Neurolex is being transitioned to a new system and is currently not accepting new additions. If you have additions or questions please contact us at [email protected], or submit an issue to the github issue tracker at


From NeuroLex

Jump to: navigation, search

The table below is automatically generated by a query that extracts the information from classes that are children of the class "Disease"

This table is also available in CSV

Synonym Definition ExternallySourcedDefinition
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Absence Epilepsy Childhood Absence Epilepsy
Akinetic Petit Mal
Absence Seizure Disorder
Petit Mal Convulsion
Juvenile Absence Epilepsy
Absence Seizure
Atonic Absence Seizure
Minor Epilepsy
Petit Mal Epilepsy
A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures (MeSH).
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Postinfectious Encephalomyelitis
Immune-Mediated Encephalomyelitis
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal (MeSH).
Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis Hemorrhagic Necrotizing Encephalomyelitis
Leukoencephalitis Acuta Hemorrhagica
Acute Necrotizing Hemorrhagic Encephalomyelitis
Hurst's Disease
Acute Necrotizing Encephalitis
Subacute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages (MeSH).
Acute Traumatic Stress Disorder Acute Stress Disorder A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder ( STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate (MeSH).
Adamantinous Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma
The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations (MeSH).
Addiction A compulsion to repeat a behaviour regardless of its consequences (
Adjustment Disorder Anniversary Reaction
Reactive Disorder
Reactive Depression
Transient Situational Disturbance
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor (MeSH).
Adrenoleukodystrophy Schilder-Addison Complex
X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy
An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein ( ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS) (MeSH).
Adult Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
Affective Psychotic Disorder Reactive Psychotic Depression
Psychotic Mood Disorder
Affective Psychosis
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc. (MeSH).
Age-related macular degeneration Age related maculopathy
Senile macular degeneration
Senile macular degeneration of retina
Agoraphobia Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help may not be available in the event of having a panic attack. The anxiety leads to a pervasive avoidance of being alone outside the home., Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.
Akinetic-Rigid Variant of Huntington Disease Akinetic-Rigid Variant
Huntington Disease
Alcohol Amnestic Disorder Alcohol-Induced Amnestic Psychosis
Alcohol-Induced Amnestic Syndrome
Alcohol Amnestic Syndrome
Alcohol-Induced Dysmnesic Syndrome
Alcohol-Induced Dysmnesic Psychosis
A mental disorder associated with chronic ethanol abuse ( ALCOHOLISM) and nutritional deficiencies characterized by short term memory loss, confabulations, and disturbances of attention (MeSH).
Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium Alcohol Withdrawal Associated Autonomic Hyperactivity
Alcohol Withdrawal Hallucinosis
Delirium Tremens
Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Delirium Tremens
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens (MeSH).
Alcohol-Related Addiction
Alcohol-Related Disorder Disorder related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol (MeSH).
Alcohol-Related Withdrawal
Alcoholic Intoxication Drunkenness An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES (MeSH).
Alcoholic Psychosis A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol (MeSH).
Alcoholism Alcohol abuse
Chronic alcoholic intoxication
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic (MeSH).
Alexander Disease Alexander's Disease A rare inherited disorder of myelin formation. Alexander disease is a progressive leukoencephalopathy whose hallmark is the widespread accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions called Rosenthal fibers. The fibers contain GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN in association with ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN. Rosenthal fibers are found predominantly in ASTROCYTES located in the subependymal, subpial, and periventricular areas of the BRAIN (MeSH).
Allodynia A condition in which ordinary, non-painful stimuli evoke pain.
Alzheimers disease Alzheimer Dementia
Alzheimer Type Dementia
Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer Type Senile Dementia
Alzheimer Senile Dementia
A neurodegenerative disease resulting in the insidious onset of dementia. Impairment of memory, judgement, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (adapted from MSH)
Amphetamine-Related Disorder Amphetamine Abuse
Amphetamine Usage
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines (MeSH).
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Lou Gehrig's Disease
Gehrig's Disease
Maladie de Charcot
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts (MeSH).
Anterior Cerebral Artery Infarction Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke
Anterior Cerebral Artery Circulation Infarction
ACA Infarction
Heubner Artery Infarction
Anterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome
Anterior Cerebral Artery Distribution Infarction
An infarction in the vascular distribution of the anterior cerebral artery which supplies the majority of the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres, and provides branches (including Heubner's artery) to the anterior limb of the internal capsule, head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS, and anterior GLOBUS PALLIDUS. Clinical manifestations may include contralateral lower extremity weakness and sensory loss. Bilateral anterior cerebral artery infarctions are associated with abulia, PARAPLEGIA, and URINARY INCONTINENCE (MeSH).
Anxiety Disorder Neurotic Anxiety State
Anxiety Neurosis
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY (MeSH).
Asperger Syndrome Asperger's Disorder
Asperger's Syndrome
A childhood disorder predominately affecting boys and similar to autism ( AUTISTIC DISORDER). It is characterized by severe, sustained, clinically significant impairment of social interaction, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. In contrast to autism, there are no clinically significant delays in language or cognitive development (MeSH).
Astrocytoma Astroglioma
Astrocytic Glioma
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation (MeSH).
Ataxia Spinocerebellar Atrophy
Spinocerebellar Degeneration
cerebellar degeneration
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions (MeSH).
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia Telangiectasia Syndrome
Louis-Bar Syndrome
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by choreoathetosis beginning in childhood, progressive CEREBELLAR ATAXIA; TELANGIECTASIS of CONJUNCTIVA and SKIN; DYSARTHRIA; B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, and RADIOSENSITIVITY to IONIZING RADIATION. Affected individuals are prone to recurrent sinobronchopulmonary infections, lymphoreticular neoplasms, and other malignancies. Serum ALPHA-FETOPROTEINS are usually elevated. The gene for this disorder (ATM) encodes a cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase and has been mapped to chromosome 11 (11q22-q23) (MeSH).
Athetosis Hammond Disease
Athetoid Movements
A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY (MeSH).
Atonic Epilepsy Akinetic Epilepsy
Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
A specific developmental disease that is characterized by co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age., A specific developmental disorder that is characterized by co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age.
Atypical Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
Autistic Disorder Early Infantile Autism
Infantile Autism
Kanner's Syndrome
Classic autism
Classical autism
A pervasive developmental disease that is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.
Autoimmune Experimental Myasthenia Gravis Experimental Myasthenia
Experimental Myasthenia Gravis
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis (MeSH).
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic Hyperreflexia
Spinal Autonomic Dysreflexia
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (MeSH).
Autonomic Nervous System Disease Autonomic Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
ANS Diseases
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders
Autonomic Diseases
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION (MeSH).
Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Benign Neonatal Epilepsy Benign Neonatal Convulsions A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder (MeSH).
Benign essential blepharospasm BEB A progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include involuntary winking or squinting of one or both eyes, increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women. (NINDS Disorder Index,
Bipolar Disorder Manic-Depressive Psychosis
Bipolar Depression
Affective Bipolar Psychosis
Manic-depressive disorder
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence (MeSH).
Botulism Toxico-Infectious Botulism A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others) (MeSH).
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Mad Cow Disease A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME (MeSH).
Brain Infarction The formation of an area of necrosis in the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres (see CEREBRAL INFARCTION), thalami, basal ganglia, brain stem ( BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS), or cerebellum secondary to an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow (MeSH).
Brain Ischemia Ischemic Brain Injury
Ischemic Encephalopathy
Cerebral Ischemia
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia ( HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION (MeSH).
Brain Stem Infarction Brainstem Stroke Infarctions that occur in the brain stem which is comprised of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury (MeSH).
Pontobulbar palsy and neurosensory deafness
A rare neurological disorder of unknown etiology characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in the last 100 years, with a female to male ratio of approximately 3:1. Age of onset varies from infancy to the third decade. BVVL most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common. Other features include respiratory compromise, limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction and epilepsy may also occur. Approximately 50% of cases are sporaide and 50% familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested.
Brugada A genetic disease that is characterised by abnormal electrocardiogram findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
Canavan Disease Leukodystrophy
Spongy Disease of White Matter
Familial Form of Canavan Disease
Aspartoacylase Deficiency Disease
Spongy Disease of Central Nervous System
Canavan-van Bogaert-Bertrand Disease
A rare neurodegenerative condition of infancy or childhood characterized by white matter vacuolization and demeylination that gives rise to a spongy appearance. Aspartoacylase deficiency leads to an accumulation of N-acetylaspartate in astrocytes. Inheritance may be autosomal recessive or the illness may occur sporadically. This illness occurs more frequently in individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. The neonatal form features the onset of hypotonia and lethargy at birth, rapidly progressing to coma and death. The infantile form features developmental delay, DYSKINESIAS, hypotonia, spasticity, blindness, and megalencephaly. The juvenile form is characterized by ATAXIA; OPTIC ATROPHY; and DEMENTIA (MeSH). your mom.
Cannabis-Related Disorder Marijuana Abuse
Cannabis Abuse
Cannabinoid Abuse
Hashish Abuse
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning (MeSH).
Capgras Syndrome A psychotic disorder characterized by the patient's belief that acquaintances or closely related persons have been replaced by doubles or imposters. (MeSH)
Catalepsy Flexibility
Cerea Flexibilitas
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions (MeSH).
Catatonic Schizophrenia A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture (MeSH)
Causalgia Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II
Causalgia Syndrome
Deafferentation Pain
A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch ( HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur (MeSH).
