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Levodopa

Name: Levodopa
Description: An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. L-DOPA is a prodrug that is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, L-DOPA is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors. (Adapted from NCI Thesaurus) Levodopa is naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Levodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. Mechanism of action: Striatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Antidyskinetics. Antiparkinson Agents. Dopamine Agents
Synonym(s): 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, DOPA, L-DOPA, L-Dopa, L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine, Bendopa, Brocadopa, Cidandopa, Deadopa, Dopaflex, Dopaidan, Dopal, Dopal-Fher, Dopalina, Dopar, Doparkine, Doparl, Dopasol, Dopaston, Dopastral, Doprin, Eldopal, Eldopar, Eldopatec, Eurodopa, Helfo-Dopa, Insulamina, Laradopa, Larodopa, Ledopa, Levedopa, Levopa, Maipedopa, Parda, Pardopa, Prodopa, Syndopa, Veldopa, Weldopa; beta-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine; (2S)-2-amino-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid; (-)-dopa; (-)-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine; levodopum; Dopar; L-DOPA; beta-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine; L-Dopa; 3, 4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine; L-beta-(3, 4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine; Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; 3, 4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE; C9H11NO4;
Is part of: Catecholamine system
Related to: D(1A) dopamine receptor, Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, D(2) dopamine receptor, Phenylethylamine oxidase, Catechol O-methyltransferase, Dopamine
Has role: Drug, Precursor
Abbreviation: L-Dopa
Super-category: DOPA
URL: NCI Thesaurus, CHEBI, and http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01235
Id: CHEBI_15765
Link to OWL / RDF: Download this content as OWL/RDF

Categories related to Levodopa

Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase, D Dopa, Tyrosine Hydroxylase


Contributors

Ayeliset, Bandrow, Nifbot2, Zaidaziz



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Facts about LevodopaRDF feed
AbbrevL-Dopa  +
Commenttaken from DrugBank
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationNCI Thesaurus, CHEBI, and http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01235  +
DefinitionAn amino acid precursor of dopamine with a An amino acid precursor of dopamine with antiparkinsonian properties. L-DOPA is a prodrug that is converted to dopamine by DOPA decarboxylase and can cross the blood-brain barrier. When in the brain, L-DOPA is decarboxylated to dopamine and stimulates the dopaminergic receptors. (Adapted from NCI Thesaurus) Levodopa is naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Levodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. Mechanism of action: Striatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Antidyskinetics. Antiparkinson Agents. Dopamine Agents ics. Antiparkinson Agents. Dopamine Agents
Has roleDrug  +, and Precursor  +
IdCHEBI_15765  +
Is part ofCatecholamine system  +
LabelLevodopa  +
ModifiedDate11 January 2014  +
RelatedToD(1A) dopamine receptor  +, Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase  +, D(2) dopamine receptor  +, Phenylethylamine oxidase  +, Catechol O-methyltransferase  +, and Dopamine  +
SuperCategoryDOPA  +
Synonym3  +, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine  +, DOPA  +, L-DOPA  +, L-Dopa  +, L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine  +, Bendopa  +, Brocadopa  +, Cidandopa  +, Deadopa  +, Dopaflex  +, Dopaidan  +, Dopal  +, Dopal-Fher  +, Dopalina  +, Dopar  +, Doparkine  +, Doparl  +, Dopasol  +, Dopaston  +, Dopastral  +, Doprin  +, Eldopal  +, Eldopar  +, Eldopatec  +, Eurodopa  +, Helfo-Dopa  +, Insulamina  +, Laradopa  +, Larodopa  +, Ledopa  +, Levedopa  +, Levopa  +, Maipedopa  +, Parda  +, Pardopa  +, Prodopa  +, Syndopa  +, Veldopa  +, Weldopa; beta-(3  +, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine; (2S)-2-amino-3-(3  +, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid; (-)-dopa; (-)-3-(3  +, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine; levodopum; Dopar; L-DOPA; beta-(3  +, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine; L-Dopa; 3  +, 4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine; L-beta-(3  +, 4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine; Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; 3  +, and 4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE; C9H11NO4;  +