arrow

From NeuroLex

Jump to: navigation, search



Choline

Name: Choline
Description: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. (PubChem) Pharmacology: This compound is needed for good nerve conduction throughout the CNS (central nervous system) as it is a precursor to acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Choline also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Choline has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Choline deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth. Mechanism of action: Choline is a major part of the polar head group of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine's role in the maintenance of cell membrane integrity is vital to all of the basic biological processes: information flow, intracellular communication and bioenergetics. Inadequate choline intake would negatively affect all these processes. Choline is also a major part of another membrane phospholipid, sphingomyelin, also important for the maintenance of cell structure and function. It is noteworthy and not surprising that choline deficiency in cell culture causes apoptosis or programmed cell death. This appears to be due to abnormalities in cell membrane phosphatidylcholine content and an increase in ceramide, a precursor, as well as a metabolite, of sphingomyelin. Ceramide accumulation, which is caused by choline deficiency, appears to activate Caspase, a type of enzyme that mediates apoptosis. Betaine or trimethylglycine is derived from choline via an oxidation reaction. Betaine is one of the factors that maintains low levels of homocysteine by resynthesizing L-methionine from homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, as well as other cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Acetylcholine is one of the major neurotransmitters and requires choline for its synthesis. Adequate acetylcholine levels in the brain are believed to be protective against certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Drug type: Approved. Nutraceutical. Small Molecule. Drug category: Dietary supplement. Lipotropic Agents. Micronutrient. Nootropic Agents
Synonym(s): (2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium, 2-Hydroxy-N, N, N-trimethylethanaminium, Bilineurine, Choline cation, Choline ion, Cholinum
Related to: Choline/ethanolamine kinase (Includes: Choline kinase beta, Acetylcholinesterase, Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B, Choline O-acetyltransferase, Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, Choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, High-affinity choline transporter 1, Choline kinase alpha, Choline transporter-like protein 1, Phospholipase D2, Cholinesterase, Phospholipase D1, Choline transporter-like protein 4, Choline transporter-like protein 2, Choline transporter-like protein 3, Phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase 2, Phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase, Phospholipase D4, Choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Has role: Drug
Super-category: Molecular entity
URL: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00122
Id: CHEBI_15354
Link to OWL / RDF: Download this content as OWL/RDF




bookmark
Facts about CholineRDF feed
Commenttaken from DrugBank
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00122  +
DefinitionA basic constituent of lecithin that is fo A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. (PubChem) Pharmacology: This compound is needed for good nerve conduction throughout the CNS (central nervous system) as it is a precursor to acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Choline also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Choline has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Choline deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth. Mechanism of action: Choline is a major part of the polar head group of phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine's role in the maintenance of cell membrane integrity is vital to all of the basic biological processes: information flow, intracellular communication and bioenergetics. Inadequate choline intake would negatively affect all these processes. Choline is also a major part of another membrane phospholipid, sphingomyelin, also important for the maintenance of cell structure and function. It is noteworthy and not surprising that choline deficiency in cell culture causes apoptosis or programmed cell death. This appears to be due to abnormalities in cell membrane phosphatidylcholine content and an increase in ceramide, a precursor, as well as a metabolite, of sphingomyelin. Ceramide accumulation, which is caused by choline deficiency, appears to activate Caspase, a type of enzyme that mediates apoptosis. Betaine or trimethylglycine is derived from choline via an oxidation reaction. Betaine is one of the factors that maintains low levels of homocysteine by resynthesizing L-methionine from homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine levels are a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, as well as other cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Acetylcholine is one of the major neurotransmitters and requires choline for its synthesis. Adequate acetylcholine levels in the brain are believed to be protective against certain types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Drug type: Approved. Nutraceutical. Small Molecule. Drug category: Dietary supplement. Lipotropic Agents. Micronutrient. Nootropic Agents ic Agents. Micronutrient. Nootropic Agents
Has roleDrug  +
IdCHEBI_15354  +
LabelCholine  +
ModifiedDate14 April 2014  +
RelatedToCholine/ethanolamine kinase (Includes: Choline kinase beta  +, Acetylcholinesterase  +, Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B  +, Choline O-acetyltransferase  +, Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A  +, Choline dehydrogenase  +, Mitochondrial  +, High-affinity choline transporter 1  +, Choline kinase alpha  +, Choline transporter-like protein 1  +, Phospholipase D2  +, Cholinesterase  +, Phospholipase D1  +, Choline transporter-like protein 4  +, Choline transporter-like protein 2  +, Choline transporter-like protein 3  +, Phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase 2  +, Phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase  +, Phospholipase D4  +, and Choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase  +
SuperCategoryMolecular entity  +
Synonym(2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium  +, 2-Hydroxy-N  +, N  +, N-trimethylethanaminium  +, Bilineurine  +, Choline cation  +, Choline ion  +, and Cholinum  +