arrow

From NeuroLex

Jump to: navigation, search



Intrinsic neuron

Name: Intrinsic neuron
Description: A neuron whose axonal projections do not leave the anatomical region in which its cell soma lies.
Synonym(s): local circuit neuron, interneuron
Super-category: Defined neuron class
Id: nlx_cell_1003113
Link to OWL / RDF: Download this content as OWL/RDF


  • This table is generated programmatically from the property "Role" assigned to members of the Neuron class. To add to this list, go to the category page for the type of neuron you are interested in adding and add "intrinsic neuron role" to the "Has role" field in the Petilla form.


  • xref: BAMSC961


This table is also available in CSV

Overview


A

B

C

D

H

M

N


Detail

Neurotransmitter Synonym Definition Located in
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex nonpyramidal PV basket cell GABA Multipolar nonpyramidal interneuron whose axon forms multiple synaptic contacts with the somata of numerous neighboring pyramidal cells. It is one of several parvalbumin-containing interneuronal subpopulations. Basolateral nuclear complex
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex nonpyramidal PV chandelier cell GABA axo-axonic interneuron Multipolar nonpyramidal interneuron whose axon forms multiple synaptic contacts with the axon initial segments of numerous neighboring pyramidal cells. It is one of several parvalbumin-containing interneuronal subpopulations. Basolateral nuclear complex
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex nonpyramidal SOM neuron GABA Somatostatin-containing nonpyramidal neuron whose axon forms synaptic contacts with the distal dendrites and spines of neighboring pyramidal cells. Although generally considered an interneuron, at least some of these cells have distant axonal projections to the substantia innominata or entorhinal cortex. A subpopulation expresses neuropeptide Y. Basolateral nuclear complex
Antennal lobe (Honey bee) interneuron GABA
Histamine
Glutamate
Antennal lobe local interneuron Interglomerular local interneurons in the antennal lobe of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Homoglomerular and heteroglomerular innervation patterns. Total of 4000 neurons, about two third GABA immunoreactive. Other transmitters possibly histamine and glutamate. Antennal lobe
Antennal lobe (Manduca) interneuron GABA multiglomerular local interneuron local interneuron in the tobacco hornworm moth, in neuronal cell groups at the border of the antennal lobe (mainly lateral group) that express various neuropeptides in subsets of LNs Antennal lobe
Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis spiny neuron with chandelier-like axon dense axon plexus forming neuron
dense axon plexus forming cell
BNST spiny neuron with chandelier-like axon
Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis oval nucleus
Cerebellum basket cell GABA Cerebellar basket cell Intrinsic cell residing in the inner third of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Axons extend laterally, transverse to the folium, and densely innervate the somata of Purkinje neurons. Axon collaterals of the basket cell axon form the specialized terminal plexus, the "pinceau", around the Purkinje cell axon initial segment. Llinas, Walton and Lang. In: The Synaptic Organization of the Brain. 5th ed. 2004. Molecular layer of cerebellar cortex
Cerebellum unipolar brush cell Glutamate Unipolar brush neuron
Unipolar brush cell
A type of cell in the cerebellar cortex, first described in 1977 by Altman and Bayer, characterized by a single dendrite ending in a small brush consisting of a number of small dendrites called dendrioles. Unipolar brush cells are found in primarily in the granular cell layer and most concentrated in lobule IX, the flocculus, the nodulus and the ventromedial zone of the paraflocculus. Their somata are larger than granule cells but smaller than Golgi cells. They are known to stain for calretinin. Granular layer of cerebellar cortex
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) cartwheel cell Glycine
GABA
Cartwheel neuron Cartwheel cell bodies lie on the superficial side of the pyramidal (or fusiform) cell layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Their spiny dendrites receive input from the axons of granule cells (parallel fibers) and their axons release GABA and glycine onto cartwheel, pyramidal and giant cell targets. Cartwheel cells share many of the features, molecular and electrophysiological, of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Somas lie at the superficial side of the pyramidal (fusiform) cell layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) unipolar brush cell Glutamate DCN glutamatergic cell
Dorsal cochlear nucleus glutamatergic cell
Unipolar brush cells are characterized by having one dendrite that terminates in a paintbrush-like structure of dendrioles that receives input from a single mossy fiber terminal. The axon usually emanates from the opposite pole, branches 1-3 times and ends in mossy terminals. They were defined by E. Mugnaini and his colleagues in the 1990s. Dorsal cochlear nucleus
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) vertical cell Glycine tuberculoventral cell
vertical cell
corn cell
Intrinsic neuron found in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, whose cell bodies and dendrites are intermingled among the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells. Their dendrites are smooth and lie in the plane of an isofrequency sheet; in sections in standard planes, parts of the dendrites are cut so they appear to be oriented vertically, perpendicular to the plane of the layers. They are inhibitory and use glycine as a neurotransmitter. Dorsal cochlear nucleus deep layer
