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This is a list of all neurons that have definitions. There are 576 neurons with definitions in NeuroLex. This list is also available in CSV

  • For neurons organized by neurotransmitter, click here
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  • For only those neurons that are found in invertebrates, click here
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Neurolex Neuron is implementing a consistent naming scheme. More information can be found on the INCF Program on Ontologies for Neural Structures pages.

Overview


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Detail

Definition Neurotransmitter Synonym Located in MolecularConstituents ExampleImage
A1 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 1 (FBbt_00001748).
A2 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 2 (FBbt_00001749).
A3 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 3 (FBbt_00001750).
A4 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 4 (FBbt_00001751).
A5 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 5 (FBbt_00001752).
A6 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 6 (FBbt_00001753).
A7 neuron Any abdominal neuron (FBbt_00001987) that is part of some larval abdominal segment 7 (FBbt_00001754).
A8 neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that is part of some abdominal segment 8 (FBbt_00000029).
Abdominal intersegmental bidendritic neuron isbp Bipolar multidendritic neuron in the lateral sensory cluster of larval abdominal segments 1-7. Located at the anterior segment boundary, it emits two long dendritic branches along the segment border muscle (muscle 8) (Williams and Shepherd, 1999). abdominal intersegmental bidendritic neuron isbd
Abdominal intersegmental trachea-associated neuron istd Trachea associated multidendritic neuron located anteriorly in the lateral sensory cluster of larval abdominal segments 1-7.
Abdominal neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that is part of some abdomen (FBbt_00000020).
Abdominal posterior fascicle neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that fasciculates with some abdominal segmental nerve (FBbt_00002197).
Abducens nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the abducens nucleus. Acetylcholine abducens nucleus motor cell
6th nerve motor neuron
VIth nerve motor neuron
Abducens nucleus Abducens nucleus motor neuron.JPG
Accessory nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the Acessory nucleus. Acetylcholine spinal accessory nerve
acessory nucleus motor cell
11th nerve motor neuron
XIth nerve motor neuron
Adult DN period neuron Period (FBgn0003068) expressing neuron of the adult brain whose cell body is located in the posterior, dorsal-most cortex.
Adult Pdf neuron Pdf expressing neuron that is part of the adult.
Adult anterior LK leucokinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses leucokinin (FBgn0028418) and whose cell body is located superficially in the posterior side of the median protocerebrum (de Haro et al., 2010). adult ALK neuron
Adult dMP2 ILP7 neuron An adult dMP2 neuron that expresses ILP7. There are two per abdominal segment, all projecting to the hindgut. These projections have ILP7 positive swellings and connect to the anterior intestines and the rectum. Their terminals are also sites of ILP7 localization (Miguel-Aliaga et al., 2008).
Adult deuterocerebrum DC tachykinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) whose cell body is located in the cortex of the anterior deuterocerebrum close to the antennal lobes. There are about 8 pairs of cell bodies per hemisphere (Winther et al., 2003). adult TC1 neuron
Adult dorsomedial neurosecretory cell Neurosecretory cell of the pars intercerebralis that extend ventrally and branch before exiting the brain. It extends thin branches laterally in the dorsal protocerebrum, shorter branches along the cell neurites in the dorsal part of the median bundle and extensive arborizations in the tritocerebrum (Enell et al., 2010). The two branches follow the aorta and innervate the corpus cardiacum in the ring gland and the hypocerebral ganglion, near the cardiac valve of the midgut. One of the branches follows the stalk of the crop, whilst the other bifurcates, with each of these branches extending along each side of the midgut (Cao and Brown, 2001). Located in a bilateral cell body cluster of five to seven cells in each hemisphere (Cao and Brown, 2001, Broughton et al., 2005). MNC
Adult lateral horn LHKL leucokinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses leucokinin (FBgn0028418) and whose large cell body is located in the lateral horn. Its thin processes run ventrally before bifurcating into two main collateral branches which innervate the superior lateral and median protocerebrum, the region around the mushroom body pedunculus and the mushroom body calyx. There is one neuron per hemisphere (de Haro et al., 2010). LHLK
Adult leucokinin SELK neuron of the subesophageal ganglion Adult neuron that expresses leucokinin (FBgn0028418) whose cell body is located in the ventromedial subesophageal ganglion. The axon collaterals in the brain innervate the subesophageal ganglion ipsi- and contralaterally, the tritocerebrum and fasciculate with the maxillary and labral nerve. Four axons extend along the cervical connective to the ventral nerve cord. The axons that extend along the ventral nerve cord connect to the leucokinin ABLK neurons. There are two to three pairs of neurons (de Haro et al., 2010). adult SELK neuron
Adult leucokinin neuron of the central nervous system An adult neuron that expresses leucokinin (FBgn0028418) and that is located in the central nervous system (de Haro et al., 2010).
