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Fentanyl

Name: Fentanyl
Description: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078) Pharmacology: Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic. Fentanyl interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. In clinical settings, Fentanyl exerts its principal pharmacologic effects on the central nervous system. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Fentanyl may increase the patient's tolerance for pain and decrease the perception of suffering, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Fentanyl depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex, and constricts the pupils. Mechanism of action: Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Fentanyl's analgesic activity is, most likely, due to its conversion to morphine. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists
Synonym(s): Fentanila (INN-Spanish), Fentanyl citrate, Fentanylum (INN-Latin), fentanyl, Actiq, Duragesic, Duragesic-100, Durogesic, Fentanest, Fentanil, Nasalfent, Pentanyl, Phentanyl, Rapinyl, Sentonil, Sublimaze
Has role: Drug, Drug of abuse role
Super-category: Molecular entity
URL: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00813
Id: DB00813
Related to: Delta-type opioid receptor, Mu-type opioid receptor
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Aarnaud, Mimam, Nifbot2, Totsui



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Facts about FentanylRDF feed
Commenttaken from DrugBank
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00813  +
DefinitionA potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of whic A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078) Pharmacology: Fentanyl is an opioid analgesic. Fentanyl interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. In clinical settings, Fentanyl exerts its principal pharmacologic effects on the central nervous system. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Fentanyl may increase the patient's tolerance for pain and decrease the perception of suffering, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Fentanyl depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex, and constricts the pupils. Mechanism of action: Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Fentanyl's analgesic activity is, most likely, due to its conversion to morphine. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Drug type: Approved. Illicit. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Anesthetics. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists s, Intravenous. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists
Has roleDrug  +, and Drug of abuse role  +
IdDB00813  +
LabelFentanyl  +
ModifiedDate8 May 2010  +
RelatedToDelta-type opioid receptor  +, and Mu-type opioid receptor  +
SuperCategoryMolecular entity  +
SynonymFentanila (INN-Spanish)  +, Fentanyl citrate  +, Fentanylum (INN-Latin)  +, fentanyl  +, Actiq  +, Duragesic  +, Duragesic-100  +, Durogesic  +, Fentanest  +, Fentanil  +, Nasalfent  +, Pentanyl  +, Phentanyl  +, Rapinyl  +, Sentonil  +, and Sublimaze  +