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) multipolar D cell Glycine D multipolar cell
type II (Cant
1981)
onset-chopper responses to tones
radial stellate
wide-band inhibitor
One of two types of multipolar or stellate cells, D stellate cells are glycinergic inhibitory neurons named for having an axon that projects dorsalward into the dorsal cochlear nucleus and that exits through the intermediate acoustic stria to innervate the contralateral cochlear nucleus. Axons have widespread collaterals in the ventral cochlear nucleus and in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Ventral cochlear nucleus
Colliculus inferior intrinsic cell GABA small GABAergic (SG) neurons It is not established that there are "pure" local interneurons of which axons are restricted in the inferior colliculus (IC). However, even after a large injection of retrograde tracer into the medial geniculate body (MGB), a main target of IC projection, most small GABAergic neurons, which lack dense excitatory axosomatic terminals, were not labeled with the tracer. On the other hand, large GABAergic neurons send axons to the MGB. Inferior colliculus
Dentate gyrus mossy cell Glutamate Mossy cell
Mossy neuron
Dentate gyrus mossy neuron
Excitatory polymorphic intrinsic neuron of the dentate gyrus hilus Dentate gyrus hilus
Hippocampus CA1 ivy neuron GABA CA1 ivy cell
ivy cell
Ivy cells are highly abundant GABAergic interneurons when compared to basket, bistratified, or axo-axonic cells. "Ivy" cells are named after their dense and fine axons innervating mostly basal and oblique pyramidal cell dendrites. They express nitric oxide synthase, neuropeptide Y, and high levels of GABAa receptor aplha1 subunit and they are also identified as slow-spiking interneurons that regulate the excitability of pyramidal cell dendrites through slowly rising and decaying GABAergic inputs. CA1 stratum pyramidale
Hippocampus CA1 stratum oriens neuron vertical cells (Lacaille and williams
1990)
CA1 stratum oriens neuron is a neuron, which is characterized as an interneuron by inhibiting pyramidal cells through the activation of GABAa (Traub et al., 1987a) with soma located in CA1 stratum orines and alveus, dendrites extending into all strata (Lacaille and williams, 1990) and axons covering a wide area in the transverse direction, projecting onto basal dendrites and soma of pyramidal cells and other interneurons (Lacaille et al., 1987) in the hippocampus. CA1 stratum oriens
CA1 alveus
Hypoglossal nucleus GABA neuron GABA hypoglossal GABA neuron Neuron in hypoglossal nucleus characterized by a small spindle shaped or fusiform soma Hypoglossal nucleus
Mushroom body (Honey bee) Kenyon cell FMRFamid mushroom body intrinsic neuron A Kenyon cell is an intrinsic neuron of the mushroom body. Its cell body is situated in the soma rind of the calyx of the mushroom body. The primary neurite originates in the soma layer and projects to the calyx neuropil.Here it divides into a dendritic tree and an axon. The latter projects into the mushroom body peduncle and lobes. Soma rind
Neocortex Martinotti cell GABA Martinotti cell Neocortex layer 2
Neocortex layer 3
Neocortex layer 5
Neocortex bipolar cell Bipolar dendrite cell
Cortical bipolar cell
Neocortex
Neocortex bouquet double cell Double Bouquet Cell Type of inhibitory cortical interneuron that provides inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons. Most commonly described in primates; may be absent in rodent (DeFelipe et al., 2001). Neocortex
Neocortex primary motor area stellate layer 4 cell Glutamate This basic type of neuron in the neocortex is characterized by a spherical cell body giving rise to multiple spiny dendrites radiating in many directions. . Mostly neocortical layer 4
Neocortex stellate smooth cell Cortical Smooth Stellate Cell A non-pyramidal neuron class found primarily in layer IV of mammalian neocortex characterized by relatively smooth dendrites (While and Rock, 1980). Neocortex layer 4
Neostriatum SOM/NOS cell GABA
Somatostatin
Neuropeptide Y
striatal SOM/NOS interneuron
SOM/NOS interneuron
neostriatum SOM/NOS interneuron
LTS cell
PLTS cell
somatostatin/nitric oxide synthase interneuron
Striatum
Neostriatum cholinergic cell Acetylcholine Giant cholinergic interneuron
Striatal cholinergic interneuron
large striatal aspiny neuron
cholinergic striatal neuron
Neostriatum cholinergic interneuron
Neostriatum giant cell of Kolliker
Neostriatal cholinergic interneuron
Aspiny type 1 neuron
Large cholinergic interneuron in the caudate nucleus and putamen, extensive axon collaterals terminate on striatal medium spiny neurons Striatum
Neostriatum gaba/parvalbumin interneuron GABA GABA/parvalbumin striatal interneuron
fast-spiking interneuron
FS Cell
A type of interneuron located in the striatum that stain intensely for GABAergic markers and for parvalbumin. The cells are medium sized with round somata and smooth, sometimes varicose dendrites. The axonal arborization banches extensively and often forms baskets on the somata of the spiny neurons. Intracellular staining studies suggest that these cells may be divided into two subgroups epending on whether their dendrites and axons ramify within 100-150 um of the soma or are more extended (up to 300 um) Adapted from The Basal Ganglia, Chapter 9, Shepherd, G. M. The synaptic organization of the brain, 5th ed, New York: Oxford University Press. Striatum
Olfactory bulb (accessory) glomerular layer cell GABA
Dopamine
Glomerular layer cell
periglomerular cell