Central Nervous System Bacterial Infection Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces (MeSH).
Central Nervous System Fungal Infection Acute Stress Disorder
Central Nervous System Mycosis
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME) (MeSH).
Central Nervous System Infection Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process (MeSH).
Central Nervous System Parasitic Infection Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites, primarily PROTOZOA and HELMINTHS (MeSH).
Central Nervous System Viral Infection Viral CNS Infection Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces (MeSH).
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Extrapontine Myelinolysis
Extrapontine Myelinoclasis
A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition (MeSH).
Cerebellar Ataxia Cerebellar Incoordination
Cerebellar Dysmetria
Cerebellar Hemiataxia
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA (MeSH).
Cerebral Hemorrhage Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Cerebral Brain Hemorrhage
Cerebral Parenchymal Hemorrhage
Cerebrum Hemorrhage
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION (MeSH).
Cerebral Infarction The formation of an area of necrosis in the cerebrum caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction) (MeSH).
Cerebral palsy cerebral palsy
Spastic paralysis
Spastic hemiplegia
Spastic diplegia
Spastic quadriplegia
A group of disorders that involve brain and nervous system functions including movement, learning, hearing, seeing, and thinking. (adapted PubMed Health)
Cerebrovascular Accident Cerebral Stroke
Cerebrovascular Apoplexya
Cerebrovascular Stroke
A sudden, nonconvulsive loss of neurologic function due to an ischemic or hemorrhagic intracranial vascular event. In general, cerebrovascular accidents are classified by anatomic location in the brain, vascular distribution, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. nonhemorrhagic nature (MeSH).
Cerebrovascular Disorder Intracranial Vascular Disorder
Brain Vascular Disorder
Cerebrovascular Insufficiency
A broad category of disorders characterized by impairment of blood flow in the arteries and veins which supply the brain. These include CEREBRAL INFARCTION; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; HYPOXIA, BRAIN; INTRACRANIAL EMBOLISM AND THROMBOSIS; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; and VASCULITIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. In common usage, the term cerebrovascular disorders is not limited to conditions that affect the cerebrum, but refers to vascular disorders of the entire brain including the DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM (MeSH).
Cerebrovascular Trauma Vascular Brain Injury
Vascular Brain Trauma
Penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries to an extracranial or intracranial blood vessel that supplies the brain. This includes the CAROTID ARTERIES, vertebral arteries ( VERTEBRAL ARTERY), and intracranial arteries, veins, and venous sinuses (MeSH).
Charcot Marie Tooth disease hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy
peroneal muscular atrophy
A common inherited neurological disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 people in the United States, comprising a group of disorders caused by mutations in genes that affect the normal function of the peripheral nerves. A typical feature includes weakness of the foot and lower leg muscles, which may result in foot drop and a high-stepped gait with frequent tripping or falls. Foot deformities, such as high arches and hammertoes (a condition in which the middle joint of a toe bends upwards), are also characteristic due to weakness of the small muscles in the feet. In addition, the lower legs may take on an "inverted champagne bottle" appearance due to the loss of muscle bulk. Later in the disease, weakness and muscle atrophy may occur in the hands, resulting in difficulty with fine motor skills. (adapted from NINDS disease pages)
Childhood disintegrative disorder A pediatric disorder characterized by normal development for at least the first two years of life followed by a severe regression in language, social interaction, bowel or bladder control, and/or motor skills. The affected individual may also exhibit repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior similar to autism. (NCI Thesaurus)
Chordoma notochordoma A notochordal cancer that derives_from cellular remnants of the notochord.
Chorea Choreiform Movement
Choreic Movement
Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (MeSH).
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic Inflammatory Polyradiculoneuropathy
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
Chronic Inflammatory Polyradiculopathy
A slowly progressive autoimmune demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. Clinical manifestations include weakness and sensory loss in the extremities and enlargement of peripheral nerves. The course may be relapsing-remitting or demonstrate a step-wise progression. Protein is usually elevated in the spinal fluid and cranial nerves are typically spared. GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME features a relatively rapid progression of disease which distinguishes it from this condition (MeSH).
Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Progressive Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Remittent Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form (MeSH).
Chronic Wasting Disease A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein ( PRIONS) (MeSH).
Chronic tic disorder Chronic tic disorder is either single or multiple motor or phonic tics, but not both, which are present for more than a year.
Classic Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
Classic Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
Claude Syndrome Anatomical location: Midbrain Tegmentum; Vasculature: Posterior cerebral artery; Symptoms: Ataxia - arm and leg - also Oculomotor palsy with contralateral tremor and ataxia
Cocaine-Related Disorder Cocaine addiction
Cocaine Abuse
Cocaine Usage
Cocaine Dependence
Coma Pseudocoma
Loss of Consciousness
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION. This includes Feigned coma or psychogenic coma. These patients appear comatose (i.e., unresponsive, unarousable, or both) but have no structural lesion, metabolic or toxic disorder (MeSH).
Combat Disorder War Neurosis
Combat Neurosis
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress (MeSH).
Complex Partial Epilepsy Complex Partial Seizure Disorder A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy) (MeSH).
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Autonomic Hyperreflexia
Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome Congenital Myasthenia Gravis A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction (MeSH).
Congenital retinoschisis Congenital retinoschisis disorder
Consciousness Disorder Depressed Level of Consciousness
Altered Level of Consciousness
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition (MeSH
Craniocerebral Trauma Head Trauma
Head Injury
Craniocerebral Injury
Craniocervical Injury
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage (MeSH).
Craniopharyngioma Rathke Pouch Tumor
Rathke Cleft Neoplasm
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations (MeSH).
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disease
Jakob-Creutzfeldt Syndrome
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS (MeSH).
Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymic Personality An affective disorder characterized by periods of depression and hypomania. These may be separated by periods of normal mood (MeSH).
Cystoid macular retinal degeneration Central cystoid Retinal Edema
Cystoid Macular Edema
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA at the center of the RETINA. Cystic spaces are formed and may lead to a macular depression or hole.
Deafmutism-retinal degeneration syndrome Diallinas-Amalric syndrome
Dalinas-Amalric syndrome
Degenerative Retinoschis Splitting of the RETINA into two layers at the level of the outer plexiform layer, beginning as a cystic degeneration in the extreme retinal periphery. It usually occurs after 40 years of age and is generally not progressive.
Demyelinating Autoimmune Disease Central Nervous System
CNS Autoimmune Demyelinating Disorders
Autoimmune Demyelinating Diseases
CNS Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens (MeSH).
Demyelinating disease Demyelinating disorder Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Depressive Disorder Unipolar Depression
Endogenous Depression
Depressive Syndrome
Depressive Neurosis
Neurotic Depression
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent (MeSH).
Developmental disorder of mental health A disease of mental health that occur during a child's developmental period between birth and age 18 resulting in retarding of the child's psycholotgical or physical development., A disease of mental health that occur during a child's developmental period between birth and age 18 resulting in retarding of the child's psycholotgical or physical development.
Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis of Schilder Poliodystrophia Cerebri
Encephalitis Periaxialis
Cerebral Sclerosis
Alpers' Disease
Schilder's Disease
Encephalitis Periaxialis Concentrica
Alpers Syndrome
Encephalitis Periaxialis Diffusa
Myelinoclastic Diffuse Sclerosis
Balo's Concentric Sclerosis
A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (MeSH).
Disease of mental health
Disorganized Schizophrenia Hebephrenic Schizophrenia A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior (MeSH)
Downs syndrome Down syndrome
Trisomy 21
Down's syndrome
A disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome, characterized by structural abnormalities throughout the body. Often Down syndrome is associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth as well as facial appearance. (Adapted from Wikipedia)
Dry senile macular retinal degeneration Atrophic age-related macular degeneration
Nonexudative age-related macular degeneration disorder
Nonexudative age-related macular degeneration
Geographic atrophy of macula
Atrophic senile macular retinal degeneration
Nonexudative senile macular retinal degeneration disorder
Nonexudative senile macular degeneration
Nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy. It is an X-linked recessive disease, primarily affecting males who inherit a genetic mutation from their mothers. Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy lack the protein dystrophin, which is essential for keeping muscle cells intact. Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually becomes evident when a child begins walking. Patients typically require a wheelchair by age 10 to 12 and die in their late teens or early twenties.
Dyskinesia Involuntary Movements
Abnormal Movements
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (MeSH).
Dysthymic Disorder Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness (MeSH).
Dystonia Muscle Dystonia A persistent attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS (MeSH).
Early-Onset Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
Ependymoma Glioma derived from ependymocytes that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors (MeSH).
Epilepsia Partialis Continua Kozhevnikov Syndrome
Kojewnikow Syndrome
Kojevnikov's Epilepsy
A variant of epilepsy characterized by continuous focal jerking of a body part over a period of hours, days, or even years without spreading to other body regions. Contractions may be aggravated by movement and are reduced, but not abolished during sleep. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY demonstrates epileptiform (spike and wave) discharges over the hemisphere opposite to the affected limb in most instances. The repetitive movements may originate from the CEREBRAL CORTEX or from subcortical structures (e.g., BRAIN STEM; BASAL GANGLIA). This condition is associated with Russian Spring and Summer encephalitis (see ENCEPHALITIS, TICK BORNE); Rasmussen syndrome (see ENCEPHALITIS); MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS (MeSH).
Epilepsy Epileptic Seizure
Seizure Disorder
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy) (MeSH).
