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Nitric Oxide

Name: Nitric Oxide
Description: Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants.Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant.The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color. Pharmacology: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, Nitric oxide improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2). Nitric oxide appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better entilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios. Mechanism of action: Nitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide produces pulmonary vasodilation. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Bronchodilator Agents. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors. Free Radical Scavengers
Synonym(s): Amidogen, oxo-, INOmax, Mononitrogen monoxide, NMO, NO, Nitric oxide 10% by volume or more, Nitric oxide trimer, Nitrogen monooxide, Nitrogen monoxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrosyl radical, RCRA waste number P076, nitrogen protoxide
Has role: Drug, Neurotransmitter, Gas neurotransmitter
Super-category: Molecular entity
URL: http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00435
Id: CHEBI: 16480
Related to: Atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A
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Commenttaken from DrugBank
CurationStatusuncurated  +
CuratorAb  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00435  +
DefinitionNitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a che Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. It is also a toxic air pollutant produced by automobile engines and power plants.Nitric oxide (NO) should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), a general anaesthetic, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is another poisonous air pollutant.The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity. It reacts with the ozone in air to form nitrogen dioxide, signalled by the appearance of the reddish-brown color. Pharmacology: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs as a primary developmental defect or as a condition secondary to other diseases such as meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia, sepsis, hyaline membrane disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and pulmonary hypoplasia. In these states, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is high, which results in hypoxemia secondary to right-to-left shunting of blood through the patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. In neonates with PPHN, Nitric oxide improves oxygenation (as indicated by significant increases in PaO2). Nitric oxide appears to increase the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) by dilating pulmonary vessels in better entilated areas of the lung, redistributing pulmonary blood flow away from lung regions with low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratios toward regions with normal ratios. Mechanism of action: Nitric oxide is a compound produced by many cells of the body. It relaxes vascular smooth muscle by binding to the heme moiety of cytosolic guanylate cyclase, activating guanylate cyclase and increasing intracellular levels of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which then leads to vasodilation. When inhaled, nitric oxide produces pulmonary vasodilation. Drug type: Approved. Small Molecule. Drug category: Bronchodilator Agents. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors. Free Radical Scavengers Relaxing Factors. Free Radical Scavengers
Has roleDrug  +, Neurotransmitter  +, and Gas neurotransmitter  +
IdCHEBI: 16480  +
LabelNitric Oxide  +
ModifiedDate14 April 2014  +
RelatedToAtrial natriuretic peptide receptor A  +
SuperCategoryMolecular entity  +
SynonymAmidogen  +, oxo-  +, INOmax  +, Mononitrogen monoxide  +, NMO  +, NO  +, Nitric oxide 10% by volume or more  +, Nitric oxide trimer  +, Nitrogen monooxide  +, Nitrogen monoxide  +, Nitrogen oxide  +, Nitrosyl radical  +, RCRA waste number P076  +, and nitrogen protoxide  +