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Levamisole

Name: Levamisole
Description: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6) Pharmacology: Levamisole is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative that has been widely used in treatment of worm infestations in both humans and animals. As an anthelmintic, it probably works by targeting the nematode nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor. As an immunomodulator, it appears that Levamisole is an immunostimulant which has been shown to increase NK cells and activated T-cells in patients receiving this adjuvantly along with 5FU for Stage III colon cancer. Mechanism of action: The mechanism of action of levamisole as an antiparasitic agent appears to be tied to its agnositic activity towards the L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nematode muscles. This agonistic action reduces the capacity of the males to control their reproductive muscles and limits their ability to copulate. The mechanism of action of Levamisole as an anticancer drug in combination with fluorouracil is unknown. The effects of levamisole on the immune system are complex. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. Levamisole can stimulate formation of antibodies to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and increase neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants, Immunologic. Antinematodal Agents. Antirheumatic Agents
Synonym(s): L-Tetramisole, Levamisol (INN-Spanish), Levamisole hydrochloride, Levamisolum (INN-Latin), Phenyl imidothiazole, dl-Tetramisol, dl-Tetramisole, Ergamisol, Ketrax, LEVOMYSOL, Lepuron, Levamisol, Nilverm base, Tetramisol, Tetramisole, Tramisol, Vermisol 150, Wormicid
Has role: Drug
Super-category: Molecular entity
URL: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00848
Id: DB00848
Related to: Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63, Serum albumin, Alkaline phosphatase, placental-like
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Commenttaken from DrugBank
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00848  +
DefinitionAn antihelminthic drug that has been tried An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6) Pharmacology: Levamisole is a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative that has been widely used in treatment of worm infestations in both humans and animals. As an anthelmintic, it probably works by targeting the nematode nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor. As an immunomodulator, it appears that Levamisole is an immunostimulant which has been shown to increase NK cells and activated T-cells in patients receiving this adjuvantly along with 5FU for Stage III colon cancer. Mechanism of action: The mechanism of action of levamisole as an antiparasitic agent appears to be tied to its agnositic activity towards the L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nematode muscles. This agonistic action reduces the capacity of the males to control their reproductive muscles and limits their ability to copulate. The mechanism of action of Levamisole as an anticancer drug in combination with fluorouracil is unknown. The effects of levamisole on the immune system are complex. The drug appears to restore depressed immune function rather than to stimulate response to above-normal levels. Levamisole can stimulate formation of antibodies to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis and chemotaxis, and increase neutrophil mobility, adherence, and chemotaxis. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Adjuvants, Immunologic. Antinematodal Agents. Antirheumatic Agents Antinematodal Agents. Antirheumatic Agents
Has roleDrug  +
IdDB00848  +
LabelLevamisole  +
ModifiedDate14 April 2014  +
RelatedToAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63  +, Serum albumin  +, Alkaline phosphatase  +, and Placental-like  +
SuperCategoryMolecular entity  +
SynonymL-Tetramisole  +, Levamisol (INN-Spanish)  +, Levamisole hydrochloride  +, Levamisolum (INN-Latin)  +, Phenyl imidothiazole  +, dl-Tetramisol  +, dl-Tetramisole  +, Ergamisol  +, Ketrax  +, LEVOMYSOL  +, Lepuron  +, Levamisol  +, Nilverm base  +, Tetramisol  +, Tetramisole  +, Tramisol  +, Vermisol 150  +, and Wormicid  +