definition submitted yet.
Rey-ostereith complex figure test No definition submitted yet.
Reynell developmental language scales No definition submitted yet.
Rhyme verification task Stimuli are presented in pairs (either words or pseudowords) and the subject is asked to judge whether the pair of stimuli rhyme with one another.
Risky gains task Subjects are presented with a sequence of three numbers in ascending order (20, 40, and 80). Each number is displayed onscreen for one second and, if the subject presses a button while that number is displayed, he-she receives that number of points along with immediate positive visual and auditory feedback. When a 40 or 80 appears, however, there is a chance that it will appear in an alternate color, along with immediate negative feedback signaling a loss of 40 or 80 points, respectively. When this occurs, the trial ends immediately (i.e. the subject may not make a response).
Rivermead behavioural memory test comprises a number of subtests focused on providing objective measures of everyday memory performance in people with observed and-or reported memory difficulties.
Rotarod performance test A performance test based on a rotating rod with forced motor activity being applied, usually by a rodent. The test measures parameters such as riding time (seconds) or endurance. Some of the functions of the test include evaluating balance and coordination of the subjects (adapted from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotarod_performance_test) rotarod test Motor function test
Rubber hand illusion One hand is occluded from sight and an artificial hand is lying in front of the participant. Synchronious paint brush strokes are applied to the same fingers of the occluded hand and the artificial hand. The participant rates the sense of ownership of the artificial hand on the Ownership Illusion Questionnaire or reports the felt position of his or her own hand against a ruler (proprioceptive drift).
Salthouse and babcock listening span task Participants listen to an experimenter read a set of sentences. The participant must simultaneously respond to comprehension questions, and record or remember the last word of each sentence. The measure of and#34;listening spanand#34; is then the number of correct words recalled.
Same-different task A task which assesses shifting attention. In the computerized version of this task, three spaceships appear on a screen and the participant must determine if the spaceships are all different or all the same. The spaceships can differ in color, size, or shape type. There are three levels of difficulty. In the first level, the spaceships must all be identical to be considered the same. In the second level of difficulty, the spaceships are considered the same even if they only share two qualities, and in the third difficulty level, the spaceships only need to share one quality to be considered the same. Auditory feedback is given after each response notifying the child whether their answer was correct.
Scene recognition task No definition submitted yet.
Selective attention task involves a participant to attend to a specific stimuli in the presence of competing stimuli.
Selective stop signal task A version of the stop signal task where inhibition is contingent upon both the presence of the stop signal and the particular stimulus.
Self stimulation paradigm
Self-ordered pointing task A task in which a set of stimuli is presented, and subjects must point to one stimulus at a time, without ever pointing at the same stimulus twice.
Semantic anomaly judgement task Participants read or listen to sentences, then judge whether the sentence is plausible and makes sense semantically, or is implausible. Sentences may be structurally and gramatically correct, but the verb and noun are incompatible. Often, the structure or length of sentences varies to assess the role of working memory in any resulting deficit.
Semantic association task Participants are shown pairs of words or pictures and asked to identify if the items are semantically related.
Sensorimotor paradigm A behavioral paradigm that requires the subject respond to stimuli that are dissimilar to the majority of stimuli presented
Sentence completion test a test that provides respondents with beginnings of sentences, referred to as â€Å"stems,� and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes, beliefs, motivations, or other mental states. In a common version of this test, the Hayling Sentence Completion Test, a second condition is added, in which participants must complete the sentence with a word that makes no sense, requiring them to inhibit the semantically activated information.
Sequence recall-learning Subjects learn and-or perform a complex sequence of finger tapping, button pressing, pointing-clicking, or various other motor responses.
Serial item recognition paradigm A behavioral paradigm that involves the presentation of sets of target items and the recognition of some of those items vs unfamiliar items presented serially (probe items).
Set-shifting task A task in which participants alternate between two or more judgments typically regarding the same set of stimuli. Accuracy and reaction time are measured for each judgment.
Simon task Subjects view arrows presented in the right or left visual field that were pointing to the left or right. Subjects respond via button press as to the direction of the arrow. In incongruent stimuli, left-pointing arrows are seen on the right side, and vice versa.
Simple reaction time task task that assesses the ability of the subject to respond to an external cue and retrieve a reward.
