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Morphine

Name: Morphine
Description: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Morphine is a narcotic pain management agent indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. In clinical settings, morphine exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Morphine appears to increase the patient's tolerance for pain and to decrease discomfort, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Opioids also produce respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. Mechanism of action: The precise mechanism of the analgesic action of morphine is unknown. However, specific CNS opiate receptors have been identified and likely play a role in the expression of analgesic effects. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation. Drug type: Approved. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists
Synonym(s): (-)-Heroin hydrochloride, (-)-Morphine, D-(-)-Morphine, Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, Diamorphine hydrochloride, Heroin hydrochloride, Heroine hydrochloride, Morphin, Morphina, Morphine Sulfate, Morphinum, O'-Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, Apokyn, Astramorph PF, Avinza, Depodur, Dulcontin, Duramorph PF, Duromorph, Epimorph, Kadian, M-Eslon, MSIR, Meconium, Morfina, Morphia, Morphine Extra-Forte, Morphine Forte, Morphine H, Morphinism, Morphitec, Morphium, Moscontin, Ms Contin, Nepenthe, Oramorph SR, Ospalivina, RMS Uniserts, Rescudose, Roxanol, Roxanol 100, Roxanol UD, Statex, l-Morphine, Morphine hydrochloride
Related to: Delta-type opioid receptor, Kappa-type opioid receptor, Mu-type opioid receptor
Has role: Drug, Drug of abuse role
Super-category: Molecular entity
URL: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00295
Id: CHEBI_17303
Link to OWL / RDF: Download this content as OWL/RDF


Street names: O, M, S, MS/L, MS/S, P, OMS Concentrate,

Contributors

Aarnaud, Bandrow, Mimam, Nifbot2, Totsui



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Facts about MorphineRDF feed
Commenttaken from DrugBank
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00295  +
DefinitionThe principal alkaloid in opium and the pr The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle. (PubChem) Pharmacology: Morphine is a narcotic pain management agent indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas. They are also found on the terminal axons of primary afferents within laminae I and II (substantia gelatinosa) of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. In clinical settings, morphine exerts its principal pharmacological effect on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Morphine appears to increase the patient's tolerance for pain and to decrease discomfort, although the presence of the pain itself may still be recognized. In addition to analgesia, alterations in mood, euphoria and dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur. Opioids also produce respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. Mechanism of action: The precise mechanism of the analgesic action of morphine is unknown. However, specific CNS opiate receptors have been identified and likely play a role in the expression of analgesic effects. The mechanism of respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation. Drug type: Approved. Investigational. Small Molecule. Drug category: Analgesics. Analgesics, Opioid. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists gesics, Opioid. Narcotics. Opiate Agonists
Has roleDrug  +, and Drug of abuse role  +
IdCHEBI_17303  +
LabelMorphine  +
ModifiedDate24 June 2010  +
RelatedToDelta-type opioid receptor  +, Kappa-type opioid receptor  +, and Mu-type opioid receptor  +
SuperCategoryMolecular entity  +
Synonym(-)-Heroin hydrochloride  +, (-)-Morphine  +, D-(-)-Morphine  +, Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride  +, Diamorphine hydrochloride  +, Heroin hydrochloride  +, Heroine hydrochloride  +, Morphin  +, Morphina  +, Morphine Sulfate  +, Morphinum  +, O'-Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride  +, Apokyn  +, Astramorph PF  +, Avinza  +, Depodur  +, Dulcontin  +, Duramorph PF  +, Duromorph  +, Epimorph  +, Kadian  +, M-Eslon  +, MSIR  +, Meconium  +, Morfina  +, Morphia  +, Morphine Extra-Forte  +, Morphine Forte  +, Morphine H  +, Morphinism  +, Morphitec  +, Morphium  +, Moscontin  +, Ms Contin  +, Nepenthe  +, Oramorph SR  +, Ospalivina  +, RMS Uniserts  +, Rescudose  +, Roxanol  +, Roxanol 100  +, Roxanol UD  +, Statex  +, l-Morphine  +, and Morphine hydrochloride  +