Small intrinsic neuron in the glomerular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, with cell bodies surrounding the olfactory glomerulus. Equivalent to the periglomerular cell of the main olfactory bulb, but the glomeruli are less clearly differentiated. The cell body is 6-8 um in diameter, from which arises a short bushy dendrite that arborizes within a glomerulus, where it receives synaptic input from olfactory receptor cell axon terminals, and engages in dendrodendritic interactions with mitral/tufted cell dendrites. The axon distributes laterally within the extraglomerular region. Shepherd, Chen, Greer. Olfactory bulb. In The synaptic organization of the brain, ed 5 New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Olfactory bulb
Olfactory bulb accessory nucleus
Olfactory bulb accessory glomerular layer
Olfactory bulb (accessory) granule cell GABA Accessory olfactory bulb granule neuron
Accessory olfactory bulb granule cell
The main intrinsic neuron in the accessory olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. It resembles the granule cell in the main olfactory bulb, including the lack of an axon. Each cell gives rise to short central dendrites and a single long apical dendrite that traverses the granule cell layer, pierces the mitral cell body layer, and branches and terminates within the external plexiform layer among the lateral dendrites of mitral and tufted cells. The dendrites receive synaptic input from mitral and tufted cell dendrites, and have synaptic outputs to those dendrites through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. Shepherd, Chen, Greer. Olfactory Bulb. In The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, ed 5. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. The AOB granule cells are replaced in the adult through ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone Olfactory bulb (accessory) granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb (accessory) mitral cell body layer
Olfactory bulb (main) Blanes cell GABA Blanes Cell
Olfactory bulb (main) deep short axon cell
short axon cell
Large, stellate-shaped short axon cell in the granule cell layer of the main olfactory bulb. Olfactory bulb main granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb (main) adult-born granule cell GABA The olfactory bulb adult-born granule cell is a cohort of cell that comprise a large fraction of the vertibrate olfactory bulb granule cell layer. These neurons proliferate from from the subventricular zone, migrate through the rostral migratory stream and integrate into the olfactory bulb granule cell layer. Upon arriving in the olfactory bulb granule cell layer they migrate radially outward and mature with morphologies similar to neonate olfactory bulb granule cells. This process continues throughout the adult life of the vertibrate. There is some decline in adult neurogenesis in aged vertebrates and the presence of the subventricular proliferative zone is controversial in humans Olfactory bulb main granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb (main) granule cell GABA Granule cell of olfactory bulb
Olfactory granule neuron
The main intrinsic neuron in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. It lacks an axon. Each cell gives rise to short central dendrites and a single long apical dendrite that traverses the granule cell layer, pierces the mitral cell body layer, and branches and terminates within the external plexiform layer among the lateral dendrites of mitral and tufted cells. The dendrites receive synaptic input from mitral and tufted cell lateral dendrites, and have synaptic outputs on those dendrites through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. Shepherd, Chen & Greer. Olfactory Bulb. The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, ed 5. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Olfactory bulb main granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb main mitral cell body layer
Olfactory bulb (main) periglomerular cell GABA
Dopamine
Periglomerular neuron
Olfactory bulb periglomerular cell
Small intrinsic neuron in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, with cell bodies surrounding the olfactory glomerulus. The cell body is 6-8 um in diameter, from which arises a short bushy dendrite that arborizes within a glomerulus, where it receives synaptic input from olfactory receptor cell axon terminals, and engages in dendrodendritic interactions with mitral/tufted cell dendrites. Occasionally, bitufted PG cells connected to two glomeruli are seen. The axon distributes laterally within the extraglomerular region, extending as far as 5-10 glomeruli away. Some PG cells appear to lack axons. Subtypes may be identified based on their biochemical constituents. Olfactory bulb main glomerular layer
Olfactory bulb main tufted cell external Cholecystokinin external tufted cell
olfactory bulb external tufted cell
external tufted neuron
Olfactory bulb main glomerular layer
Olfactory cortex horizontal cell GABA Horizontal cell (olfactory)
olfactory horizontal cell
Medium-size interneuron in the superficial layer I of the olfactory cortex, with dendrites oriented parallel to the surface, and axon descending to layer II. They presumably receive excitatory input from the LOT fibers and are inhibitory in layer II. Piriform cortex layer 1
Olfactory cortex
Olfactory cortex small globular cell GABA A small stellate cell with globular somata found in all layers of the piriform cortex. Olfactory cortex
Olfactory epithelium main supporting cell Glutamate sustentacular cell
supporting cell
sustentacular main olfactory epithelium supporting cell
So called supporting or sustentacular cell, that spans the depth of the olfactory epithelium, with cell bodies in an approximate layer near the surface, and microvilli extending into the overlying mucus. The cytoplasm contains large dense granules that are released into the mucus. Their electrophysiological properties are similar to those of glial cells (high membrane potential, low input resistance). They are coupled with each other through gap junctions. Olfactory epithelium middle layer