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Encephalomyelitis induced by inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin. The innoculation triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)(adapted from Experimental Factor Ontology EFO_0001066)
Eye disease Occular disease
Ophthalmological disorder
Ophthalmic disorder
Disease of eye
Eye disorder
* Diseases or defects of the eye. Use VISION DISORDERS for other pathology involving visual neural pathways. (PSY) * impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning of the organ of sight. (CSP)
Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy initially affects muscles of the face (facio), shoulders (scapulo), and upper arms (humeral). Symptoms usually develop in the teenage years, and some affected individuals become severely disabled.
Familial Benign Neonatal Epilepsy Familial Benign Neonatal Convulsions
Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance has been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS (MeSH).
Familial Dysautonomia Type III
Riley-Day Syndrome
Hereditary-Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type III
Hereditary and Autonomic
Dominant Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy
Type 3; Autonomic Dysfunction; Dysautonomia
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension ( HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons (MeSH).
Familial Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy Inherited Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy
Familial Retinoblastoma Hereditary Retinoblastoma
Familial juvenile macular degeneration Familial juvenile macular degeneration syndrome
Fundus flavimaculatus
Stargardts disease
Familial macular degeneration
Familial pseudoinflammatory macular degeneration Familial pseudoinflammatory macular degeneration disorder
Sorsbys macular degeneration
Fatal Familial Insomnia An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by degeneration of the THALAMUS and progressive insomnia. It is caused by a mutation in the prion protein ( PRIONS) (MeSH).
Febrile Seizures Fever Seizure
Pyrexial Seizure
Fever Convulsion
Febrile Convulsion Seizure
Febrile Fit
Pyrexial Convulsion
Febrile Convulsions
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder." (MeSH).
Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS A condition occurring in FETUS or NEWBORN due to in utero ETHANOL exposure when mother consumed alcohol during PREGNANCY. It is characterized by a cluster of irreversible BIRTH DEFECTS including abnormalities in physical, mental, and behavior development (such as FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; MENTAL RETARDATION; ATTENTION DEFICIT AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR DISORDERS) with varied degree of severity in an individual.(MeSH)
Foville Syndrome Inferior medial pontine syndrome Anatomical location: Pons - Unilateral lesion in the dorsal pontine tegmentum in the caudal third of the pons; Vasculature: Basilar artery, Paramedian and Short circumferential branches; Symptoms: contralateral - weakness in upper and lower extremity - ipsilateral: weakness in entire side of face, as well as lateral gaze weakness
Fragile X syndrome Martin-Bell syndrome
Escalante's syndrome
Marker X syndrome
FRAXA syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is an X linked inherited form of mental impairment. The syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in 3600 males and 1 in 4000 to 6000 females. The majority of males with fragile X syndrome will have a significant intellectual disability. The spectrum ranges from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation and autism. In addition, males have a variety of physical and behavioral characteristics, including enlarged ears, long face with prominent chin, and large testicles (in post pubertal males). Connective tissue problems may include ear infections, mitral valve prolapse, flat feet, double-jointed fingers, hyperflexible joints and a variety of skeletal problems. Behavioral characteristics in males include attention deficit disorders, speech disturbances, hand biting, hand flapping, autistic behaviors, poor eye contact, and unusual responses to various touch, auditory or visual stimuli. The characteristics seen in males can also be seen in females, though females often have milder intellectual disability and a milder presentation of the behavioral or physical features. (from
Frey Syndrome Baillarger Syndrome
Von Frey Syndrome
Auriculotemporal Syndrome
Sympathetic Ocular-Ophthalmoplegia
Salivosudoriparous Syndrome
Gustatory Hyperhidrosis
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal (MeSH).
Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Complex Partial Seizure Disorder A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the frontal lobe. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Simple or complex motor movements may occur, and most commonly involve the face and upper extremities. Seizures in the anterior frontal regions may be associated with head and eye turning, typically away from the side of origin of the seizure. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures) (MeSH).
Gait Ataxia Cerebellar Gait Ataxia
Ataxia of Gait
Cerebellar Gait
Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation ( WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES (MeSH).
Ganglioglioma Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord (MeSH).
Ganglioneuroblastoma A moderately malignant neoplasm composed of primitive neuroectodermal cells dispersed in myxomatous or fibrous stroma intermixed with mature ganglion cells. It may undergo transformation into a neuroblastoma. It arises from the sympathetic trunk or less frequently from the adrenal medulla, cerebral cortex, and other locations. Cervical ganglioneuroblastomas may be associated with HORNER SYNDROME and the tumor may occasionally secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide, resulting in chronic diarrhea (MeSH).
Ganglioneuroma Gangliocytoma A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide (MeSH).
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive anxiety and worry occuring more days than not for a period of at least 6 months about a number of events or activities. Individual finds it difficult to control the worry.
Generalized Convulsive Epilepsy Convulsive Generalized Seizure Disorder
Generalized Epilepsy Generalized Seizure Disorder
Symptomatic Generalized Epilepsy
Generalized Onset Seizure Disorder
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic) (MeSH).
Generalized Nonconvulsive Epilepsy Nonconvulsive Generalized Seizure Disorder
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Disease Gerstmann-Straussler Syndrome
Gerstmann-Straussler Inherited Spongiform Encephalopathy
An autosomal dominant familial prion disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations including ATAXIA, spastic paraparesis, extrapyramidal signs, and DEMENTIA. Clinical onset is in the third to sixth decade of life and the mean duration of illness prior to death is five years. Several kindreds with variable clinical and pathologic features have been described. Pathologic features include cerebral prion protein amyloidosis, and spongiform or neurofibrillary degeneration (MeSH).
Giant axonal neuropathy A progressive hereditary disease that affects the peripheral and central nervous systems. It is characterized morphologically by aggregates of intermediate filaments in different tissues. Mutations have been reported in the gene that codes for gigaxonin. Morphologically, GAN is characterized by the presence of giant axons filled with densely packed accumulations of neurofilaments (NF). Affected axons have a thin myelin sheath, do not transmit signals properly, and eventually perish. Unique to GAN is that in addition to the inclusions in neurons, astrocytes can be filled with glial filament bodies, fibroblasts with vimentin clusters and muscle fibers with desmin accumulations.
Glaucoma Group of diseases that affect the optic nerve and involves a loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern.

It is a type of optic neuropathy.

Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma (above 22 mmHg or 2.9 kPa). One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness. - adapted from Wikipedia
Glaucomatous retinal degeneration Glaucomatous retinal degeneration syndrome
Glioblastoma Grade IV
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Giant Cell Glioblastoma
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures (MeSH).
Glioma Glial Cell Tumor Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas ( ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas ( OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle (MeSH).
Gliosarcoma Glioblastoma with Sarcomatous Component
Sarcomatous Glioma
Rare mixed tumors of the brain and rarely the spinal cord which contain malignant neuroectodermal (glial) and mesenchymal components, including spindle-shaped fibrosarcoma cells. These tumors are highly aggressive and present primarily in adults as rapidly expanding mass lesions. They may arise in tissue that has been previously irradiated (MeSH).
Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy Diffuse Globoid Body Sclerosis
Globoid Leukodystrophy
Galactosylceramide-beta-Galactosidase Deficiency Disease
Krabbe Disease
Galactosylceramidase Deficiency Disease
Krabbe's Disease
Krabbe's Leukodystrophy
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of GALACTOSYLCERAMIDASE leading to intralysosomal accumulation of galactolipids such as GALACTOSYLCERAMIDES and PSYCHOSINE. It is characterized by demyelination associated with large multinucleated globoid cells, predominantly involving the white matter of the central nervous system. The loss of MYELIN disrupts normal conduction of nerve impulses (MeSH).
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Acute Inflammatory Polyradiculoneuropathy
Guillaine-Barre Syndrome
Acute Autoimmune Neuropathy
Acute Inflammatory Polyneuropathy
Landry-Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur (MeSH).
Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases
Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 1
Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 2
Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 4
Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 5
Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis
Hereditary Sensory Radicular Neuropathy
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation (MeSH).
Heroin dependence Heroin addiction
Heroin-Related Disorder Heroin Usage
Heroin Abuse
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of heroin.
Holmes-Adie Syndrome Adie Syndrome
Adie's Syndrome
Adie's Pupil
A neurological disorder affecting the pupil of the eye and the autonomic nervous system. It is characterized by one eye with a pupil that is larger than normal and constricts slowly in bright light (tonic pupil), along with the absence of deep tendon reflexes, usually in the Achilles tendon. HAS is thought to be the result of a viral or bacterial infection that causes inflammation and damage to neurons in the ciliary ganglion, an area of the brain that controls eye movements, and the spinal ganglion, an area of the brain involved in the response of the autonomic nervous system. HAS begins gradually in one eye, and often progresses to involve the other eye. At first, it may only cause the loss of deep tendon reflexes on one side of the body, but then progress to the other side. The eye and reflex symptoms may not appear at the same time. People with HAS may also sweat excessively, sometimes only on one side of the body. The combination of these 3 symptoms – abnormal pupil size, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and excessive sweating – is usually called Ross's syndrome, although some doctors will still diagnosis the condition as a variant of HAS. Some individuals will also have cardiovascular abnormalities. The HAS symptoms can appear on their own, or in association with other diseases of the nervous system, such as Sjogren's syndrome or migraine. It is most often seen in young women. It is rarely an inherited condition. (NINDS Disorder Index,
Horner Syndrome Claude Bernard-Horner Syndrome
Innervational Defect
Bernard Syndrome
Sympathetic Ocular-Ophthalmoplegia
Ptosis Sympathetic
Oculosympathetic Syndrome
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition (MeSH).