Adult olfactory receptor neuron Any olfactory receptor neuron (FBbt_00005926) that is part of some adult (FBbt_00003004). adult odorant receptor neuron
Adult olfactory receptor neuron Ir64a Bilateral olfactory receptor neuron that expresses the ionotropic glutamate receptor (Ir) 64a (FBgn0035604) and the co-receptor Ir8a (FBgn0052704). Its axon branches, with one branch innervating the ipsilateral antennal lobe glomeruli DL4 and DP1 medial compartment and the other fasciculating with the antennal commissure and innervating the contralateral antennal lobe glomeruli DC4 and DP1 medial compartment (Ai et al., 2010, Silbering et al., 2011). Its dendrite transduces signals from the grooved sensillum of chamber III of the sacculus (Shanbhag et al., 1995). Ir64a
Adult optic lobe OL tachykinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) and whose cell body is located at the base of the optic lobe. There are about 10 pairs of cell bodies per hemisphere (Winther et al., 2003). adult OL neuron
Adult pacemaker neuron Pacemaker neuron that is part of the adult nervous system.
Adult protocerebral LPP1 tachykinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) and whose cell body is located in the posterior protocerebrum. One cluster of around 12 cell bodies is found per hemisphere (Winther et al., 2003). adult LPP1 neuron
Adult protocerebral LPP2 tachykinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976), whose cell body is located in the lateral posterior protocerebrum and that innervates the superior median protocerebrum and the fan-shaped body. One cluster of around 10 cell bodies is found per hemisphere (Winther et al., 2003). adult LPP2 neuron
Adult protocerebral MPP tachykinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) and whose cell body is located in the median posterior protocerebrum. One cluster of around 3 cell bodies is found per hemisphere (Winther et al., 2003). adult MPP neuron
Adult tachykinin neuron of the central nervous system An adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) and that is located in the central nervous system (Winther et al., 2003).
Adult tachykinin neuron of the thoracic-abdominal ganglion Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) whose cell body is located in the thoracic-abdominal ganglion. There are 10 to 12 pairs in the prothoracic, 5 to 6 in the mesothoracic, 8 to 12 in the metathoracic and 1 to 2 in the abdominal neuromeres (Winther et al., 2003).
Adult tritocerebral TC1 tachykinin neuron Adult neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976), whose cell body is located in the tritocerebrum and which innervates, among other regions, the fan-shaped body. One cluster of around 16 cell bodies is found per hemisphere (Winther et al., 2003). tritocerebral neuron TC1
Amacrine neuron A neuron characterized by amacrine extensions. Discovered first by Herophilus (335-263 BC) in the retina. Considered initially without axon, now they are commonly found in nerve nets, where they may have an axon and/or dendrite. Adapted from Swanson, 2013. amacrine cell
Aminergic neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some amine (CHEBI:32952).