Olfactory tubercle Islets of Calleja dwarf neuron The olfactory tubercle (anterior perforated substance in primates) contains clusters of cells appearing as caps made up of small cells surrounded by pyramidal cells, identified originally as "islets of Calleja" by Calleja (1893) and summarized by Cajal (1911). Islands of Calleja
Retina Retina narrow-field AII amacrine cell This subtype of amacrine (no axon) cell "sends a thick stalk to the ON level of the inner plexiform layer where it arborizes richly to collect chemical synapses from rod bipolar terminals" (Sterling and Demb, Syn Org of the Brain, p. 223). It also has numerous gap junctions with cone ON bipolar cell terminals. Retinal inner nuclear layer
Retina amacrine cell GABA
Glycine
Dopamine
Amacrine Neuron type II
Type II Amacrine cell
Cell in the inner plexiform layer of the retina, consisting of multiple dendrites and no axon. It makes synaptic connections with bipolar cell terminals and ganglion cell dendrites, as well as other amacrine cell dendrites. Amacrine II cells have gap junctions with bipolar terminals and other amacrine cells, which are switched on for night time vision. Retina inner plexiform layer
Retina bipolar cell Glutamate Retinal Bipolar Neuron
retinal bipolar cell
Small cell in the retina with one peripheral process connecting to terminals of photoreceptors and horizontal cells and the other process connecting to dendrites of ganglion cells and amacrine cells. It provides the straight-through pathway for visual responses from photoreceptors to ganglion cells. Several varieties are related to specific processing pathways. O Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina horizontal cell GABA horizontal cell (retina) Cell in the external nuclear layer whose processes receive connections from the photoreceptors and make connections with photoreceptors and bipolar terminals in the external plexiform layer. In the cat, one type of horizontal cell has only dendrites; another type has a dendritic arborization and a long axon and large axonal arborization, each of which has independent inputs and outputs. Retina external plexiform layer
Retina midget bipolar cell Glutamate Midget cell
Retina bipolar cell midget
Small cell with short bipolar processes that transmit from cone photoreceptors to midget ganglion cells. Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor L cone cell Glutamate Retina photoreceptor cone L Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 570 nanometers, i.e. relatively long wavelengths ("L") mediating blue color, compared with green (M for medium) and blue (S for short) cones. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor M cone cell Glutamate M-cone cell
Retina photoreceptor cone M
Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 550 nanometers, i.e. relatively medium wavelengths ("M") mediating green color, compared with blue (S for short) and red (L for long) cones. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor S cone cell Glutamate Retina photoreceptor cone S Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 420 nanometers, i.e. relatively short wavelengths ("S") mediating blue color, compared with green (M for medium) and L (for red) cones. Retina photoreceptor layer
Retina photoreceptor cone cell Glutamate Cone cell
cone
retinal cone
One of the two photoreceptor cell types in the vertebrate retina. In cones the photopigment is in invaginations of the cell membrane of the outer segment. Cones are less sensitive to light than rods, but they provide vision with higher spatial and temporal acuity, and the combination of signals from cones with different pigments allows color vision. (MSH) Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor rod cell Glutamate rod cell
rod
retinal rod photoreceptor
One of the two photoreceptor cell types of the vertebrate retina. Primarily used in night vision. Rods significantly outnumber cones. The photopigment is in stacks of membranous disks separate from the outer cell membrane. Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but rod mediated vision has less spatial and temporal resolution than cone vision. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina thick dendrite horizontal cell Not known H cell One of two types of horizontal cell, it has thick dendrites and apparently no axon. It connects to other horizontal cells and to cone terminals. These cells are extensively interconnected by gap junctions (electrical synapses) as well as to cone terminals. They have wide receptive fields. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina thin dendrite horizontal cell One of two types of horizontal cell, with thin dendrites and a long very thin axon ending in a profuse arborization. There is classical evidence that the dendrite connects to cones and axon arborization connects to rods, and that the axon does not support an action potential but serves to separate the two arborizations. However, this issue is under investigation. This cell type has a narrow receptive field and connects weakly to other horizontal cells. Retinal inner nuclear layer
Spinal cord dorsal horn substantia gelatinosa islet neuron islet cell
Spinal cord substantia gelatinosa islet cell
Neuron found in substantia gelatinosa of spinal cord. Perikarya were found throughout layer II. Most of their dendrites traveled rostrocaudally. Their dendritic arbors were shaped like cylinders with their long axes parallel to the long axis of the spinal cord. Islet cell axons arborized in the immediate vicinity of their dendritic territories, within layer II.

