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Resource:U.S. Pig Genome Project

Name: Resource:U.S. Pig Genome Project
Description: The porcine model has provided a fundamental research platform for developing human reproductive techniques and for studying reproductive diseases. Ongoing research using the pig to study cancer and diabetes are underway.

The pig has many similarities in structure and function with humans including size, feeding patterns, digestive physiology, dietary habits,
kidney structure and function, pulmonary vascular bed structure, propensity to obesity, respiratory rates and social behaviors. Since the pig is an omnivore, it provides an adaptable model to evaluate chronic and acute exposures to xenobiotics such as alcohol, tobacco, feed additives and environmental pollutants. Swine have been used as models to evaluate alcoholism, diabetes, total parenteral nutrition, organ transplantation, atherosclerosis, exercise, hypertension, melanoma, nephropathy, dermal healing, shock and degenerative retinal diseases. A severe shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation has also stimulated increased consideration of pigs as a potential solution, particularly with the recent ability to genetically modified pigs to overcome acute rejection.
Research comparing different pig breeds has identified genetic differences in fat deposition of different tissues and organs. Such
information provides an experimental model for understanding obesity and nutrition (from prenatal nutrition to aged cohorts). Porcine resource populations have been selected for phenotypic variation in bone density (osteoporosis), sex-expressed nutritional and reproductive characteristics, and growth and development (embryonic, pre- and post-natal). The porcine model will also be invaluable to study host-pathogen interactions for food safety (i.e.
Salmonella), potential biological warfare agents (African swine fever and Foot and Mouth Disease) and agents that affect food security and human health (i.e. porcine endogenous retroviruses and other zoonotic diseases). Using comparative genomics has also demonstrated new models for metabolism linked to obesity-induced diabetes.
Completion of the human genome sequence provides the starting
point for understanding the genetic complexity of humans and how genetic variation contributes to diverse phenotypes and disease. It is clear that model organisms have played an invaluable role in the synthesis of this understanding. It is also noted that additional species must be sequenced to resolve the genetic complexity of human evolution and to effectively extrapolate genetic information from comparative medicine to human medicine. Certainly the
pig has been a valuable biomedical model organism and its role will expand in the future. The pig also represents an evolutionary clade distinct from primates or rodents, and thus, provides considerable power in the analysis of human genomic sequences. The pig, a domesticated eutherian mammal, has co-evolved with humans and represents a taxa with diverse selected phenotypes. The pig has a central position in the scientific and veterinary medical communities that supports the utility of securing genome sequence information. Thus, this white paper provides scientific justification for sequencing the porcine genome to identify new genes and novel regulatory elements in the pig and in humans, mice and rats. The porcine genome will serve as a reference non-primate, non-rodent, eutherian genome. The recent ability to genetically modify the porcine genome, genetically manipulate embryonic fibroblasts, and clone genetically modified somatic cells through nuclear
transfer attests to how the pig can provide relevant genetic models. This further demonstrates the unique role the pig will play in biomedical research, hence warranting the value for genomic sequencing.

The porcine genome is uniquely positioned for genomic sequencing because of the advanced stage of the necessary reagents. A porcine BAC map with 20X coverage, constructed via an international consortium, will be fingerprinted and all fingerprinted clones end-sequenced by June, 2003. This resource will permit selection of the minimum tilling path of BAC clones to be sequenced and complement a whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach. This approach was selected since its affords increased efficiency, saving time and money, and yields a better product since the BAC map will be completed prior to initiation of genomic sequencing. Linking the sequence to the BAC clone map allows for subsequent targeted closure of the genomic sequence in regions of particular interest. This strategy is justified through the outcomes associated with the human, mouse, and rat sequencing efforts that were done in parallel with the BAC map development.
Other Name(s): U.S. Pig Genome Project
Resource Type(s): topical portal, database
Resource: Resource
URL: http://www.animalgenome.org/pigs/nagrp.html
Id: nif-0000-20986
Related to: Resource:3DVC
Keywords: embryo, embryonic, environmental, exercise, exposure, fat, feed, feeding, fibroblast, food, foot and mouth disease, function, genetic, acute, additive, alcohol, alcoholism, atherosclerosis, bed, behavior, biological, bone, breed, cancer, cell, chronic, clone, degenerative, density, deposition, dermal, developmental, diabetes, dietary, digestive, disease, genome, genomic, growth, habit, healing, human, hypertension, kidney, mammal, map, melanoma, metabolism, nephropathy, nuclear, nutrition, obesity, omnivore, organ, organism, parenteral, pathogen, pattern, phenotype, phenotypic, physiology, pig, pollutant, population, porcine, prenatal, pulmonary, reproductive, respiratory, retinal, sex, shock, size, social, somatic, structure, swine, taxon, technique, tissue, tobacco, transplantation, variation, vascular, warfare, xenobiotic, Model
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Contributors

Aarnaud, Akash, Vedelman



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Facts about Resource:U.S. Pig Genome ProjectRDF feed
CurationStatuscurated  +
DefiningCitationhttp://www.animalgenome.org/pigs/nagrp.html  +
DefinitionThe porcine model has provided a fundament The porcine model has provided a fundamental research platform for developing human reproductive techniques and for studying reproductive diseases. Ongoing research using the pig to study cancer and diabetes are underway.

