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Retinal neuron

Name: Retinal neuron
Description: Neuron whose soma lies in any part of the Retina
Super-category: Defined neuron class
*Id: nlx_cell_0912008
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Id Synonym Definition Located in
Retina Off-Upsilon Ganglion Cell nlx_144269 Retina Ganglion Cell Off-Upsilon Physiologically defined Primate Ganglion Cell. Characterized by large receptive fields, highly non-linear spatial summation and highly transient OFF response to diffuse light. No known Morphological counterpart. Retina ganglion cell layer
Retina On-Midget Ganglion Cell nlx_144271 P-Cell
Retina Ganglion Cell On-Midget
Physiologically classified as the main ganglion cells with small receptive fields driven by center-On input. Matched with morphologically defined cell of extremely small dendritic arborization. As a population forms both a physical mosaic within retina as well as a receptive field mosaic of stimulus space. Both receptive field size and dendritic arborization are distinct from the corresponding Off-Midget Retina ganglion cell layer
Retina amacrine cell nifext_36 Amacrine Neuron type II
Type II Amacrine cell
Cell in the inner plexiform layer of the retina, consisting of multiple dendrites and no axon. It makes synaptic connections with bipolar cell terminals and ganglion cell dendrites, as well as other amacrine cell dendrites. Amacrine II cells have gap junctions with bipolar terminals and other amacrine cells, which are switched on for night time vision. Retina inner plexiform layer
Retina bipolar cell nifext_31 Retinal Bipolar Neuron
retinal bipolar cell
Small cell in the retina with one peripheral process connecting to terminals of photoreceptors and horizontal cells and the other process connecting to dendrites of ganglion cells and amacrine cells. It provides the straight-through pathway for visual responses from photoreceptors to ganglion cells. Several varieties are related to specific processing pathways. O Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina ganglion cell nifext_17 Retinal Ganglion Neuron
Retinal ganglion cell
The main principal neuron of the retina, whose axon projects to several sites in the brain: lateral geniculate nucleus on the pathway to visual cortex, superior colliculus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. It receives input from bipolar cells, and has synaptic inputs Retina
Retina ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell A1 BAMSC1045 retinal ganglion cell A1 Subgroup RGA1 cells (Figs. 2A, 3 to 5, Table 1) have a morphology similar to that of the giant cells of Bunt (1976). They have large somata, often polygonal in shape, from which a medium to to large to gauge axon emerges (Figs. 2A, 3). In one instance, a bifucarting axon was seen to exit the soma (see Fig. 3A). The large dendritic fields of RGA1 cells consist of three to seven stout dendrites that emerge radially from a centrally placed soma. The dendrites are smooth and overlap infrequently (Figs. 2, 3). RGA1 cells are found across the retina (Figs. 5, 6)and, on average, have the largest dendritic fields of all the RGCs labelled. RGA1 cells exhibited tracer coupling...they were strongly coupled to at least ten neurons (large to bodied gnalgion cells and some presumed amacrine cells to the latter gad very small somata and were found both the GCL and the INL; Fig.5). We classified cells with a large soma and a large dendritic field as RGA, cells with a small to to medium to sized soma and a small to to medium to sized dendritic field as RGB, and cells with a small to to medium to sized soma but a medium to to to large dendritic field RGC. Seventy five RGA cells were identified. RGA cells had an average soma diameter of 23.4 micrometers, an average dendritic to field diameter of 300.0 micrometers, and a radial pattern of branching. They are similar to Perry type I cells (Perry, 1979). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell A2 inner BAMSC1061 retinal ganglion cell A2 inner As Huxlin and Goodchild (1997), we identified two groups of RGA2 cells with dendrites stratifying in the inner and outer IPL (Table 1). They are morphologically similar to the outer alpha cells of Peichl (1989) and Tauchi et al. (1992). As Huxlin and Goodchild (1997), we identified two groups of RGA2 cells with dendrites stratifying in the inner and outer IPL (Table 1). They are morphologically similar to the outer alpha cells of Peichl (1989) and Tauchi et al. (1992). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell A2 outer BAMSC1065 retinal ganglion cell A2 outer As Huxlin and Goodchild (1997), we identified two groups of RGA2 cells with dendrites stratifying in the inner and outer IPL (Table 1). They are morphologically similar to the outer alpha cells of Peichl (1989) and Tauchi et al. (1992). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell B1 BAMSC1047 retinal ganglion cell B1 Twenty to six neurons were defined as RGB1 cells (Fig. 8A, Table1). One of their characteristic features is the fact that the cell body always lies outside within the confines of the dendritic tree. They have the highest eccentricity of body relative to dendritic field of all ganglion cell identified. The majority of RGB1 cells analysed stratify diffusely within the IPL; nevertheless, their dendritic trees are centred in either the on to or the off to sublaminae of the IPL (Table 1). RGB1 cells were found across the retina. 1 cells had curvy but generally radially branching dendrites (Fig. 5A). They ramified in the outer IPL close to the middle. Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell B2 BAMSC1048 retinal ganglion cell B2 Fourteen neurons were defined as RGB2 cells (Figs. 2D, 8B). These cells are easy to distinguish by the very dense nature of their small dendritic trees. This high density is due to frequent, irregular branching of fine dendrites, which curve, twist, and overlap extensively (Fig. 2D). Their cell body is generaly located well within the confines of the dendritic tree. RGB2 cells were found across the retina (Fig. 9). RGB2 cells had a very small but very dense dendritic field (Fig. 5B), featuring numerous tiny branches bearing spines. They ramified almost in the middle of the IPL. Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell B3 BAMSC1049 retinal ganglion cell B3 Twenty to four cells were defined as RGB3 cells (Fig. 8C). The shape and branching patterns of their dendritic trees resemble those of RGA2 cells, although dendritic fields are much smaller. The somata are centrally located within the dendritic field. RGB3 cells show a greater range in dendritic field sizes than other RGB subgroups (Fig. 9), which suggests further heteronegeitiy. RGB3 cells had curvy, recursive dendrites, forming a relatively sparse dendritic field (Fig. 5C). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell C others BAMSC1051 retinal ganglion cell C others The Group RGc cells, as mentioned above, are a heterogeneous population: we labelled several neurons that could not be classified as RGC1 or RGC2. Includes previously described exmples of Type III or Class III cells (Perry, 1979, Dreher et al., 1985), with their small somata and, in some cases, very large dendritic fields. Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell C1 BAMSC1050 retinal ganglion cell C1 Five RGc1 cells were labelled that have small somata and large asymmetrical dendritic fields (Figs. 10A, 12). Although only a small number of them were labelled, they resemble the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) to projecting cells described by Dann and Buhl (1987). Compared with neurons in Group RGA, RGC1 cells have smaller cell bodies, a higher density of dendritic branching, and usually asymmetrical dendritic fields. The RGC1 cells exhibited smooth, small caliber, recursive dendrites extending from large primary ones. Dendritic field was of medium density (Fig. 6A). The RGC1 stratified mostly in the inner IPL. Their morphology is very similar to the MTN to projecting cells characterized by Dann and Buhl (1987). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell C2 inner BAMSC1066 retinal ganglion cell C2 inner Two groups of RGC2 cells ramified in the inner IPL and outer IPL, respectively. Their morphology is very similar to the delta cells identified by Peichl (1989). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell C2 outer BAMSC1067 retinal ganglion cell C2 outer Two groups of RGC2 cells ramified in the inner IPL and outer IPL, respectively. Their morphology is very similar to the delta cells identified by Peichl (1989). Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina medium complex ganglion cell nifext_19 Medium complex ganglion cell
Retina ganglion cell medium complex
Retina
Retina medium simple ganglion cell nifext_20 Medium simple ganglion cell
Retina ganglion cell medium simple
Retina
Retina midget bipolar cell nifext_34 Midget cell
Retina bipolar cell midget
Small cell with short bipolar processes that transmit from cone photoreceptors to midget ganglion cells. Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina narrow-field bistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1070 narrow-field bistratified amacrine cell The third type of cell in the wide to field unistratified class of amacrine cell has a distinct dendritic pattern. The mean soma size, 11.4 micrometers, is larger than the other two types range (10.0 to 13.0 micrometers; N = 10). Usually three but sometimes two large dendrites arise from the cell in the same layer as the soma. After a short distance a very fine branch comes off each of the larger branches, again in the same plane as the cell soma. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor L cone cell nlx_cell_100210 Retina photoreceptor cone L Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 570 nanometers, i.e. relatively long wavelengths ("L") mediating blue color, compared with green (M for medium) and blue (S for short) cones. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor M cone cell nifext_27 M-cone cell
Retina photoreceptor cone M
Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 550 nanometers, i.e. relatively medium wavelengths ("M") mediating green color, compared with blue (S for short) and red (L for long) cones. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor S cone cell nlx_cell_100211 Retina photoreceptor cone S Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 420 nanometers, i.e. relatively short wavelengths ("S") mediating blue color, compared with green (M for medium) and L (for red) cones. Retina photoreceptor layer
Retina photoreceptor cone cell sao1103104164 Cone cell
cone
retinal cone
One of the two photoreceptor cell types in the vertebrate retina. In cones the photopigment is in invaginations of the cell membrane of the outer segment. Cones are less sensitive to light than rods, but they provide vision with higher spatial and temporal acuity, and the combination of signals from cones with different pigments allows color vision. (MSH) Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor rod cell nlx_cell_100212 rod cell
rod
retinal rod photoreceptor
One of the two photoreceptor cell types of the vertebrate retina. Primarily used in night vision. Rods significantly outnumber cones. The photopigment is in stacks of membranous disks separate from the outer cell membrane. Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but rod mediated vision has less spatial and temporal resolution than cone vision. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina small complex ganglion cell nifext_21 Small complex ganglion cell
Retina ganglion cell small complex
Retina
Retina small simple ganglion cell nifext_22 Small simple ganglion cell
Retina ganglion cell small simple
Retina
Retina stratified diffuse amacrine cell BAMSC1056 stratified diffuse amacrine cell Stratified diffuse amacrine cells have their dendrites lying in more than one plane but not extending the full of the inner plexiform layer. In the rat retina the arrangement of the dendirtes is visualized more readily in vertical sections than in whole mounts, and the dendritic filed is found to terminate in either the inner or the outer half of the inner plexiform layer, although the latter is more common. The cells have a mean soma size of 8.9 micrometers (range 7.5 to 10.5 micrometers; N = 15). Usually a single process leaves the cell soma and passes into the inner plexiform layer before a tight field of short branches is formed (see figure 8, plate 2, and figure 17); the mean dendritic size is 30 micrometers (range 20 to 46 micrometers; N = 15). Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina thick dendrite horizontal cell nlx_152141 H cell One of two types of horizontal cell, it has thick dendrites and apparently no axon. It connects to other horizontal cells and to cone terminals. These cells are extensively interconnected by gap junctions (electrical synapses) as well as to cone terminals. They have wide receptive fields. Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina type (a) narrow-field unistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1052 type (a) narrow-field unistratified amacrine cell The type (a) narrow field unistratified cell has previously been described by Perry (1979), and was called a type IV (collator note: retinal ganglion) cell. This type of cell can be found with its cell soma in either the ganglion cell layer or the inner nuclear layer. Unlike the other types of amacrine cell this type is found with its cell soma in the ganglion cell layer than in the inner nuclear layer. The dimensions of these cells (mean soma size 10.1 micrometers and mean dendritic field size 219 micrometers, from Perry (1979)) are the same in both layers. Examples of this cell type are shown in figure 3, plate 1, and figure 11. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type (a) wide-field unistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1068 type (a) wide-field unistratified amacrine cell This wide to field unistratified cell has a mean soma of 11.1 micrometers. A single dendrite arises from the cell soma before it branches on a plane. These branches, about 1 micrometer in diameter, then apss in many directions within that plane; the bifurcations that do occur are near the cell soma and the dendrites take a straingth line across the retina (see figure 4, plate 1, and figure 13). Type (a) and type (b) wide to field unistratified amacrine cells have been found with their cell bodies in either the inner nuclear layer or in the ganglion cell layer. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type (b) narrow-field unistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1053 type (b) narrow-field unistratified amacrine cell The type (b) narrow to field unistratified cell has a similar (collator note: with the type (a) narrow field unistratified amacrine neuron) mean soma diameter of 9.2 micrometers (range 7.5 to 11.3 micrometeres; N = 14) and the size of its dendritic field is similar to the the type (a) narrow field unistratified cell (mean 215 micrometers; range 135 to 282 micrometers; N = 14). A single primary dendrite arises from the cell soma and passes into the inner plexiform layer before branching on a plane. In contrast with the type (a) narrow field unistratified cell this cell has coarser, mostly spine to free, dendrites. Figure 3 and 12 show examples of this cell tpye, one of which has its soma in the ganglion cell layer. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type (b) wide-field unistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1069 type (b) wide-field unistratified amacrine cell The second type of wide to field unistratified amacrine cell has a soma of similar size to that of the type (a) wide to field unistratified cells and the dendrites have the same thin unbranched appearance. However, these cells do not send their dendrites in all directions but in only two in a single plan. As reported by Gallego (1971), these wide to field unistratified amacrine cells have a dendritic filed covering an area of an hour to glass (see figure 4 and 13). Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type (c) wide-field unistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1072 type (c) wide-field unistratified amacrine cell The third type of cell in the wide to field unistratified class of amacrine cell has a distinct dendritic pattern. The mean soma size, 11.4 micrometers, is larger than the other two types range (10.0 to 13.0 micrometers; N = 10). Usually three but sometimes two large dendrites arise from the cell in the same layer as the soma. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 2 cone bipolar cell BAMSC1016 type 2 cone bipolar cell Type 2 and type 3 CBs have similar (with type 1 CB) dendritic tree shapes but show diffuse stratification at different levels of the outer half of the IPL, that is in strata 1 to 2 and 2, respectively. ... the axon terminal system of type 2 looks a bit disordered. Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina type 3 cone bipolar cell BAMSC1017 type 3 cone bipolar cell Type 2 and type 3 CBs have similar (with type 1 CB) dendritic tree shapes but show diffuse stratification at different levels of the outer half of the IPL, that is in strata 1 to 2 and 2, respectively. ...the axon terminal of type 3 shows a and quot;well to arranged and quot; treelike branching pattern. Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina type 4 cone bipolar cell BAMSC1018 type 4 cone bipolar cell Type 4 (n = 4, Fig. 1E) is a diffuse CB stratifying in both strata 1 and 2. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 5 cone bipolar cell BAMSC1019 type 5 cone bipolar cell Type 5 and type 6, both have a very narrow ramification. By using Normaski optics, the two cell types can be distinguished by their stratification level within the IPL relative to a band of higher optical density, which is localized at the border of strata 3 and 4 and represents the inner cholinergic band. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 6 cone bipolar cell BAMSC1020 type 6 cone bipolar cell Type 5 and type 6, both have a very narrow ramification. By using Normaski optics, the two cell types can be distinguished by their stratification level within the IPL relative to a band of higher optical density, which is localized at the border of strata 3 and 4 and represents the inner cholinergic band. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 7 cone bipolar cell BAMSC1021 type 7 cone bipolar cell Type 7 and type 8 are diffuse CBs with their axonal terminal systems in the inner part of the IPL. Type 7 stratifies in strata 3 and 4....Both cell types (type 7 and type 8) have slender cell bodies. Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina wide field diffuse amacrine cell BAMSC1012 This cell type has a mean soma size of 10 micrometers (range 8.3 to 13.5 micrometers; N = 14). The extent of its dendritic field is difficult to define precisely; there is a core of short branches that extend vertically through the inner plexiform layer, and this core is surrounded by a number of branches that take an oblique course through the inner plexiform layer before terminating at variable distance from the cell soma at the level of ganglion cells. The dendrites of these cells have a characteristic varicose appearance and the ends of the dendrites often terminate with one of these swellings. Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina wide-field bistratified amacrine cell BAMSC1071 wide-field bistratified amacrine cell These wide to field bistratified cells have a process that leaves the soma and passes almost vertically through the inner plexiform layer before branching near the ganglion cell layer, but in addition they also have processes that run laterally at the level of the inner nuclear layer. Retina
Inner nuclear layer

Contributors

Memartone, Mimam



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Facts about Retinal neuronRDF feed
CurationStatusuncurated  +
DefinitionNeuron whose soma lies in any part of the Retina
Idnlx_cell_0912008  +
LabelRetinal neuron  +
ModifiedDate4 February 2010  +
SuperCategoryDefined neuron class  +