Simple saccade paradigm A behavioral paradigm in which a subject fixate on a target and are instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a stimulus (modified from Brain Map by OTF)
Single-cycle olfactory conditioning
Social defeat paradigm A stress paradigm where a confrontation among conspecific animals is lost, or any kind of hostile dispute among humans, in either a dyadic or in a group-individual context, generating very significant consequences in terms of control over resources, access to mates and social positions. (Adapted from Wikipedia)
Source memory test Participants are shown a list or series of items (words, pictures, objects). Later, when shown an item, they are asked whether it has was shown to them before, and if they respond affirmatively, they are asked a question about the source of the item. The source question could be what the spatial location of the item was, what color it appeared in, or which list or set it belonged to.
Span-supra-span test Participants are given sequences to recall that exceed their working memory span, usually by about 2 items, however the sequence contains a smaller repeating sequence(s) among the non-repeating items.
Spatial delayed response task No definition submitted yet.
Spatial n-back task Participants view a configuration of dots and must indicate whether the dot is in the same position as the dot in the picture presented n previously (0,1,2,or 3). In some variations, participants are asked to identify the location of the dot n pictures back, rather than indicating if the current dot matches.
Spatial span test No definition submitted yet.
Spatial-location discrimination Subjects view shapes or other stimuli (letters, pictures, numbers, or arrows) and discriminate according to their location, orientation, or size.
Spielberger's state-trait anxiety questionnaire instrument used to measure trait (chronic) anxiety, a general propensity to be anxious, and state (temporary) anxiety, a temporary state varying in intensity, in adults.
Sternberg delayed recognition task Subjects view a string of letters. After a delay, a probe letter is presented and subjects indicate if the presented letter was in the previously viewed group.
Sternberg paradigm A delayed matching-to-sample paradigm that uses letters or numbers as stimuli (Sternberg S. High-speed scanning in human memory. Science. 1966 Aug 5;153(736):652-4). delayed match-to-sample paradigm
Stockings of cambridge task No definition submitted yet.
Stop signal task A task in which an external stimulus signals the participant to interrupt an already-initiated motor response.
Stress paradigm
Stroop task measures selective attention, cognitive flexibility and processing speed, and it is used as a tool in the evaluation of executive functions. (from Wikipedia) Subjects view color names presented in various ink colors and are instructed to name the color of the ink. In incongruent stimuli, color names and ink colors are non-matching. Also includes variations such as the Counting Stroop and Emotional Stroop.
Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) Axis I Disorder a diagnostic exam used to determine DSM-IV Axis I disorders (mental health disorders). It covers 6 diagnostic categories, and is often used in conjunction with an unstructured interview. The exam includes an administration booklet of questions for the examiner to ask and a scoresheet. Scores are not determined by and#34;rightand#34; or and#34;wrongand#34; answers, but by number of questions that adhere to diagnostic criteria.
Subjective emotional picture discrimination Subjects view pictures and are instructed to respond to emotional pictures, to indicate which pictures are pleasant-unpleasant or funny-not funny, or rate the valence of emotional pictures.
Sustained attention to response task No definition submitted yet.
Symbol-digit substitution DSST is a neuropsychological test sensitive to brain damage, dementia, age and depression. It isn’t sensitive to the location of brain-damage (except for damage comprising part of the visual field). It consists of (e.g. nine) digit-symbol pairs (e.g. 1--,2-� ... 7-Λ,8-X,9-=) followed by a list of digits. Under each digit the subject should write down the corresponding symbol as fast as possible. The number of correct symbols within the allowed time (e.g. 90 or 120 sec) is measured.
Symptom checklist-90-revised a relatively brief self-report psychometric instrument designed to evaluate a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology. It is also useful in measuring the progress and outcome of psychiatric and psychological treatments or for research purposes.
Synchrony judgment task Participants decide whether the unimodal cues to a crossmodal event (stimulus) were in temporal synchrony or not, i.e., whether they were and#34;in synchand#34; or and#34;out of synchand#34;.
Syntactic acceptability judgement task Also called the syntactic plausibility judgment task, this task asks participants to read sentences and indicate whether or not they are gramatically correct.
Syntactic discrimination Subjects viewed grammatically correct and incorrect sentences and discriminate according to their grammar. This class also includes morphosyntactic tasks such as gender discrimination of words.
Tactile monitor-discrimination Subjects experience tactile-somatosensory stimulation and are asked to attend passively or discriminate according to some feature (shape, texture, same-different, frequency of presentation, etc.) Also includes: subjects are presented with 3-dimensional objects and are asked to manipulate them in their hands and probe their features.
Task-switching A task in which participants alternate between two or more judgments typically regarding the same set of stimuli. Accuracy and reaction time are measured for each judgment.