The pig has many similarities in structure and function with humans including size, feeding patterns, digestive physiology, dietary habits,
kidney structure and function, pulmonary vascular bed structure, propensity to obesity, respiratory rates and social behaviors. Since the pig is an omnivore, it provides an adaptable model to evaluate chronic and acute exposures to xenobiotics such as alcohol, tobacco, feed additives and environmental pollutants. Swine have been used as models to evaluate alcoholism, diabetes, total parenteral nutrition, organ transplantation, atherosclerosis, exercise, hypertension, melanoma, nephropathy, dermal healing, shock and degenerative retinal diseases. A severe shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation has also stimulated increased consideration of pigs as a potential solution, particularly with the recent ability to genetically modified pigs to overcome acute rejection.
Research comparing different pig breeds has identified genetic differences in fat deposition of different tissues and organs. Such
information provides an experimental model for understanding obesity and nutrition (from prenatal nutrition to aged cohorts). Porcine resource populations have been selected for phenotypic variation in bone density (osteoporosis), sex-expressed nutritional and reproductive characteristics, and growth and development (embryonic, pre- and post-natal). The porcine model will also be invaluable to study host-pathogen interactions for food safety (i.e.
Salmonella), potential biological warfare agents (African swine fever and Foot and Mouth Disease) and agents that affect food security and human health (i.e. porcine endogenous retroviruses and other zoonotic diseases). Using comparative genomics has also demonstrated new models for metabolism linked to obesity-induced diabetes.
Completion of the human genome sequence provides the starting
point for understanding the genetic complexity of humans and how genetic variation contributes to diverse phenotypes and disease. It is clear that model organisms have played an invaluable role in the synthesis of this understanding. It is also noted that additional species must be sequenced to resolve the genetic complexity of human evolution and to effectively extrapolate genetic information from comparative medicine to human medicine. Certainly the
pig has been a valuable biomedical model organism and its role will expand in the future. The pig also represents an evolutionary clade distinct from primates or rodents, and thus, provides considerable power in the analysis of human genomic sequences. The pig, a domesticated eutherian mammal, has co-evolved with humans and represents a taxa with diverse selected phenotypes. The pig has a central position in the scientific and veterinary medical communities that supports the utility of securing genome sequence information. Thus, this white paper provides scientific justification for sequencing the porcine genome to identify new genes and novel regulatory elements in the pig and in humans, mice and rats. The porcine genome will serve as a reference non-primate, non-rodent, eutherian genome. The recent ability to genetically modify the porcine genome, genetically manipulate embryonic fibroblasts, and clone genetically modified somatic cells through nuclear
transfer attests to how the pig can provide relevant genetic models. This further demonstrates the unique role the pig will play in biomedical research, hence warranting the value for genomic sequencing.

The porcine genome is uniquely positioned for genomic sequencing because of the advanced stage of the necessary reagents. A porcine BAC map with 20X coverage, constructed via an international consortium, will be fingerprinted and all fingerprinted clones end-sequenced by June, 2003. This resource will permit selection of the minimum tilling path of BAC clones to be sequenced and complement a whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach. This approach was selected since its affords increased efficiency, saving time and money, and yields a better product since the BAC map will be completed prior to initiation of genomic sequencing. Linking the sequence to the BAC clone map allows for subsequent targeted closure of the genomic sequence in regions of particular interest. This strategy is justified through the outcomes associated with the human, mouse, and rat sequencing efforts that were done in parallel with the BAC map development.
rallel with the BAC map development.
Has default formThis property is a special property in this wiki.Resource  +
Has roleTopical portal  +, and Database  +
Idnif-0000-20986  +
KeywordsEmbryo  +, Embryonic  +, Environmental  +, Exercise  +, Exposure  +, Fat  +, Feed  +, Feeding  +, Fibroblast  +, Food  +, Foot and mouth disease  +, Function  +, Genetic  +, Acute  +, Additive  +, Alcohol  +, Alcoholism  +, Atherosclerosis  +, Bed  +, Behavior  +, Biological  +, Bone  +, Breed  +, Cancer  +, Cell  +, Chronic  +, Clone  +, Degenerative  +, Density  +, Deposition  +, Dermal  +, Developmental  +, Diabetes  +, Dietary  +, Digestive  +, Disease  +, Genome  +, Genomic  +, Growth  +, Habit  +, Healing  +, Human  +, Hypertension  +, Kidney  +, Mammal  +, Map  +, Melanoma  +, Metabolism  +, Nephropathy  +, Nuclear  +, Nutrition  +, Obesity  +, Omnivore  +, Organ  +, Organism  +, Parenteral  +, Pathogen  +, Pattern  +, Phenotype  +, Phenotypic  +, Physiology  +, Pig  +, Pollutant  +, Population  +, Porcine  +, Prenatal  +, Pulmonary  +, Reproductive  +, Respiratory  +, Retinal  +, Sex  +, Shock  +, Size  +, Social  +, Somatic  +, Structure  +, Swine  +, Taxon  +, Technique  +, Tissue  +, Tobacco  +, Transplantation  +, Variation  +, Vascular  +, Warfare  +, Xenobiotic  +, and Model  +
LabelResource:U.S. Pig Genome Project  +
ModifiedDate31 May 2013  +
Page has default formThis property is a special property in this wiki.Resource  +
RelatedToResource:3DVC  +
SuperCategoryResource  +
SynonymU.S. Pig Genome Project  +