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Neocortex

Name: Neocortex
Description: Part of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that has six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83) (NN) * The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is composed of NEURONS arranged in six layers. (MSH) * the newer, 6 layered portion of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization characteristic of the most highly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP)
Synonym(s): neopallium, homotypical cortex, isocortex
Is part of: Cerebral cortex
Super-category: Regional part of brain
*Id: birnlex_2547
Defining criteria: cyto-architecture
Organism: Mammal
Link to OWL / RDF: Download this content as OWL/RDF
Neuronames ID ( what's this?): 2314
Defining Criteria: cyto-architecture
Brain regions that receive axons from this region: Pons, spinal cord, striatum, thalamus

Neurons in Neocortex

Neocortex Martinotti cell, Neocortex basket cell, Neocortex bipolar cell, Neocortex bouquet double cell, Neocortex candelabrum cell, Neocortex chandelier cell, Neocortex polymorphic cell layer 5-6, Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 2-3 cell, Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 callosal cell, Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticopontine-tectal cell, Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticospinal cell, Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticostriate cell, Neocortex primary visual area pyramidal layer 2-3 cell, Neocortex primary visual layer 5 callosal cell, Neocortex primary visual layer 5 corticopontine/tectal pyramidal cell, Neocortex pyramidal cell, Neocortex pyramidal cell layer 5-6, Neocortex pyramidal layer 2-3 cell, Neocortex stellate cell, Neocortex stellate layer 4 cell, Neocortex stellate smooth cell, Neocortex stellate spiny cell are neurons that can be found in Neocortex or its parts.

Axons in Neocortex

Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 2-3 cell, Thalamus ventroposterior nucleus principal neuron are neurons or parts of neurons whose axons can be found in Neocortex or its parts.

Dendrites in Neocortex

Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 2-3 cell, Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticopontine-tectal cell, Neocortex primary visual area pyramidal layer 2-3 cell are neurons whose dendrites can be found in Neocortex or its parts.

Parts of Neocortex

Inferred outgoing projections for Neocortex

The following brain regions receive axons from Neocortex: Caudate nucleus, Dorsal nucleus of lateral geniculate body, Parafascicular nucleus, Red nucleus, Striatum, Ventral tegmental area. The statements about these projections are not made on this page, but rather are made on the pages linked here.

Inferred incoming projections for Neocortex

The following brain regions send axons into Neocortex: Claustrum, Ventral posterior nucleus, Ventral tegmental area. The statements about these projections are not made on this page, but rather are made on the pages linked here.


Notes

  • Externally Sourced Definition: * The term neocortex refers to those areas of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that have six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83) (NN) * The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is composed of NEURONS arranged in six layers. (MSH) * the newer, 6 layered portion of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization characteristic of the most highly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP)
  • The neocortex has often been considered to be the evolutionarily most recent portion of the cerebral cortex, and has been shown to have undergone disproportionate enlargement with respect to the rest of the brain in insectivora through prosimians, simians, and apes to humans (Stephan et al, 1981; Rilling and Insel, 1999). It has been widely stated that expansion of neocortex underpins the higher cognitive functions in humans, though this is an area of contention and may reflect poor understanding of phylogenetic relationships and the neural substrate underlying what is deemed intelligent behavior.
  • Stephan, H, Frahm H, Baron G. New and revised data on volumes of brain structures in insectivores and primates. Folia primatol. 35, 1–29 (1981).
  • Rilling, JK and Insel, TR. The primate neocortex in comparative perspective using magnetic resonance imagine. Journal of Human Evolution. 37, 191-223 (1999).

Subcategories

This category has only the following subcategory.

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*Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information.

Facts about NeocortexRDF feed
CommentThe neocortex has often been considered to The neocortex has often been considered to be the evolutionarily most recent portion of the cerebral cortex, and has been shown to have undergone disproportionate enlargement with respect to the rest of the brain in insectivora through prosimians, simians, and apes to humans (Stephan et al, 1981; Rilling and Insel, 1999). It has been widely stated that expansion of neocortex underpins the higher cognitive functions in humans, though this is an area of contention and may reflect poor understanding of phylogenetic relationships and the neural substrate underlying what is deemed intelligent behavior (Stephan et al., 1981; Rilling et al., 1999). ephan et al., 1981; Rilling et al., 1999).
Created28 August 2007  +
CurationStatusgraph position temporary  +
CuratorMaryann Martone  +
DefiningCriteriacyto-architecture  +
DefinitionPart of cerebral cortex defined on the bas Part of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that has six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83) (NN) * The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is composed of NEURONS arranged in six layers. (MSH) * the newer, 6 layered portion of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization characteristic of the most highly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP) hly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP)
DefinitionSourceHttp://purl.org/nbirn/birnlex/ontology/annotation/OBO annotation properties.owl  +
EditorialNoteThe term neocortex is somewhat controversi The term neocortex is somewhat controversial (see notes below) but I am in agreement with Butler and Hodos (ISBN-13: 978-0471210054; pg 58) that even though the term is not correct in an evolutionary sense, it is the preferred term for the regions of cerebral cortex that it refers, compared to others like isocortex. So I am recommending it as a preferred label for now. ommending it as a preferred label for now.
EfferentProjectionsPons  +, Spinal cord  +, Striatum  +, and Thalamus  +
ExternallySourcedDefinition* The term neocortex refers to those areas * The term neocortex refers to those areas of cerebral cortex defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture that have six layers. Starting from the cortical surface the layers are: molecular layer (I), external granular layer (II), external pyramidal layer (III), internal granular layer (IV), internal pyramidal layer (V), and multiform layer (VI). Neocortex is most prominent in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and the occipital lobe, less so in the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the insula. It is composed of two subdivisions: true isocortex and proisocortex (Carpenter-83) (NN) * The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is composed of NEURONS arranged in six layers. (MSH) * the newer, 6 layered portion of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization characteristic of the most highly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP) hly evolved type of cerebral tissue. (CSP)
Has default formThis property is a special property in this wiki.PONS brain region  +
Idbirnlex_2547  +
Is part ofCerebral cortex  +
LabelNeocortex  +
ModifiedDate23 January 2014  +
NeuronamesLinkhttp://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/centraldirectory.aspx?ID=2314  +
SpeciesMammal  +
SuperCategoryRegional part of brain  +
Synonymneopallium  +, homotypical cortex  +, and isocortex  +
UmlscuiC0175173  +