Temporal discounting task refers to the tendency of people to discount rewards as they approach a temporal horizon in the future or the past (i.e., become so distant in time that they cease to be valuable or to have additive effects). To put it another way, it is a tendency to give greater value to rewards as they move away from their temporal horizons and towards the and#34;nowand#34;. For instance, a nicotine deprived smoker may highly value a cigarette available any time in the next 6 hours but assign little or no value to a cigarette available in 6 months.
Temporal order judgment task Participants decide which of two (or more) unimodal cues (e.g. audio or video) was presented first (or sometimes second) in a crossmodal stimulus. Alternatively, unimodal (auditory, visual or tactile) temporal order judgments generally involve deciding which of two spatial locations was presented first.
Test of variables of attention No definition submitted yet.
Test of word reading efficiency a nationally normed measure of word reading accuracy and fluency that provides an efficient means of monitoring the growth of two kinds of word reading skills that are critical in the development of overall reading ability: the ability to accurately recognize familiar words as whole units or â€Å"sight words� and the ability to â€Å"sound out� words quickly.
Theory of mind task Subjects are asked to perform a task involving the understanding of anotherand#39;s personal beliefs and feelings or forming hypotheses regarding the mental states of others.
Tobacco craving questionnaire a multidimensional questionnaire to assess tobacco craving. It consists of a 47-item TCQ and other forms assessing demographics, tobacco and other drug use history, quit attempts, and current mood. It represents four specific constructs that characterize craving for tobacco: (a) Emotionality, or smoking in anticipation of relief from withdrawal symptoms or negative mood, (b) expectancy, or anticipation of positive outcomes from smoking, (c) compulsivity, or an inability to control tobacco use, and (d) purposefulness, or intention and planning to smoke for positive outcomes. It is an instrument for assessing tobacco craving in individuals not attempting to reduce or quit smoking.
Tone monitor-discrimination Subjects are presented with tones and are instructed to listen to them passively (also coded as Passive Listening) or discriminate according to their order, timing, pitch, frequency, or amplitude.
Tower of hanoi No definition submitted yet.
Tower of london No definition submitted yet.
Trace conditioning a form of classical conditioning in which the presentation of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is separated in time by an interstimulus interval.
Trail making test a and b A neuropsychological test in which participants must connect-the-dots (traverse between items) according to some specified order. In Test A these items are numbers (1,2,3 etc.) and the order is determined by increasing magnitude. In Test B these items are both numbers and letters (1,2,3, A,B,C etc.) and the order is determined by a combination of increasing numbers AND letters (e.g., 1 A 2 B 3 C..) requiring participants to alternate between letters and numbers.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation Electrical current of rapidly varying intensities passes through a wire coil on the participantand#39;s head, thereby creating a magnetic field in the brain. The electrical current induced in the brain by this magnetic field then stimulates neurons to activate or inhibit them. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used as a non-invasive means of mapping localized functions within the brain, suppression of epileptic seizures, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)has been used as a treatment for depression.
Underlining test This test involves finding and underlining stimuli that are among other stimuli. There are four conditions of the test: finding and underlining letters among other letters, drawings among other drawings, real words among nonsense letter strings, and then specific nonsense words among others.
Unified parkinson's disease rating scale a rating scale used to follow the longitudinal course of Parkinson's disease, made up of the following sections: (1)evaluation of Mentation, behavior, and mood, (2)self evaluation of the activities of daily life (ADLs), (3)clinician-scored motor evaluation, (4)Hoehn and Yahr stating of severity of Parkinson disease, (5)Schwab and England ADL scale; these are evaluated by interview and clinical observation.
Uznadze haptic illusion task No definition submitted yet.
Vandenberg and kuse tasks Paper and pencil Test of mental rotation ability. Participants must are presented with four 3-D block figures and must select 2 from the group which match a reference figure. This test is administered under time contraints. A male advantage is typically seen on this type of task, as measured by test accuracy.
Vibrotactile monitor-discrimination Subjects experience vibrotactile stimulation to the hand, finger, arm, toe, or lip.
Video games Subjects play video games.
Vigilance No definition submitted yet.
Visual alignment task Participants are shown misaligned lines and asked to indicate which side the top line is offset. Alternatively, participants may be asked to complete an alignment with a pencil or digital pointer.
Visual distractor-visual attention This category is a catch-all for visuoattention paradigms. Examples include: subjects press a button when a visual target (letters, bars, circles, asterisks, LEDs, etc) appears; subjects detect changes in luminance, shape, or color of visual stimuli; subjects fixate on a central stimuli while ignoring peripheral distractors. Also includes cued, attention shift, and divided attention paradigms.