Islet cells had one or more dendrites that demonstrated a characteristic branching pattern in which the dendrite bifurcated with one daughter branch continuing in the same direction as its parent while the other daughter branch curved back towards the perikarya.

Islet cells in deep lamina II (lamina IIb) did not respond to noxious stiumuli whereas those in lamina IIa (outer lamina II) specifically responded to noxious stimuli.
Substantia gelatinosa
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron Renshaw Glycine Renshaw cell
Renshaw interneuron
Spinal cord ventral horn
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V0 V0 interneuron Spinal cord
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V0C Acetylcholine V0c interneuron
spinal cord V0c interneuron
Spinal cord ventral horn V0 interneuron that expresses Pitx2 and use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter Spinal cord
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V1 V1 interneuron Spinal cord
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V2 V2 interneuron Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron derived from an Lhx3+ progenitor cell Spinal cord ventral horn
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V2b Type of V2 spinal cord ventral horn interneuron chacterized by GATA2/3 Spinal cord ventral horn
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V3 Glutamate V3 interneuron Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron derived from the Nkx2.2 p3 progenitor cell domain (Stepian and Arber, Neuron 60:1, 2008) Spinal cord ventral horn
Taste bud type 1 cell Unknown Tongue
Palate
Epiglottis
Taste bud type 3 cell Serotonin
GABA
Norepinephrine
Thalamus medial geniculate nucleus interneuron small GABA medial geniculate Golgi IIa cell
medial geniculate small interneuron
Type of small thalamic interneuron
Zoidberg Neuron GABA
Acetylcholine
Starburst Neuron
Starburst Amacrine Cell
n00b neuron
Zoidberg cell
The "Zoidberg Neuron" is a name for a recently mapped Starburst Amacrine Cell. The name was chosen via EyeWire, a neural mapping 'game', to any player who completed over 100 cubes. Prior to the competition, the specific neuron was known as the 'n00b neuron' by EyeWirers. However, the name was soon officially dubbed as the 'Zoidberg Neuron' during YouTube Geek Week. The name 'Zoidberg' is a reference to the Futurama character, Zoidberg.

Contributors

Memartone



bookmark
Facts about Intrinsic neuronRDF feed
CommentNote that the use of interneuron is not consistent between the invertebrate and vertebrate communities
  • xref: BAMSC961
CurationStatuspending final vetting  +
DefinitionA neuron whose axonal projections do not leave the anatomical region in which its cell soma lies.
Idnlx_cell_1003113  +
LabelIntrinsic neuron  +
ModifiedDate9 April 2010  +
SuperCategoryDefined neuron class  +
Synonymlocal circuit neuron  +, and interneuron  +