Huntingtons disease Huntington's
Huntington's Chorea
Huntington's disease
Chronic Progressive Hereditary Chorea (Huntington)
Huntington Chronic Progressive Hereditary Chorea
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea.
Hyperkinesis Hyperkinetic Movements
Motor Hyperactivity
Generalized Hyperkinesia
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders (MeSH).
Hypokinesia Hypodynamia
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions (MeSH).
Inborn Metabolic Brain Disease Inborn Metabolic Encephalopathy
Inborn Metabolic Central Nervous System Disease
Inherited Metabolic Brain Disease
Inborn Metabolic CNS Disease
Inborn Metabolic CNS Disorder
Inborn Metabolic Central Nervous System Disorder
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Familial Metabolic Brain Disease
Familial Metabolic Brain Disorder
Inherited Metabolic Brain Disorder
Inborn Metabolic Brain Disorder
Brain disorders resulting from inborn metabolic errors, primarily from enzymatic defects which lead to substrate accumulation, product reduction, or increase in toxic metabolites through alternate pathways. The majority of these conditions are familial, however spontaneous mutation may also occur in utero (MeSH).
Infantile Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
Infantile Myoclonic Epilepsy Early Childhood Myoclonic Epilepsy
Infantile Spasms Jackknife Seizures
Nodding Spasm
Salaam Attacks
Lightning Attacks
Salaam Seizures
Spasmus Nutans
West Syndrome
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.) (MeSH).
Infectious disease
Isaacs Syndrome Quantal Squander
Continuous Muscle Activity Syndrome
Pseudomyotonia Syndrome of Isaacs
Gamstorp-Wohlfart Syndrome
Isaacs-Mertens Syndrome
Acquired Neuromyotonia
Continuous Myokymia
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported (MeSH).
Joubert syndrome related disorder
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy of Janz
Impulsive Petit Mal Epilepsy
Janz Impulsive Petit Mal
Janz Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
Janz Syndrome
Adolescent Myoclonic Epilepsy
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified (MeSH).
Juvenile-Onset Huntington Disease Juvenile Huntington Disease
Kawasaki disease Kawasaki's disease
acute febrile MCLS
acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (disorder)
acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
Kawasaki Disease (KD) is one of the leading causes of acquired heart disease in children in the United States. Patients are typically diagnosed clinically through a constellation of clinical signs including conjunctival injection, strawberry tongue, diffuse sole erythema, swelling of hands, and erythema of lips.
Kearns-Sayer Syndrome Kearns Syndrome
Mitochondrial ocular myopathy
Kearn-Sayre Mitochondrial Cytopathy
Pigmentary degeneration of the retina plus heart block syndrome
Kearns-Sayre-Shy-Daroff Syndrome
A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy ( CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block ( HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy.
Kennedy Syndrome Bulbospinal Neuronopathy
Progressive Myelopathic Muscular Atrophy
Kennedy's disease is an inherited motor neuron disease that affects males. It is one of a group of disorders called spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Onset of the disease is usually between the ages of 20 and 40, although it has been diagnosed in men from their teens to their 70s. Early symptoms include tremor of the outstretched hands, muscle cramps with exertion, and fasciculations (fleeting muscle twitches visible under the skin). Eventually, individuals develop limb weakness which usually begins in the pelvic or shoulder regions. Weakness of the facial and tongue muscles may occur later in the course of the disease and often leads to dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), dysarthria (slurring of speech), and recurrent aspiration pneumonia. Some individuals develop gynecomastia (excessive enlargement of male breasts) and low sperm count or infertility. Still others develop non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Kennedy's disease is an x-linked recessive disease, which means the patient's mother carries the defective gene on one of her X chromosomes. Daughters of patients with Kennedy's disease are also carriers and have a 1 in 2 chance of having a son affected with the disease. Parents with concerns about their children may wish to talk to a genetic counselor. (
Korsakoff Syndrome Korsakoff Psychosis
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions (MeSH).
Kuru Kuru Encephalopathy A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques (MeSH).
Lafora Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Lafora Type Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy
Late Onset Lafora Body Disease
Lafora Body Disease
Lafora Disease
A form of stimulus sensitive myoclonic epilepsy inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. The most common presenting feature is a single seizure in the second decade of life. This is followed by progressive myoclonus, myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, focal occipital seizures, intellectual decline, and severe motor and coordination impairments. Most affected individuals do not live past the age of 25 years. Concentric amyloid (Lafora) bodies are found in neurons, liver, skin, bone, and muscle (MeSH).
Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
Myasthenic-Myopathic Syndrome of Eaton-Lambert
Eaton-Lambert Syndrome
Eaton-Lambert Myasthenic Syndrome
Myasthenic-Myopathic Syndrome of Lambert-Eaton
An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve (MeSH).
Landau-Kleffner Syndrome Landau-Kleffner Acquired Epileptiform Aphasia
Acquired Epileptic Aphasia
Acquired Childhoood Aphasia with Convulsive Disorder
A syndrome characterized by the onset of isolated language dysfunction in otherwise normal children (age of onset 4-7 years) and epileptiform discharges on ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Seizures, including atypical absence ( EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), complex partial ( EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL), and other types may occur. The electroencephalographic abnormalities and seizures tend to resolve by puberty. The language disorder may also resolve although some individuals are left with severe language dysfunction, including APHASIA and auditory AGNOSIA (MeSH).
Late-Onset Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
Late-Onset Huntington Disease
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome Complete hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
deficiency of IMP pyrophosphorylase
HG-PRT deficiency
hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase disorder
Lesch - Nyhan syndrome
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
X-linked hyperuricemia disorder
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). LNS is an X-linked recessive disease-- the gene is carried by the mother and passed on to her son. LNS is present at birth in baby boys. The lack of HPRT causes a build-up of uric acid in all body fluids, and leads to symptoms such as severe gout, poor muscle control, and moderate retardation, which appear in the first year of life. A striking feature of LNS is self-mutilating behaviors – characterized by lip and finger biting – that begin in the second year of life. Abnormally high uric acid levels can cause sodium urate crystals to form in the joints, kidneys, central nervous system, and other tissues of the body, leading to gout-like swelling in the joints and severe kidney problems. Neurological symptoms include facial grimacing, involuntary writhing, and repetitive movements of the arms and legs similar to those seen in Huntington's disease. Because a lack of HPRT causes the body to poorly utilize vitamin B12, some boys may develop a rare disorder called megaloblastic anemia (from NINDS disease database)
Lewy Body Disease Dementia with Lewy bodies
Diffuse Lewy body disease
Lewy body dementia
Senile dementia of the Lewy body type
Lewy Body Disorder
A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present.
Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophy All limb-girdle muscular dystrophies show a similar distribution of muscle weakness, affecting both upper arms and legs. Many forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy have been identified; some affect children, whereas others manifest in adulthood.
Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the medial temporal lobe. Clinical features include behavioral changes, HALLUCINATIONS, loss of short term memory, anosmia, AGEUSIA, and DEMENTIA. Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (anti-Hu; also called ANNA 1) and small cell lung carcinomas are frequently associated with this condition (MeSH).
Long-QT A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins
MERRF Syndrome Myoclonic Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fibers
Fukuhara Disease
Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers
Fukuhara Syndrome
A mitochondrial encephalomyopathy characterized clinically by a mixed seizure disorder, myoclonus, progressive ataxia, spasticity, and a mild myopathy. Dysarthria, optic atrophy, growth retardation, deafness, and dementia may also occur. This condition tends to present in childhood and to be transmitted via maternal lineage. Muscle biopsies reveal ragged-red fibers and respiratory chain enzymatic defects (MeSH).
Machado-Joseph Disease Machado-Joseph Azorean Disease
Joseph Disease
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3
Joseph Azorean Disease
Autosomal Dominant Striatonigral Degeneration
Nervous System Azorean Disease
A dominantly-inherited ATAXIA first described in people of Azorean and Portuguese descent, and subsequently identified in Brazil, Japan, China, and Australia. This disorder is classified as one of the SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIAS (Type 3) and has been associated with a mutation of the MJD1 gene on chromosome 14. Clinical features include progressive ataxia, DYSARTHRIA, postural instability, nystagmus, eyelid retraction, and facial FASCICULATIONS. DYSTONIA is prominent in younger patients (referred to as Type I Machado-Joseph Disease). Type II features ataxia and ocular signs; Type III features MUSCULAR ATROPHY and a sensorimotor neuropathy; and Type IV features extrapyramidal signs combined with a sensorimotor neuropathy (MeSH).
Macular degeneration Maculadegeneration * degenerative changes in the macula lutea of the retina. (MSH) * deterioration of the macula lutea in the retina; may be inherited, drug induced, or due to aging; leads to a severe loss of central vision while peripheral vision is retained. (CSP)
Major Depressive Disorder Involutional Melancholia
Involutional Psychosis
Involutional Depression
Involutional Paraphrenia
Major depression
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation. (MeSH).
Maternal AIDS
Medulloblastoma Medullomyoblastoma A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis (MeSH).
Meningioma A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL (MeSH).
Mental disease Behavior disorder
Psychiatric disorder
Mental disorder
Psychiatric disease
Mental illness
Psychiatric illness
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function (MeSH).