Visual oddball paradigm An oddball discrimination paradigm where subjects view letters or objects and indicate when they see a target stimulus.
Visual patterns test is a measure of short term visual memory that has been designed for use both as a clinical tool and a research instrument. In the VPT, the subject is presented with matrix patterns of black and white squares in grids of varying size and required to memorize a series of black and white checkerboard-like patterns of increasing complexity. Such matrix patterns are virtually impossible to code verbally.
Visual pursuit-tracking Subjects view a moving target(s) and track its movement across the screen. Frequently, stimuli are moving dots.
Visuospatial cueing task participants look at a computer screen and press buttons to respond to targets. In some of the trials, a visual cue will appear before the target, but in the same spot as the target.
Von Frey filament test
Warrington's face-word recognition test Also called the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (RMT), and#34;the RMT consists of the presentation of 50 printed words at the rate of one word every 3 s, and for each word the subject is required to judge the presented stimulus as and#34;pleasantand#34; or and#34;unpleasantand#34; to help ensure that they are attending to the stimulus items. The patient is then presented with a series of word pairs, and the task is to identify which of the two words came from the target list. A series of 50 faces is then presented at the same rate, and the patient is asked to provide the same pleasant versus unpleasant judgments; the patient is then presented with a series of 50 pairs of faces, and the task is again to identify which of the two faces came from the target list.and#34; - (Hermann, Connell, Barr, andamp; Wyler 1995)
Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence The WASI meets the demand for a reliable, brief measure of intellectual ability in clinical, educational and research settings for ages 6 to 89 years. With parallel forms of WAIS-IIIUK and WISC-IIIUK subtests, it offers the clinician a means of reducing practice effects on repeat testing. It yields traditional verbal, performance and full scale IQ scores and is linked to the WISC-IIIUK and WAIS-IIIUK. The WASI allows you to choose whether to use the four or two subtest format.
Wechsler adult intelligence scale - revised used with adults ages 16 to 90 and measures cognitive ability using a core battery of 10 unique subtests that focus on four specific domains of intelligence: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.
Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised a general test of intelligence, which Wechsler defined as, and#34;... the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.and#34; In keeping with this definition of intelligence as an aggregate of mental aptitudes or abilities, the WAIS-R consists of 11 subtests divided into two parts, verbal and performance.
Wechsler intelligence scale for children - revised No definition submitted yet.
Wechsler memory scale (revised) No definition submitted yet.
Whistling Subjects whistle.
Wisc-r mazes This task involves completing a series of increasingly complex mazes.
Wisconsin card sorting test The participant is presented with stimulus cards with shapes on them. The cards differ in color of the shapes, number of the shapes, and the form of the shapes. The participant is asked to sort these cards into two piles. The participant is not told what stimulus dimension to use in order to sort the cards, but the administrator tells the participant if a particular match is correct. During the test, the sorting rules are changed and the participant must discover the new sorting rule in order to be successful.
Word attack Participants must read non-words aloud. Raw scores are converted into a and#34;reading comprehension age,and#34; which is then compared to the participantand#39;s real age to determine if they are a poor or gifted reader.
Word fluency test No definition submitted yet.
Word generation task Covert: Semantic: subjects listen to or view nouns and silently generate an associated verb, or subjects view a category and silently generate as many exemplars as possible; Orthographic: subjects listen to or view a letter and silently generate as many words as possible that start with that letter; Phonologic: subjects listen to or view a word and silently generate words that rhyme. Overt: semantic: subjects listen to or view nouns and overtly generate an associated verb, or subjects view a category and overtly generate as many exemplars as possible; Orthographic: subjects listen to or view a letter and overtly generate as many words as possible that start with that letter; Phonologic: subjects listen to or view a word and overtly generate words that rhyme.
Word identification is the process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of an unknown word. Note: Word- identification skills commonly taught are phonic analysis, structural analysis, context clues, configuration clues, dictionary skills, and sometimes picture clues.
Word stem completion (Covert) Subjects view word stems and silently generate a word that completes the stem.
Word stem completion (Overt) Subjects view word stems and overtly generate a word that completes the stem.
Word-picture verification task is an experimental paradigm where a picture of an object is presented along with either an auditory or written word and participants indicate whether the word and the picture refer to the same concept. It is typically used as a test of semantic memory integrity.
Writing task Subjects write letters or words with a pen, stylus, or their finger.
Zoo map test

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