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex nonpyramidal PV basket cell Multipolar nonpyramidal interneuron whose axon forms multiple synaptic contacts with the somata of numerous neighboring pyramidal cells. It is one of several parvalbumin-containing interneuronal subpopulations. GABA Basolateral nuclear complex Parvalbumin
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex nonpyramidal PV chandelier cell Multipolar nonpyramidal interneuron whose axon forms multiple synaptic contacts with the axon initial segments of numerous neighboring pyramidal cells. It is one of several parvalbumin-containing interneuronal subpopulations. GABA axo-axonic interneuron Basolateral nuclear complex Parvalbumin
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex nonpyramidal SOM neuron Somatostatin-containing nonpyramidal neuron whose axon forms synaptic contacts with the distal dendrites and spines of neighboring pyramidal cells. Although generally considered an interneuron, at least some of these cells have distant axonal projections to the substantia innominata or entorhinal cortex. A subpopulation expresses neuropeptide Y. GABA Basolateral nuclear complex Somatostatin
Amygdala basolateral nuclear complex pyramidal neuron These neurons make up ~80-85% of neurons in the basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala. Unlike cortical pyramidal cells, they are not arranged with parellel apical dendrites but are randomly organized. Glutamate Pyramidal cell basolateral amygdalar nucleus
Amygdala basolateral nucleus pyramidal neuron
Basolateral nuclear complex Calcium calmodulin protein kinase II Amygdala basolateral nucleus pyramidal neuron.JPG
Amygdala intercalated nuclei small spiny neuron Small spiny principal neurons of the intercalated nuclei. These nuclei are clusters of neurons surrounding rostral portions of the basolateral nuclear complex. Some of these clusters are located adjacent to the external capsule or intermediate capsule (paracapsular intercalated nuclei). GABA paracapsular intercalated cell (ITC) Intercalated amygdaloid nuclei
Amygdala lateral central nucleus medium spiny neuron Medium-sized, multipolar, principal neuron found in lateral portions of the central nucleus. It has very spiny dendrites and closely resembles the medium spiny neuron of the adjacent striatum. GABA Central amygdaloid nucleus Corticotropin releasing factor
Neurotensin
Somatostatin
Enkephalin
Antennal lobe (Honey bee) interneuron Interglomerular local interneurons in the antennal lobe of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Homoglomerular and heteroglomerular innervation patterns. Total of 4000 neurons, about two third GABA immunoreactive. Other transmitters possibly histamine and glutamate. GABA
Histamine
Glutamate
Antennal lobe local interneuron Antennal lobe
Antennal lobe (Honey bee) principal neuron Projection neuron of the honey bee, Apis mellifera,whose soma is located on the rind of the antennal lobe.The axons of uniglomerular projection neurons project to the mushroom body calyx and to the lateral horn in the protocerebral lobe.The axons of the multiglomerular projction neurons project to the protocebral lobe only. Acetylcholine Antennal lobe principal neuron Antennal lobe rind
Antennal lobe (Manduca) interneuron local interneuron in the tobacco hornworm moth, in neuronal cell groups at the border of the antennal lobe (mainly lateral group) that express various neuropeptides in subsets of LNs GABA multiglomerular local interneuron Antennal lobe Neuropeptide
Antennal lobe (Manduca) principal neuron uniglomerular principal neuron in the antennal lobe of the tobacco hornworm moth, in neuronal cell groups on the border of the antennal lobe, mainly medial and anterior cell groups. It likely uses acetylcholine as a transmitter. The axon projects to lateral protocerebrum with collaterals in the mushroom body. Acetylcholine uniglomerular projection neuron
medial-antenno-protocerebral-tract projection neuron
inner-antennocerebral-tract projection neuron
Antennal lobe
Antennal olfactory receptor neuron Odorant receptor neuron (ORN) whose dendrite transduces signals from some antennal sensillum. The axons of these neurons fasciculate in the antennal nerve and innervate the antennal lobe. antennal ORN
Anterior crossvein campaniform sensillum neuron Neuron associated with the wing anterior crossvein sensillum (Murray et al., 1984). sensillum campaniformium of anterior crossvein neuron
Anterior fascicle sensory neuron Any sensory neuron (FBbt_00005124) that fasciculates with some intersegmental nerve (FBbt_00001997).