Mental retardation disorder
Mesial temporal sclerosis temporal sclerosis
Ammon's horn sclerosis
Major neuropathological substrate associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, characterized by segmental loss of pyramidal neurons, granule cell dispersion and reactive gliosis
Metabolic Nervous System Disease Metabolic Nervous System Syndrome
Central Nervous System Metabolic Disorder
Metabolic Brain Disorder
Metabolic Brain Disease
CNS Metabolic Disorder
Metabolic Encephalopathy
Metabolic Brain Syndrome
Metabolic Nervous System Disorder
Brain dysfunction or damage caused by acquired (i.e., non-inborn) metabolic disorders. Associated conditions include ENDOCRINE DISEASES; WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; KIDNEY DISEASES; LIVER DISEASES; anoxia ( HYPOXIA, BRAIN); nutritional disorders (see NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC DISEASES); an encephalopathy associated with HEMODIALYSIS; and other disorders (MeSH).
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Arylsulfatase A Deficiency Disease
Greenfield's Disease
Cerebroside Sulphatase Deficiency Disease
Sulfatide Lipidosis
An autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A (CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of cerebroside sulfate ( SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS) in the nervous system and other organs. Pathological features include diffuse demyelination, and metachromatically-staining granules in many cell types such as the GLIAL CELLS. There are several allelic and nonallelic forms with a variety of neurological symptoms (MeSH).
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Adult-Type
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Infant-Type
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Juvenile-Type
Metastatic nervous system neoplastic disease Neoplasms not composed of nerve tissue located in the nervous system or its component nerves.
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction Middle Cerebral Artery Syndrome
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke
MCA Infarction
Middle Cerebral Artery Circulation Infarction
The formation of an area of necrosis in the cerebrum caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction) (MeSH).
Millard-Gubler Syndrome Ventral pontine syndrome Anatomical location: Pons - Basis pontis and fascicles of CN VI amd VII; Vasculature: Basilar artery, Paramedian and Short circumferential branches; Symptoms: contralateral - weakness in upper and lower extremity - ipsilateral: weakness in entire side of face, as well as lateral gaze weakness
Miller Fisher Syndrome Fisher Syndrome
Guillain Barre Syndrome
Miller Fisher Variant
Ataxia and Areflexia Syndrome
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves (MeSH).
Minimally Conscious State A condition of severely altered consciousness in which minimal but definite behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness is demonstrated.
Miyoshi Myopathy
Mood Disorder Affective Disorder Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature. (MeSH).
Morphine-Related Disorder Morphine Abuse
Morphine Usage
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of morphine.
Motor Neuron Disease Motor System Disease
Motoneuron disease
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy ( BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation (MeSH).
Motor Partial Epilepsy Versive Seizures
Motor Partial Seizure Disorder
Hemimotor Epilepsy
Hemimotor Seizure Disorder
Motor Seizure Disorder
Focal Motor Epilepsy
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur (MeSH).
Multifocal retinal degeneration Multifocal retinal degeneration disorder
Multiple Sclerosis Disseminated Sclerosis
Acute Fulminating Multiple Sclerosis
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur (MeSH).
Multiple System Atrophy Multisystem Atrophy
Multisystemic Atrophy
Multiple System Atrophy Syndrome
Multisystem disease
Munchausen disease Hospital hopper syndrome
Hospital addiction syndrome
a psychiatric disorder wherein those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma in order to draw attention or sympathy to themselves. It is in a class of disorders known as factitious disorders which involve "illnesses" whose symptoms are either self-induced or falsified by the patient. Adapted from Wikipedia
Muscular Disease Muscle Disorder
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of skeletal muscle ( MUSCLE, SKELETAL) and smooth muscle ( MUSCLE, SMOOTH) (MeSH).
Muscular Dystrophy a group of more than 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the skeletal muscles, which control movement. Some forms occur in infancy or childhood, whereas others may not appear until middle age or later.
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition (MeSH).
Myasthenia Gravis, Ocular
Myoclonic Epilepsy Myoclonic Seizure Disorder
Myoclonic Encephalopathy
Symptomatic Myoclonic Epilepsy
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.) (MeSH).
Myoclonus Myoclonic Jerking
Myoclonic Jerks
Myoclonic Jerk
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME.
Myopic chorioretinal atrophy Myopic chorioretinal degeneration
Peripheral myopic atrophy
Gross myopic retinal degeneration
Myopic chorioretinal atrophy disorder
Myotonic Dystrophy Myotonic dystrophy is the most common adult form of muscular dystrophy, although it can strike at any age. It is marked by myotonia (an inability to relax muscles after contraction) and muscle wasting and weakness. Myotonic dystrophy varies in its severity and manifestations. It can affect other body systems in addition to skeletal muscles, including the heart, endocrine organs, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract.
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances (MeSH).
Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis Antenatal Myasthenia Gravis A disorder of neuromuscular transmission that occurs in a minority of newborns born to women with myasthenia gravis. Clinical features are usually present at birth or develop in the first 3 days of life and consist of hypotonia and impaired respiratory, suck, and swallowing abilities. This condition is associated with the passive transfer of acetylcholine receptor antibodies through the placenta. (MeSH).
Nerve Sheath Neoplasms Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category (MeSH).
Nervous System Paraneoplastic Syndrome Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue (MeSH).
Nervous System Trauma Nervous System Injury Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures (MeSH).
Nervous system disease Nervous system disorder Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle (MeSH).
Nervous system neoplastic disease Cancer Abnormal mass of tissue in the nervous system.
Neurilemmoma Neurilemoma
Neuroblastoma A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (MeSH).
Neurocirculatory Asthenia Cardiac Neurosis
Hyperkinetic Heart Syndrome
Effort Syndrome
A clinical syndrome characterized by palpitation, SHORTNESS OF BREATH, labored breathing, subjective complaints of effort and discomfort, all following slight EXERTION. Other symptoms may be DIZZINESS, tremulousness, SWEATING, and INSOMNIA. Neurocirculatory asthenia is most typically seen as a form of anxiety disorder (MeSH).
Neurocytoma Central Neurocytoma A benign brain tumor composed of neural elements which most often arise from the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the walls of the lateral ventricles. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy evaluations may reveal expression of neuron specific enolase and synaptophysin and cells containing microtubuli, neurosecretory granules, and presynaptic vesicles (MeSH).
Neurodegenerative disease Degenerative Neurologic Disease
Nervous System Degenerative Disease
Neurologic Degenerative Condition
Degenerative Neurologic Disorder
Neurodegenerative Disorder
Degenerative disease
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures. (MeSH).
Neurodevelopmental disease Neurodevelopmental disorder Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures. (MeSH).
Neuroectodermal Neoplasm Neuroectodermal Tumor Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.(MeSH).
Neuroepithelial Neoplasm Neuroepithelial Tumor Neoplasms composed of neuroepithelial cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into NEURONS, oligodendrocytes, and ASTROCYTES. The majority of craniospinal tumors are of neuroepithelial origin (MeSH).
Neurofibroma A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands (MeSH).
Neurofibroma, Plexiform Pachydermatocele
Elephantiasis Neuromatosis
Tumor Royale
A type of neurofibroma manifesting as a diffuse overgrowth of subcutaneous tissue, usually involving the face, scalp, neck, and chest but occasionally occurring in the abdomen or pelvis. The tumors tend to progress, and may extend along nerve roots to eventually involve the spinal roots and spinal cord. This process is almost always a manifestation of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 (MeSH).
Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis Syndrome
Multiple Neurofibromas
A group of disorders characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high rates of spontaneous mutation and multiple neurofibromas or neurilemmomas. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 (generalized neurofibromatosis) accounts for approximately 95% of cases, although multiple additional subtypes (e.g., NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2, neurofibromatosis 3, etc.) have been described (MeSH).
Neurofibromatosis 1 von Recklinghausen Disease
Recklinghausen Disease of Nerve
Neurofibromatosis Type I
Neurofibromatosis I
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. A syndrome characterized by the presence of PULMONARY STENOSIS; CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and short stature caused by mutations in the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1). There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras ( RAS PROTEINS) (MeSH).
Neurofibromatosis 2 Neurofibromatosis Type II
Bilateral Acoustic Schwannoma
Familial Acoustic Neuroma
Bilateral Acoustic Neurofibromatosis
Neurofibromatosis Type 2
Bilateral Acoustic Neuroma
Neurofibromatosis II
An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas ( NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.(MeSH).
Neurofibrosarcoma Neurogenic Sarcoma A malignant tumor that arises from small cutaneous nerves, is locally aggressive, and has a potential for metastasis. Characteristic histopathologic features include proliferating atypical spindle cells with slender wavy and pointed nuclei, hypocellular areas, and areas featuring organized whorls of fibroblastic proliferation. The most common primary sites are the extremities, retroperitoneum, and trunk. These tumors tend to present in childhood, often in association with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 (MeSH).
Neuroma A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers (MeSH).
Neuromuscular Disease Neuromuscular disorder A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA (MeSH).
Neuromuscular Junction Diseases Neuromuscular Transmission Disorders
Neuromuscular Junction Disorders
Conditions characterized by impaired transmission of impulses at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This may result from disorders that affect receptor function, pre- or postsynaptic membrane function, or ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE activity. The majority of diseases in this category are associated with autoimmune, toxic, or inherited conditions (MeSH).
Neuromyelitis Optica Devic's Syndrome
Devic's Disease
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS in combination with acute MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE. Demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions form in one or both optic nerves and in the spinal cord. The onset of optic neuritis and myelitis may be simultaneous or separated by several months (MeSH).
Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Batten-Mayou Disease
Batten Disease
Batten-Spielmeyer-Vogt Disease
Spielmeyer-Vogt Disease
Batten's disease
* A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials ( CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure (MeSH). * Batten disease is a fatal, inherited disorder of the nervous system that begins in childhood. In some cases, the early signs are subtle, taking the form of personality and behavior changes, slow learning, clumsiness, or stumbling. Symptoms of Batten disease are linked to a buildup of substances called lipopigments in the body's tissues. Lipopigments are made up of fats and proteins. Because vision loss is often an early sign, Batten disease may be first suspected during an eye exam. Often, an eye specialist or other physician may refer the child to a neurologist. Diagnostic tests for Batten disease include blood or urine tests, skin or tissue sampling, an electroencephalogram (EEG), electrical studies of the eyes, and brain scans (NINDS Disease page).
Neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease
intranuclear inclusion body disease
Neuronal intranuclear hyaline inclusion disease is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in neuronal cells
Neuropathy Medical term referring to disorders of the nerves of the peripheral nervous system (specifically excluding encephalopathy and myelopathy, which pertain to the central nervous system.) It is usually considered equivalent to peripheral neuropathy, which is defined as deranged function and structure of peripheral motor, sensory, and autonomic neurons, involving either the entire neuron or selected levels. According to some sources, a disorder of the cranial nerves can be considered a neuropathy. - adapted from Wikipedia
Neurothekeoma Neurotheceoma
Nerve Sheath
A benign myxoma of cutaneous nerve sheath origin. Theke is from the Greek theke, sheath (MeSH).
Nicotine Use Disorder Tobacco Use Disorder
Tobacco addiction
nicotine dependence
habitual smoking
Tobacco dependence
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included (MeSH).
Niemann-Pick Disease Niemann-Pick Diseases A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities ( SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences (MeSH).
Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Neuronopathic Type
Classical Niemann-Pick Disease
Acute Neuronopathic Form
Niemann-Pick Disease
Sphingomyelinase Deficiency Disease
Acute Neurovisceral Form
The classic infantile form of Niemann-Pick Disease, caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE. It is characterized by accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS in the cells of the RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM and other cell throughout the body leading to cell death. Clinical signs include JAUNDICE, hepatosplenomegaly, and severe brain damage (MeSH).
Niemann-Pick Disease, Type B Niemann-Pick Disease
Non-Neuronopathic Type
Type E
Adult Non-Neuronopathic
An allelic disorder of TYPE A NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE, a late-onset form. It is also caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE but clinical signs involve only visceral organs (non-neuropathic type) (MeSH).
Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C Type D
Niemann-Pick Disease with Cholesterol Esterification Block
Nova Scotian
Niemann-Pick Disease without Sphingomyelinase Deficiency
Neurovisceral Storage Disease with Vertical Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Niemann-Pick Disease
Chronic Neuronopathic Form
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry (MeSH).
Non-Familial Benign Neonatal Epilepsy Non-Familial Benign Neonatal Convulsions
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Neurosis
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension (MeSH).
Oculocutaneous albinism Yellow Mutant Albinism Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.
Olfactory Esthesioneuroblastoma Paranasal Sinus-Nasal Cavity Esthesioneuroblastoma
Olfactory Neuroblastoma
A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases (MeSH).
Oligodendroglioma Mixed Oligodendroglioma-Ependymoma
Mixed Oligodendroglioma-Astrocytoma
A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms (MeSH).
Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy Olivo-Ponto-Cerebellar Degeneration
Presenile Ataxia
Pontoolivocerebellar Atrophy
Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy
Dejerine-Thomas Syndrome
Olivopontocerebellar Degeneration
Olivopontocerebellar Atrophies
Olivo-Ponto-Cerebellar Atrophy
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY (MeSH).
Opioid-Related Disorder Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids (MeSH).
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Dancing Eyes-Dancing Feet Syndrome
Kinsbourne Syndrome
Opsoclonus Myoclonus Ataxia
Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Ataxia
A neurological condition that is characterized by uncontrolled rapid irregular movements of the eye ( OPSOCLONUS) and the muscle ( MYOCLONUS) causing unsteady, trembling gait. It is also known as dancing eyes-dancing feet syndrome and is often associated with neoplasms, viral infections, or autoimmune disorders involving the nervous system (MeSH).
Optic Nerve Glioma Glioblastoma Multiforme
Optic Glioma
Malignant Optic Nerve Astrocytoma
Glial cell derived tumors arising from the optic nerve, usually presenting in childhood. Roughly 50% are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1. Clinical manifestations include decreased visual acuity; EXOPHTHALMOS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; pallor or swelling of the optic disc; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. The tumor may extend into the optic chiasm and hypothalamus (MeSH).
Pain disorder
Panic Disorder Panic Attack A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait (MeSH).
Papillary Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma
Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations (MeSH).
Paralysis Plegia
Severe loss of motor function as compared with PARESIS, a slight loss; GENERAL PARALYSIS see NEUROSYPHILIS does not mean "generalized paralysis" ( = PARALYSIS); spastic paralysis = PARALYSIS (IM) + MUSCLE SPASTICITY (NIM); flaccid paralysis = PARALYSIS (IM) + MUSCLE FLACCIDITY (NIM) (MeSH).
Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Syndrome Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals (MeSH).
Paraneoplastic Myelitis A form of Transverse Myelitis associated with a neoplastic condition.(MeSH).
Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy Paraneoplastic Peripheral Neuropathy
Paraneoplastic Neuropathy
A diffuse or multifocal peripheral neuropathy related to the remote effects of a neoplasm, most often carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically, there are inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. The most common clinical presentation is a symmetric distal mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy (MeSH).
Paranoid Disorder Psychosis
Paranoid Psychosis
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state. (MeSH)
Paranoid Schizophrenia Delusional Disorder A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination (MeSH)
Parasympathetic Nervous System Disease
Paresis A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS (MeSH).
Parkinsons disease Idiopathic PD
Parkinsonian disorder
Parkinson syndrome
Paralysis Agitans
Parkinson's disease
Parkinson disease
Parkinson's syndrome
* A disease characterized as a progressive motor disability manifested by tremors, shaking, muscular rigidity, and lack of postural reflexes. (PSY) * A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75) (MSH) * progressive, degenerative disorder of the nervous system characterized by tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, and gait abnormalities; caused by a loss of neurons and a decrease of dopamine in the basal ganglia. (CSP)
Partial Epilepsy Focal Epilepsy
Simple Partial Epilepsy
Simple Partial Seizure
Consciousness Preserved
Partial Seizure Disorder
Localization-Related Epilepsy
Focal Seizure Disorder
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely (MeSH).
Paving stone retinal degeneration Cobblestone retinal degeneration
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease Cockayne-Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease A rare, slowly progressive disorder of myelin formation. Subtypes are referred to as classic, congenital, transitional, and adult forms of this disease. The classic form is X-chromosome linked, has its onset in infancy and is associated with a mutation of the proteolipid protein gene. Clinical manifestations include TREMOR, spasmus nutans, roving eye movements, ATAXIA, spasticity, and NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL. Death occurs by the third decade of life. The congenital form has similar characteristics but presents early in infancy and features rapid disease progression. Transitional and adult subtypes have a later onset and less severe symptomatology. Pathologic features include patchy areas of demyelination with preservation of perivascular islands (trigoid appearance) (MeSH).
Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Neoplasm Peripheral Neuroectodermal Tumor
Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor
Extracranial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor
A group of highly cellular primitive round cell neoplasms which occur extracranially in soft tissue and bone and are derived from embryonal neural crest cells. These tumors occur primarily in children and adolescents and share a number of characteristics with Ewing's Sarcoma ( SARCOMA, EWING'S). They may arise from the chest wall, skin, orbit, kidney, and other structures and tend to be locally invasive or metastasize, although relatively benign forms may occur. Characteristic histologic features include a tendency to form Homer-Wright rosettes and to stain positively with neuron-specific enolase and vimentin (MeSH).
Peripheral retinal degeneration Peripheral degeneration of retina
Peripheral retinal degeneration disorder
Peripheral snowflake retinal degeneration Snowflake retinal degeneration
Peripheral snowflake retinal degeneration disorder
Persistent Vegetative State Prolonged Posttraumatic Unawareness
Permanent Vegetative State
Posttraumatic Unawareness State
Postcomatose Unawareness State
Posttraumatic Vegetative State
Vegetative State
Apallic syndrome
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished (MeSH).
Pervasive Development Disorder Pervasive Child Development Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements (MeSH).
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified Pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified
Atypical autism
An autism spectrum disorder that involves some autistic symptoms occurring after age 3 with an absence of all the traits necessary for a diagnosis of autism.
Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Chromosome 22q13.3 Deletion Syndrome
22q13.3 deletion syndrome
22q13 deletion syndrome
22q13 Deletion Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid Syndrome -- also known as 22q13 Deletion Syndrome -- is caused by the absence / loss of genes at the tip of the 22nd chromosome, with lack of the Shank3 / ProSAP2 gene suspected as the primary cause of the symptoms associated with the syndrome. This gene plays a pivotal role in development of the human nervous system, including the brain, and loss of this genetic component prevents proper nervous system construction during fetal development. There is a wide range of severity of symptoms observed in people with the deletion, but most exhibit moderate to severe developmental delays, physically and intellectually, but especially in speaking and communicating. Very low muscle tone is a common trait of the syndrome, and many have problems with eating, sleeping and emotional stability. - Def source - Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Foundation
Phencyclidine-Related Disorder Angel Dust Abuse
PCP Abuse
The misuse of phencyclidine with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning (MeSH).
Phobic Disorder Phobia
Phobic Neurosis
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable (MeSH).
Pick's Disease Frontotemporal dementia A non-Alzheimers dementia characterized by focal atrophy of the frontal and anterior temporal regions of the brain. It usually occurs in an age range of 35-75 and it is more common in individuals with a positive family history of dementia.
