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Glycine

Name: Glycine
Description: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system. Mechanism of action: In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS. Drug type: Approved. Nutraceutical. Small Molecule. Drug category: Dietary supplement. Glycine Agents. Micronutrient. Non-Essential Amino Acids
Synonym(s): 2-Aminoacetic acid, Aminoacetic acid, Aminoethanoic acid, Gly, Aciport, Glicoamin, Glycocoll, Glycolixir, Glycosthene, Gyn-Hydralin, Padil
Has role: Drug, Inhibitory neurotransmitter
Super-category: Amino Acid
URL: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00145
Id: CHEBI: 15428
Related to: Glycine receptor subunit beta, Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial, Glutathione synthetase, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrial, Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolic, Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrial, Glycine N-methyltransferase, 5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial, Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3, Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1, Glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunit epsilon-3, 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrial, Glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunit 3B, Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1, Glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), mitochondrial, Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2, Glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunit epsilon-1, 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial, Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1, Glycyl-tRNA synthetase, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2, SHMT2 protein, Hypothetical protein DKFZp686P09201, SHMT2 protein, Glycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrial, Bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase, N-arachidonyl glycine receptor, Glycine N-acyltransferase, Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2, Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1, Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase, Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2
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Neurons that have Glycine as their neurotransmitter

Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) cartwheel cell, Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) vertical cell, Cochlear nucleus (ventral) multipolar D cell, Retina amacrine cell, Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron Renshaw, Trapezoid body medial nucleus principal cell




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Facts about GlycineRDF feed
Commenttaken from DrugBank
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00145  +
DefinitionA non-essential amino acid. It is found pr A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process; Important in the manufacturing of hormones responsible for a strong immune system. Mechanism of action: In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission. The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Animal studies indicate that supplemental glycine protects against endotoxin-induced lethality, hypoxia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation, and D-galactosamine-mediated liver injury. Neutrophils are thought to participate in these pathologic processes via invasion of tissue and releasing such reactive oxygen species as superoxide. In vitro studies have shown that neutrophils contain a glycine-gated chloride channel that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium and diminsh neutrophil oxidant production. This research is ealy-stage, but suggests that supplementary glycine may turn out to be useful in processes where neutrophil infiltration contributes to toxicity, such as ARDS. Drug type: Approved. Nutraceutical. Small Molecule. Drug category: Dietary supplement. Glycine Agents. Micronutrient. Non-Essential Amino Acids . Micronutrient. Non-Essential Amino Acids
Has roleDrug  +, and Inhibitory neurotransmitter  +
IdCHEBI: 15428  +
LabelGlycine  +
ModifiedDate10 May 2010  +
RelatedToGlycine receptor subunit beta  +, Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2  +, Mitochondrial  +, Glutathione synthetase  +, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase  +, Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase  +, Cytosolic  +, Glycine amidinotransferase  +, Glycine N-methyltransferase  +, 5-aminolevulinate synthase  +, Nonspecific  +, Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3  +, Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1  +, Glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunit epsilon-3  +, 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase  +, Glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunit 3B  +, Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1  +, Glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)  +, Glycine receptor subunit alpha-2  +, Glutamate (NMDA) receptor subunit epsilon-1  +, Erythroid-specific  +, Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1  +, Glycyl-tRNA synthetase  +, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2  +, SHMT2 protein  +, Hypothetical protein DKFZp686P09201  +, Glycine cleavage system H protein  +, Bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase  +, N-arachidonyl glycine receptor  +, Glycine N-acyltransferase  +, Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2  +, Glycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1  +, Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter  +, Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase  +, and Sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2  +
SuperCategoryAmino Acid  +
Synonym2-Aminoacetic acid  +, Aminoacetic acid  +, Aminoethanoic acid  +, Gly  +, Aciport  +, Glicoamin  +, Glycocoll  +, Glycolixir  +, Glycosthene  +, Gyn-Hydralin  +, and Padil  +