Aplysia buccal 15 Accessory radular closure (ARC) muscle motor neuron. Acetylcholine
Aplysia buccal 20 pattern initiating neuron. Biases feeding motor patterns to rejection type. Dopamine Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia buccal 30 aplysia buccal neuron that is active during protraction phase and promotes the expression of ingestion type activity motor patterns. Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia buccal 31 Initiates feeding motor patterns. Active during the protraction phase of feeding motor patterns. Aplysia buccal 31
Aplysia buccal 32
Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia buccal 4 Sensory motor neuron of the buccal ganglia. Acetylcholine Aplysia buccal 5 Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia buccal 51 Active during the retraction phase of feeding motor patterns. Biases feeding motor patterns towards ingestion like. Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia buccal 61 Intrinsic muscle 2 motor neuron. Mediates protraction of the radula. Aplysia buccal 62
B62
Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia buccal 8 Motor neuron that innervates the I4 muscle to mediate radular closure. Aplysia buccal ganglia
Aplysia cerebral ganglion metacerebral cell Largest Serotonergic Neuron in the anterior portion of the cerebral ganglion of Aplysia. This neuron has axons that project to the buccal ganglion. Serotonin Giant Serotonergic Neuron
Metacerebral cell
Cerebral ganglia Aplysia cerebral ganglion metacerebral cell.jpg
Basalis nucleus cholinergic neuron Large multipolar neuron (also described as polyhedral) found in the nucleus basalis of Meynert in the basal forebrain that uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Most of the dendrites are very long giving a thick network of secondary and tertiary dendritic branches in a radial three dimensional arrangement in the neuropil space. The secondary and tertiary dendritic branches are studded with long fusiform or triangular spines (Baloyannis, S. J., Costa, V., Psaroulis, V., Arzoglou, L. Papsotiriou (1994) The nucleus basalis of Meynert of the human brain: a Golgi and electron microscope study) Int J Neurosci., 78: 33-41. Acetylcholine Cholinergic nucleus basalis cell
Nucleus basalis polyhedral neuron
Cholinergic nucleus basalis neuron
Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis oval nucleus Basalis nucleus cholinergic neuron.JPG
Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis beaded neuron Neuron located within the core of the nucleus (BSTov) that is termed a beaded neuron (BN) because of its rounded soma and numerous spherules along both dendrites and axon (Fig. 11). The soma measures from 12 to 17 micrometers in its widest axis and is nearly spherical, having a rather smooth profile. The soma issues two or three short primary dendrites, which usually run horizontally. After a short distance (10 to 40 micrometers), these proximal branches give rise to sets of two to five long, secondary dendrites. The occurrence of third to order dendrites is variable, as is their length (20 to 150 micrometers). A defining characteristic of BN dendrites is the presence of distinct varicosities that are virtually devoid of dendritic spines. The BN axon and its collaterals also exhibit a series of small spherules (0.3-0.5 um) united by thin axonal bridges (Lariva-Sahd, 2006, as reported in http://brancusi.usc.edu/bkms). BNST beaded cell
BNST beaded neuron
Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis oval nucleus
Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dense axon plexus-forming neuron Among the short to axon neurons, the neurogliaform (NG) and spinous neurogliaform (SNG) types have an extremely dense plexus, and both fall into the DAPF category (Jones, 1984). Both cell types are found in the upper half of the core of the Ov. beaded cell
BNST dense axon plexus-forming neuron
Bed nuclei of the stria terminalis oval nucleus
Bilateral intrinsic neuron A midline crossing bilateral intrinsic neuron that projects only within some pair of bilaterally symmetric synaptic neuropil domains and their connecting tracts. For example within the left and right antennal lobes and antennal commissure.
Bipolar dendrite neuron Multidendritic neuron with bipolar dendrites that grow in opposite directions without major side branches. These neurons are located inside the body and are often associated with muscles.
Campaniform sensillum L3-1 of wing vein L3 neuron Neuron innervating the L3-1 campaniform sensillum of wing vein L3.
Campaniform sensillum L3-2 of wing vein L3 neuron Neuron innervating the second, medially located campaniform sensillum of wing vein L3.
Campaniform sensillum L3-3 of wing vein L3 neuron Neuron innervating the campaniform sensillum L3-3 of wing vein L3.