Pinealoma Pinealocytoma
Pineal Parenchymal Tumor
Pineal Tumor
Pineal Neoplasm
Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor (MeSH).
Polyradiculoneuropathy Polyneuropathy
Peripheral Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy ( GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots (MeSH).
Post-Traumatic Epilepsy Traumatic Epilepsy
Impact Seizure
Post-Traumatic Seizure Disorder
Concussive Convulsion
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object ( CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries ( HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements (MeSH).
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-Traumatic Neurosis
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event (MeSH).
Post-Vaccinal Encephalomyelitis Post-Vaccinal Encephalitis
Vaccination Encephalitis
Postvaccinal Encephalitis
Form of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis induced by a vacine-related infection.
Posterior Cerebral Artery Infarction Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke
PCA Infarction
Posterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome
Formation of an area of coagulation necrosis induced by ischemia in the vascular distribution of the posterior cerebral artery. This artery supplies portions of the MESENCEPHALON (see also BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS) and thalamus, inferomedial TEMPORAL LOBE, and medial OCCIPITAL LOBE. Clinical manifestations vary with the size and location of infarction, but include a variety of midbrain and thalamic syndromes, HEMIANOPSIA, and behavioral syndromes related to memory and processing visual information (MeSH).
Postexanthem Encephalomyelitis Form of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following an exanthem infection (exanthem or exanthema = an eruptive disease (as measles) or its symptomatic eruption (Merriam-Webster Online Dictonary, c. 2006-2007)).
Postinfectious Myelitis A form of Transverse Myelitis induced by an infection.(MeSH).
Postpartum Depression Post-Natal Depression
Post-Partum Depression
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth ( PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders (MeSH).
Postsynaptic Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome Slow-Channel Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
Postvaccinal Myelitis A form of Transverse Myelitis induced by a vaccine-induced infection.(MeSH).
Presynaptic Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome
Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Primary nervous system neoplastic disease Nervous Tissue Neoplasm
Nerve Tissue Neoplasm
Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves (MeSH).
Primitive Neuroectodermal Neoplasm Primitive Neuroepithelial Tumor
Primitive Neuroepithelial Neoplasm
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor
A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant (MeSH).
Prion Disease Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy
Prion Protein Disease
Transmissible Dementia
Prion-Induced Disorder
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES (MeSH).
Progressive Bulbar Palsy Bulbar paralysis
Bulbar Palsy
Fazio-Londe Syndrome
A motor neuron disease marked by progressive weakness of the muscles innervated by cranial nerves of the lower brain stem. Clinical manifestations include dysarthria, dysphagia, facial weakness, tongue weakness, and fasciculations of the tongue and facial muscles. The adult form of the disease is marked initially by bulbar weakness which progresses to involve motor neurons throughout the neuroaxis. Eventually this condition may become indistinguishable from AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS. Fazio-Londe syndrome is an inherited form of this illness which occurs in children and young adults (MeSH).
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy JC Polyomavirus Encephalopathy
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus ( JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months (MeSH).
Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME (MeSH).
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Steele-Richardson-Olszewski Syndrome
Progressive Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Steele-Richardson-Olszewski Disease
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei (MeSH).
Psychomotor Agitation Psychomotor Hyperactivity
Psychomotor Restlessness
Psychomotor Excitement
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions (MeSH).
Psychotic Disorder Psychosis Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Reflex Epilepsy A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals (MeSH).
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I
Sudek Atrophy
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome
Sympathetic Reflex Dystrophia
Shoulder-Hand Syndrome
Cervical Sympathetic Dystrophy
Algodystrophic Syndrome
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema (MeSH).
Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Acute Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Remitting-Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum (MeSH).
Retinal degeneration degeneration of retina * a retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304) (MSH) * retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. (CSP)
Retinal disease retinopathy
retinal disorder
Pathologic condition of the innermost of the three tunics of the eyeball or retina. (CSP)
Retinal drusen Drusen of retina
Colloid bodies in retina
Degenerative drusen of retina
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Retinal lattice degeneration Palisade degeneration of retina
Lattice retinal degeneration
Retinal lattice degeneration disorder
Retinitis Pigmentosa Pigmentary retinopathy
Tapetoretinal degeneration
Chorioretinal heredodystrophy
Rod cone Dystrophy
* hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field. (MSH) * group of inherited abnormalities in the retina; characterized by night blindness, retinal atrophy, weakening of the retinal vessels, pigment clumping, and contraction of the visual field. (CSP)
Retinoblastoma Retinal Glioblastoma
Retinal Glioma
Retinal Neuroblastoma
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition (MeSH).
Retinoschisis Retinoschisis disorder
Schisis of retina
Rett Syndrome Cerebroatrophic Hyperammonemia
Autism-Dementia-Ataxia-Loss of Purposeful Hand Use Syndrome
Rett Disorder
An inherited neurological developmental disorder that is associated with X-LINKED INHERITANCE and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. The affected female is normal until the age of 6-25 months when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills; ATAXIA; SEIZURES; autistic behavior; intermittent HYPERVENTILATION; and HYPERAMMONEMIA appear (MeSH).
Rolandic Epilepsy Benign Childhood Epilepsy With Centro-Temporal Spikes
Centrotemporal Epilepsy
Sylvian Epilepsy
Benign Rolandic Epilepsy of Childhood
Benign Rolandic Epilepsy
Rolands Epilepsy
Centralopathic Epilepsy
An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. The episodes tend to occur at night and may become secondarily generalized. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. The electroencephalogram shows characteristic high-voltage sharp waves over the central temporal regions, which are more prominent during drowsiness and sleep. In general, seizures do not continue beyond mid-adolescence (MeSH).
Schizophrenia Dementia Praecox
Schizophrenic Disorder
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, hallucinations, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior. (MeSH) A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, hallucinations, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior. (MeSH)
Scrapie Rida A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques (MeSH).
Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Mood Disorder A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights ( PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence (MeSH).
Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Seizures Non-Epileptic Convulsion
Convulsive Seizures
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder." (MeSH).
Sensory Partial Epilepsy Sensory Focal Seizure Disorder
Focal Sensory Seizure
Simple Partial Seizure
Sensory Seizure Disorder
Sensory Epilepsy
Partial Sensory Seizure
Special Sensory Symptoms
Sensory Partial Seizure Disorder
A disorder characterized by recurrent focal onset seizures which have sensory (i.e., olfactory, visual, tactile, gustatory, or auditory) manifestations. Partial seizures that feature alterations of consciousness are referred to as complex partial seizures ( EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) (MeSH).
Sexually transmitted disease sexually transmitted infection
Shared Paranoid Disorder Folie a Trois
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Folie a Deux
A condition in which two closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions. (MeSH)
Shy-Drager Syndrome Progressive Autonomic Failure
Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension
Dysautonomia-Orthostatic Hypotension Syndrome
Shy-Drager Type
Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension
Dysautonomic Orthostatic Hypotension
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension ( HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction (MeSH).
Simple Partial Epilepsy Simple Partial Seizure
Consciousness Preserved
Snail-track retinal degeneration Snail-track retinal degeneration disorder
Snowflake retinal degeneration Snowflake retinal degeneration disorder
Specific developmental disorder A developmental disorder of mental health that categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination., A developmental disease of mental health that categorizes specific learning disabilities and developmental disorders affecting coordination.
Spinal Cord Trauma Spinal Cord Injury
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.) (MeSH).
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Spinal Muscular Atrophy A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive (MeSH).
Spinal muscular atrophy adult onset proximal autosomal dominant late-onset Finkel-type spinal muscular atrophy
Finkel late-adult type SMA
Adult onset spinal muscular atrophy due to autosomal dominant mutation in the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B gene (VAPB, {605704.0001} (adapted from OMIM)
Spinal muscular atrophy disease spinal muscular atrophy A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary (MeSH).
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Spinocerebellar Atrophy
Spinal Cerebellar Ataxia
Dominantly-Inherited Spinocerebellar Ataxia
A group of dominantly inherited, predominatly late-onset, cerebellar ataxias which have been divided into multiple subtypes based on clinical features and genetic mapping. Progressive ataxia is a central feature of these conditions, and in certain subtypes POLYNEUROPATHY; DYSARTHRIA; visual loss; and other disorders may develop (MeSH).
Sporadic Retinoblastoma
Status Epilepticus A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity (MeSH).
Striatonigral Degeneration Striatonigral Atrophy A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN (MeSH).
Stupor Narcosis A state of reduced sensibility and response to stimuli which is distinguished from COMA in that the person can be aroused by vigorous and repeated stimulation. The person is still conscious and can make voluntary movements. It can be induced by CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS. The word derives from Latin stupere and is related to stunned, stupid, dazed or LETHARGY (MeSH).
Subacute Combined Degeneration Subacute Combined Neuropathy Degeneration A neuropathy due to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY or to excessive NITROUS OXIDE inhalation. It is associated with overproduction of the myelinolytic TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA (MeSH).
Subependymal Glioma Subependymal Astrocytoma
Subependymal Gliosis
Rare, slow-growing, benign intraventricular tumors, often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. The tumors are classified histologically as ependymomas and demonstrate a proliferation of subependymal fibrillary astrocytes among the ependymal tumor cells (MeSH).
Substance-Related Disorder Drug Abuse
Substance abuse disorder
Drug abuse disorder
Substance-induced organic mental disorder
Drug addiction
Substance abuse
Substance Use Disorder
Substance disorder
Disorder related to substance abuse, the side effects of a medication, toxin exposure, and ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS (MeSH).
