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Ventral tegmental area

Name: Ventral tegmental area
Description: Unpaired midbrain region situated in the ventromedial portion of the reticular formation. The VTA is medial to the substantia nigra and ventral to the red nucleus, and extends caudally from the posterior hypothalamus in the diencephalon. The VTA contains dopamine neurons that project to various limbic and cortical areas and is a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry.[1]
Synonym(s): ventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum, ventral tegmental area of Tsai[2]
Abbreviation: VTA
Is part of: Midbrain tegmentum[3]
Has role: addiction, motivation, cognition, attention[4]
Super-category: Regional part of brain
Id: birnlex_1415
Related to: dopamine, reward[4]
Organism: mammal
Link to OWL / RDF: Download this content as OWL/RDF
Neuronames ID ( what's this?): 512
Cyto-architecture defining Criteria: Researchers currently divide the VTA into four major zones: paranigral nucleus (PN), parabrachial pigmented area (PBP), parafasciculus retroflexus area, and ventral tegmental tail (VTT). Dopamine neurons are highly concentrated in PN and PBP, whereas they are relatively sparse in parafasciculus retroflexus area and VTT.

The VTA consists of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. These neurons exhibit both widespread cortical connections as well as local connectivity. [5]

Connectivity defining Criteria: The VTA sends information to various brain regions along five pathways: mesolimbic, mesocortical, mesostriatal, mesodiencephalic and mesorhombencephalic. The mesolimbic and mesocortical fibers are dopaminergic, project through the medial forebrain bundle and are the major output pathways of the VTA . The mesolimbic pathway innervates the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, as well as the amygdala and hippocampus. The mesocortical pathway projects to motor, sensory, limbic and polysensory association cortices, sending the most marked input to cingulate, orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortices. The VTA also sends a minor dopaminergic projection along the mesostriatal pathway. The mesorhombencephalic and mesodiencephalic are largely non-dopaminergic, with the former contacting the cerebellum and inferior olive, and the latter projecting to several thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. [6]
Brain regions that send axons into this region: Hippocampus, Brainstem, Prefrontal cortex, Amygdala [7]
Brain regions that receive axons from this region: Nucleus accumbens, Lateral Septum, Amygdala, Prefrontal cortex, Hippocampus, Locus ceruleus, Hypothalamus
Overlaps : Dopaminergic cell group A10

Neurons in Ventral tegmental area

Ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron are neurons that can be found in Ventral tegmental area or its parts.

Parts of Ventral tegmental area

Inferred outgoing projections for Ventral tegmental area

The following brain regions receive axons from Ventral tegmental area: Nucleus accumbens, Ventral pallidum. The statements about these projections are not made on this page, but rather are made on the pages linked here.

Inferred incoming projections for Ventral tegmental area

The following brain regions send axons into Ventral tegmental area: Ventral pallidum. The statements about these projections are not made on this page, but rather are made on the pages linked here.



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References

  1. Error. Invalid PMID ID number
  2. Halliday GM & Törk I (1986) Comparative anatomy of the ventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum in the rat, cat, monkey and human. J Comp Neurol 252: 423-45 PubMed
  3. Swanson LW (1982) The projections of the ventral tegmental area and adjacent regions: a combined fluorescent retrograde tracer and immunofluorescence study in the rat. Brain Res Bull 9: 321-53 PubMed
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dobi A et al. (2010) Glutamatergic and nonglutamatergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area establish local synaptic contacts with dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci 30: 218-29 PubMed
  5. et al. PubMed
  6. Oades RD & Halliday GM (1987) Ventral tegmental (A10) system: neurobiology. 1. Anatomy and connectivity. Brain Res 434: 117-65 PubMed
  7. et al. PubMed
  • Abbreviation Source: NeuroNames_abbrevSource


  • This visualization was created by the Scalable Brain Atlas group and is based on the Rhesus Monkey - Paxinos et al. 2000

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Facts about Ventral tegmental areaRDF feed
AbbrevVTA  +
AbbrevSourceNeuroNames_abbrevSource  +
AfferentProjectionsHippocampus  +, Brainstem  +, Prefrontal cortex  +, and Amygdala  +
ConnDefiningCriteriaThe VTA sends information to various brain The VTA sends information to various brain regions along five pathways: mesolimbic, mesocortical, mesostriatal, mesodiencephalic and mesorhombencephalic. The mesolimbic and mesocortical fibers are dopaminergic, project through the medial forebrain bundle and are the major output pathways of the VTA . The mesolimbic pathway innervates the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, as well as the amygdala and hippocampus. The mesocortical pathway projects to motor, sensory, limbic and polysensory association cortices, sending the most marked input to cingulate, orbitofrontal and prefrontal cortices. The VTA also sends a minor dopaminergic projection along the mesostriatal pathway. The mesorhombencephalic and mesodiencephalic are largely non-dopaminergic, with the former contacting the cerebellum and inferior olive, and the latter projecting to several thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. several thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei.
Created15 July 2006  +
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CytoDefiningCriteriaResearchers currently divide the VTA into Researchers currently divide the VTA into four major zones: paranigral nucleus (PN), parabrachial pigmented area (PBP), parafasciculus retroflexus area, and ventral tegmental tail (VTT). Dopamine neurons are highly concentrated in PN and PBP, whereas they are relatively sparse in parafasciculus retroflexus area and VTT. The VTA consists of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. These neurons exhibit both widespread cortical connections as well as local connectivity. connections as well as local connectivity.
DefinitionUnpaired midbrain region situated in the v Unpaired midbrain region situated in the ventromedial portion of the reticular formation. The VTA is medial to the substantia nigra and ventral to the red nucleus, and extends caudally from the posterior hypothalamus in the diencephalon. The VTA contains dopamine neurons that project to various limbic and cortical areas and is a critical component of the brain's reward circuitry. component of the brain's reward circuitry.
EfferentProjectionsNucleus accumbens  +, Lateral Septum  +, Amygdala  +, Prefrontal cortex  +, Hippocampus  +, Locus ceruleus  +, and Hypothalamus  +
Has default formThis property is a special property in this wiki.PONS brain region  +
Has roleAddiction  +, Motivation  +, Cognition  +, and Attention  +
Idbirnlex_1415  +
Is part ofMidbrain tegmentum  +
LabelVentral tegmental area  +
ModifiedDate27 March 2012  +
NeuronamesLinkhttp://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/Scripts/hiercentraldirectory.aspx?ID=512  +
Page has default formThis property is a special property in this wiki.PONS brain region  +
PartiallyOverlapsWithDopaminergic cell group A10  +
RelatedToDopamine  +, and Reward  +
SpeciesMammal  +
SuperCategoryRegional part of brain  +
Synonymventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum  +, and ventral tegmental area of Tsai  +
UmlscuiC0175405  +