Sudden acquired retinal degeneration Sudden acquired retinal degeneration disorder
Sympathetic Nervous System Diseases
Syncope Syncopal Episode
Drop Attack
Syncopal Vertigo
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope (MeSH).
Synkinesis An involuntary movement accompanying a volitional movement. It often refers to facial movements that accompany FACIAL PARALYSIS (MeSH).
Synucleopathy synucleopathies Disease of nervous system characterized by alpha synuclein-positive depositions in neurons
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Lateral Temporal Epilepsy
Childhood Benign Psychomotor Epilepsy
Uncinate Epilepsy
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion) (MeSH).
Tic Habit Chorea
Habit Spasm
Habituation Spasm
Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS (MeSH).
Tic Disorder Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped, involuntary movements). Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).\\n\\nDSM-IV-TR diagnosis codes for the tic disorders are:\\n\\n307.20 Tic Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)\\n\\n307.21 Transient Tic Disorder\\n\\n307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder\\n\\n307.23 Tourette's Disorder\\n\\n\\nICD10 diagnosis codes are:\\n\\nF95.0 Transient tic disorder\\n\\nF95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder\\n\\nF95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (de la Tourette)\\n\\nF95.8 Other tic disorders\\n\\nF95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified, Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped, involuntary movements). Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).\\\\n\\\\nDSM-IV-TR diagnosis codes for the tic disorders are:\\\\n\\\\n307.20 Tic Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)\\\\n\\\\n307.21 Transient Tic Disorder\\\\n\\\\n307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder\\\\n\\\\n307.23 Tourette's Disorder\\\\n\\\\n\\\\nICD10 diagnosis codes are:\\\\n\\\\nF95.0 Transient tic disorder\\\\n\\\\nF95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder\\\\n\\\\nF95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (de la Tourette)\\\\n\\\\nF95.8 Other tic disorders\\\\n\\\\nF95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified, Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped, involuntary movements). Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).\n\nDSM-IV-TR diagnosis codes for the tic disorders are:\n\n307.20 Tic Disorder NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)\n\n307.21 Transient Tic Disorder\n\n307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder\n\n307.23 Tourette's Disorder\n\n\nICD10 diagnosis codes are:\n\nF95.0 Transient tic disorder\n\nF95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder\n\nF95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (de la Tourette)\n\nF95.8 Other tic disorders\n\nF95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified
Timothy Syndrome A rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by physical malformations, as well as neurological and developmental defects, including heart QT-prolongation, heart arrhythmias, structural heart defects, syndactyly (webbing of fingers and toes) and autism spectrum disorders.
Tonic Epilepsy
Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy Tonic-Clonic Convulsions
Grand Mal Convulsions
Tonic-Clonic Seizure Disorder
Tonic-Clonic Convulsion Syndrome
Grand Mal Seizure Disorder
Grand Mal Convulsions Epilepsy
Tonic-Clonic Convulsion Disorder
Major Motor Seizure Disorder
Tonic-Clonic Seizure Syndrome
Major Epilepsy
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process) (MeSH).
Torticollis Wryneck
Cervical Dystonia
A common form of DYSTONIA due to involuntary sustained or spasmodic, repetitive muscle contractions in the neck region. According to the position of the twisted neck and head, cervical dystonia can be categorized as torticollis, laterocollis, retrocollis, and a combination of these abnormal postures; A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors. (MeSH).
Tourette's syndrome Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
Tourette's Syndrome
Tourette syndrome
Tourette's disorder
A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics have been present at some time during the illness. A tic is a sudden rapid recurrent, non rhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization.
Transient tic disorder Transient tic disorder consists of multiple motor and/or phonic tics with duration of at least 4 weeks, but less than 12 months.
Transitional Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
Transverse Myelitis Necrotizing Myelitis
Acute Transverse Myelitis
Transverse Myelopathy Syndrome
Demyelinative Myelitis
Subacute Transverse Myelitis
Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence (MeSH).
Traumatic Stress Disorder Stress Disorder
Stress-related disorder
Anxiety disorders manifested by the development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is outside the normal range of usual human experience. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, increased arousal, and numbing of responsiveness to or reduced involvement with the external world. Traumatic stress disorders can be further classified by the time of onset and the duration of these symptoms (MeSH).
Traumatic brain injury TBI
intracranial injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g. occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area). Head injury usually refers to TBI, but is a broader category because it can involve damage to structures other than the brain, such as the scalp and skull. (Wikipedia)
Tremor Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE (MeSH).
Type 0 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)
Type I Canavan Disease Neonatal Canavan Disease
Type I Spinal Muscular Atrophy Hereditary Motor Neuropathy Proximal Type I
Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease
Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy
SMA Proximal Type I
A severe type of spinal muscular atrophy, with on set of symptoms generally in infancy. Children with Type I SMA never sit.
Type II Canavan Disease Infantile Canavan Disease
Spongy Degeneration of Infancy
Type II Spinal Muscular Atrophy Late infantile spinal muscular atrophy
Type 2 SMA
SMA type 2
type 2 spinal muscular atrophy
Form of intermediate spinal muscular atrophy of medium severity. Children with type 2 SMA can sit but do not walk.
Type III Canavan Disease Juvenile Canavan Disease
Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Kugelberg-Welander Disease
Juvenile Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Type IV Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Adult onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Unconsciousness Loss of Consciousness
Unconscious State
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition (MeSH).
Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome Baltic Myoclonus
Unverricht Disease
Lundborg-Unverricht Syndrome
Baltic Myoclonus Epilepsy
Mediterranean Myoclonic Epilepsy
An autosomal recessive condition characterized by recurrent myoclonic and generalized seizures, ATAXIA, slowly progressive intellectual deterioration, dysarthria, and intention tremor. Myoclonic seizures are severe and continuous, and tend to be triggered by movement, stress, and sensory stimuli. The age of onset is between 8 and 13 years, and the condition is relatively frequent in the Baltic region, especially Finland (MeSH).
Usher Syndrome dystrophia retinae pigmentosa-dysostosis syndrome
Hallgren syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome
retinitis pigmentosa-congenital deafness syndrome
dystrophia retinae-dysacousis syndrome
Graefe-Usher syndrome
* a hereditary disorder characterized by deaf-mutism, retinitis pigmentosa, and occasional mental retardation. Early cases were reported mainly in Jews in Germany but later observations came from Finland, Norway, France, England, Israel, Louisiana. (the Acadian type affecting 4.4 per 100,000), and other parts. Several types are recognized: Type I. Synonyms: Usher syndrome type I (US1, USH1) Usher syndrome type IA (US1A, USH1A) Usher syndrome, French type Type IB Synonyms: Usher syndrome type IB (US1B, USH1B) Usher syndrome, non-Acadian variety Type IC Synonyms: Usher syndrome type IC (US1C, USH1C) Usher syndrome, Acadian variety Profound congenital deafness with onset of retinitis pigmentosa by the age of 10 years. Type II Synonyms: Usher syndrome type II (US2, USH2) Type IIB Synonyms: Usher syndrome IIB (US2B, USH2B) Type III Synonyms: Usher syndrome type III (US3, USH3) Retinitis pigmentosa first noted at puberty with progressive hearing loss. Schizophrenia reported in some cases. Type IV Synonyms: Usher syndrome type IV (US4, USH4) Retinitis pigmentosa and deafness possibly transmitted as an X-linked trait. (JABL) * autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable. (MSH) * hereditary disorder believed to occur in two forms: (1) characterized by congenital deafness and severe retinitis pigmentosa, and (2) in which the inner ear and retina are less severely affected; most cases are transmitted as autosomal recessive trait, but some forms are X-linked. (CSP)
Usher syndrome type I Usher syndrome type 1
Usher syndrome type II Usher syndrome type 2
Usher syndrome type III Usher syndrome type 3
Variant-Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD Variant
New Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
A new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) has been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS (MeSH).
Vasovagal Syncope Malignant Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Supine Syncope
Neurally Mediated Faint
Neurally-Mediated Vasovagal Syncope
Cerebral Syncope
Vasodepressor Syncope
Neurogenic Syncope
Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation (MeSH).
Wallenberg Syndrome Lateral medullary syndrome
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Syndrome
Lateral Bulbar syndrome
Dorsolateral Medullary Syndrome
Vieseaux-Wallenberg Syndrome
Infarction of the dorsolateral aspect of the medulla due to occlusion of the vertebral artery and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS (MeSH)
Weber Syndrome Anatomical location: Base of Midbrain; Vasculature: Posterior cerebral artery: Penetrating branches to midbrain; Symptoms: contralateral - weakness in upper and lower extremity - ipsilateral: lateral gaze weakness
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke Syndrome
Gayet-Wernicke Encephalopathy
Cerebral Beriberi
Wernicke Disease
An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME (MeSH).
Wet senile macular retinal degeneration Exudative age-related macular degeneration disorder
Subretinal neovascularization of macula
Junius-Kuhnt degeneration
Kuhnt-Junius degeneration disorder
Kuhnt-Junius degeneration
Exudative senile macular degeneration of retina
Disciform senile macular retinal degeneration
Exudative senile macular retinal degeneration
X-Linked Retinoschisis Retinoschisis disorder
Juvenile retinoschisis
X chromosome recessive disorder, found nearly exclusively in males and becoming apparent around puberty. Characterized initially by a cystlike structure involving the FOVEA CENTRALIS, a peripheral retinoschisis occurs in about half the patients.


Admin, Akash, Slarson


*Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information.