Carbon dioxide sensitive neuron Neuron involved in the detection of carbon dioxide (GO:0003031). CO2 sensitive neuron
Cerebellum Golgi cell Large intrinsic neuron located in the granule layer of the cerebellar cortex that extends its dendrites into the molecular layer where they receive contact from parallel fibers. The axon of the Golgi cell enters ramifies densely in the granule layer and enters into a complex arrangement with mossy fiber terminals and granule cell dendrites to form the cerebellar glomerulus. Llinas, Walton and Lang. In The Synaptic Organization of the Brain. 5th ed. 2004. GABA Cerebellar Golgi neuron
Cerebellar golgi cell
Granular layer of cerebellar cortex Cerebellum Golgi cell.jpg
Cerebellum Lugaro cell Type of neuron found in cerebellar granule cell layer characterized by a fusiform cell body with thick, horizontally oriented dendrites. Lugaro cells are located in or slightly below the Purkinje cell layer outermost edge of the granular layer. GABA Cerebellum
Purkinje cell layer of cerebellar cortex
Granular layer of cerebellar cortex
GABA Cerebellum Lugaro cell.jpg
Cerebellum Purkinje cell Principal neuron (projection neuron) of the cerebellar cortex; cell bodies arranged in a single layer; characterized by a pear-shaped cell body, 1 (rarely 2) primary dendrites and an elaborate dendritic tree heavily invested with dendritic spines. GABA Purkinje neuron
Purkinje's corpuscles
Cerebellar Purkinje neuron
Purkinje Cell
Purkyne cell
Corpuscles of Purkinje
cerebellar purkinje cell
Purkinje cell layer of cerebellar cortex Cerebellum Purkinje cell.gif
Cerebellum basket cell Intrinsic cell residing in the inner third of the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Axons extend laterally, transverse to the folium, and densely innervate the somata of Purkinje neurons. Axon collaterals of the basket cell axon form the specialized terminal plexus, the "pinceau", around the Purkinje cell axon initial segment. Llinas, Walton and Lang. In: The Synaptic Organization of the Brain. 5th ed. 2004. GABA Cerebellar basket cell Molecular layer of cerebellar cortex
Cerebellum candelabrum cell Neuron with perikaryon located inside the Purkinje cell layer. It is squeezed, either between the bulging parts of the PC somata or in the space left free between their upper poles, just at the level of the lower border of the molecular layer. candelabrum cell
candelabrum neuron
Cerebellum
Purkinje cell layer of cerebellar cortex
Cerebellum candelabrum cell.JPG
Cerebellum granule cell Small, numerous neuron in the granule cell layer of the vertebrate cerebellar cortex, characterized by a very small soma and several short dendrites which terminate with claw-shaped endings. In the transmission electron microscope, these cells are characterized by a darkly stained nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. The axon ascends into the molecular layer where it bifurcates to form parallel fibers which run parallel to the long axis of the folium. Llinas, Walton and Lang. Cerebellum. In The Synaptic Organization of the Brain. 5th ed. 2004. Glutamate Cerebellar granule neuron
Cerebellar granule cell
Granular layer of cerebellar cortex Cerebellar granule cell.gif
Cerebellum nucleus reciprocal projections neuron ...perfectly matched those (2) described previously reciprocal, non to reciprocal and symmetrical projections were found. Collator note: this neurons receive projections from Purkinke cells and send feedback axons to the same cerebellar cortex neurons. From reciprocal projections neuron
cerebellar nuclei
Cerebellum
Deep cerebellar nuclear complex
Cerebellum stellate cell Multipolar neuron found in cerebellar molecular layer. GABA Cerebellar stellate neuron
Cerebellar stellate cell
Cerebellum
Molecular layer of cerebellar cortex
Cerebellum stellate cell.GIF
Cerebellum unipolar brush cell A type of cell in the cerebellar cortex, first described in 1977 by Altman and Bayer, characterized by a single dendrite ending in a small brush consisting of a number of small dendrites called dendrioles. Unipolar brush cells are found in primarily in the granular cell layer and most concentrated in lobule IX, the flocculus, the nodulus and the ventromedial zone of the paraflocculus. Their somata are larger than granule cells but smaller than Golgi cells. They are known to stain for calretinin. Glutamate Unipolar brush neuron
Unipolar brush cell
Granular layer of cerebellar cortex Calretinin Cerebellum unipolar brush cell.JPG
Chemosensory neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception (GO:0050907).
Chemosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 7 One of seven chemosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 7 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Chemosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 8 Chemosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 8 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Chemosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 9 Chemosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 9 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Cholinergic neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some acetylcholine (CHEBI:15355).
Class I dendritic arborizing neuron A dendritic arborizing md sensory neuron with a long, dorsally directed primary dendrite which branches repeatedly along its length into antero-posteriorly oriented secondary dendrites. The dendrites are smooth and their branching pattern is relatively simple, with few side branches or varicosities. class I dendritic arborising neuron
Class II dendritic arborizing neuron A dendritic arborizing md sensory neuron with multiple long and sinuous dendrites. Their branching pattern is relatively symmetrical. Higher order branches are generally short stubs extending from the major trunks. class II da
Class III dendritic arborizing neuron A dendritic arborizing md sensory neuron with long primary and secondary dendrites that have spiked protrusions along most of their length and at the ends of major branches. class III da
Class IV dendritic arborizing neuron A dendritic arborizing md sensory neuron with a highly complex branching pattern that completely fills large regions of the body wall with its arbors. Each cell may have 800-900 terminal branches and more than 6 branch orders. class IV da
Cochlea inner hair cell A pear-shaped epithelial cell that is medially placed re: the inner pillar and forms a single row within the organ of Corti. Resting potential is modulated by perturbations in stereocilia located at the apical pole of the cell. In contrast to outer hair cells, the inner hair cells are fewer in number, have fewer stereocilia, and are less differentiated. They do, however, receive ~95% of the auditory-nerve dendrites. Although a single auditory nerve fiber innervates several outer hair cells, each inner hair cell receives several more heavily myelinated, auditory-nerve dendrites. Neurotransmitter release activates the auditory nerve, which leads to the cochlear nucleus within the central auditory pathway.(MSH) Glutamate Cochlear Inner Hair Cell
Inner Hair Cell
Cochlea hair cell inner
Spiral organ of Corti Otoferlin
VGLUT3
Cochlea outer hair cell In mammals, the outer hair cells are arranged in three rows that are further removed from the modiolus than the single row of inner hair cells. Although receiving only ~5% of the innervating auditory nerve dendrites, the motile properties of the outer hair cells actively contribute to the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the cochlea. The process of somatic electromotility, due to the presence of the motor protein, prestin, is essential for normal cochlear function. Outer hair cell function is also directly influenced by efferent input from the medial superior olivary complex. (MSH) Glutamate
Aspartate
Cochlear Outer Hair Cell
Outer Hair Cell
Cochlea
Spiral organ of Corti
Prestin
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) cartwheel cell Cartwheel cell bodies lie on the superficial side of the pyramidal (or fusiform) cell layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Their spiny dendrites receive input from the axons of granule cells (parallel fibers) and their axons release GABA and glycine onto cartwheel, pyramidal and giant cell targets. Cartwheel cells share many of the features, molecular and electrophysiological, of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Glycine
GABA
Cartwheel neuron Somas lie at the superficial side of the pyramidal (fusiform) cell layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. PEP19
Cerebellin
GAD
GlyT2
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) giant cell Large multipolar cells located in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Like the pyramidal (fusiform) cells, a principal neuron of the DCN. Their dendrites, branching sparsely across isofrequency bands, are smooth until they reach the molecular layer, where the tips are spiny. The axons join pyramidal cell axons to form the DAS (dorsal acoustic stria) through which they project to the contralateral inferior colliculus. Likely glutamate None Deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) pyramidal neuron Bipolar neuron in dorsal cochlear nucleus, whose cell bodies form a band in the pyramidal cell layer. Characterized by a spiny apical dendritic tree in the molecular layer and a smooth basal dendritic tree in the deep layer. The apical dendrites have many branches which are contacted by parallel fibers from granule cells, whereas the basal dendrites have few branches and receive inputs from the auditory nerve. Excitatory neurotransmitter fusiform cell
dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal cell
Cochlear nuclear complex Cochlear nucleus pyramidal neuron.gif
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) unipolar brush cell Unipolar brush cells are characterized by having one dendrite that terminates in a paintbrush-like structure of dendrioles that receives input from a single mossy fiber terminal. The axon usually emanates from the opposite pole, branches 1-3 times and ends in mossy terminals. They were defined by E. Mugnaini and his colleagues in the 1990s. Glutamate DCN glutamatergic cell
Dorsal cochlear nucleus glutamatergic cell
Dorsal cochlear nucleus Calretinin
MGluR1alpha
Epidermal growth factor substrate 8 (Eps8)
T-box gene (Tbr2)
Alpha 6 GABA-A receptor
Actin
Cochlear nucleus (dorsal) vertical cell Intrinsic neuron found in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, whose cell bodies and dendrites are intermingled among the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells. Their dendrites are smooth and lie in the plane of an isofrequency sheet; in sections in standard planes, parts of the dendrites are cut so they appear to be oriented vertically, perpendicular to the plane of the layers. They are inhibitory and use glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine tuberculoventral cell
vertical cell
corn cell
Dorsal cochlear nucleus deep layer
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) globular bushy cell The distinction between globular and spherical bushy cells was originally reported by Osen on the basis of a difference in the shape of the cell bodies. Globular bushy cells lie in and around the root of the auditory nerve. Their axons project to the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), innervating principal cells with a calyx of Held. Glutamate Ventral cochlear nucleus
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) multipolar D cell One of two types of multipolar or stellate cells, D stellate cells are glycinergic inhibitory neurons named for having an axon that projects dorsalward into the dorsal cochlear nucleus and that exits through the intermediate acoustic stria to innervate the contralateral cochlear nucleus. Axons have widespread collaterals in the ventral cochlear nucleus and in the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Glycine D multipolar cell
type II (Cant
1981)
onset-chopper responses to tones
radial stellate
wide-band inhibitor
Ventral cochlear nucleus Glycine
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) multipolar T cell Principal cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus are named for having the axon exit the cochlear nucleus through the Trapezoid body. A band of dendrites in an isofrequency lamina receives input from a small number of auditory nerve fibers. Sharp tuning is enhanced by sideband inhibition. The population of T stellate cells encodes the spectra of sounds. Glutamate T multipolar cell
T stellate cell
type I
chopper
planar multipolar
Ventral cochlear nucleus
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) multipolar cell Multipolar neuron located in the ventral cochlear nucleus with multiple long dendrites extending from the cell soma. Two subclasses (D and T) are recognzed based on their alignment with auditory nerve fibers. Both types have axon collaterals that terminate locally near the cell soma. Cochlear nuclear complex Cochlear nucleus (ventral) multipolar cell.jpg
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) octopus cell Large neuron located in the octopus cell area of the posterior division of the ventral cochlear nucleus (called dorsal tail of the ventral cochlear nucleus by Cajal and nucleus interfascicularis by Lorente de No), whose dendrites emanate from one side of the cell body, giving them a shape reminiscent of an octopus. Glutamate Ventral cochlear nucleus octopus cell
octopus cell
Cochlear nuclear complex
Ventral cochlear nucleus
Octopus cell area
Dorsal tail of ventral cochlear nucleus
Nucleus interfascicularis
KCNA
HCN1
Parvalbumin
Calretinin
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) octopus cell.gif
Cochlear nucleus (ventral) spherical bushy cell Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus have one to four primary dendrites which branch profusely, giving them a "bushy" appearance. They project to the superior olivary nuclei. They carry information that is used to localize sounds in the azimuthal plane. Three types of bushy cells differ in the shapes of their somata and in their patterns of projection. The cell somata of these neurons have been described as "spherical" in the anterior division of the AVCN and "globular" in the posterior division of the AVCN. Large spherical bushy cells project to the medial superior olivary nuclei bilaterally, globular bushy cells project to the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Small spherical bushy cells project to the vicinity of the ipsilateral lateral superior olivary nucleus but it is not yet clear which cells are their targets. Their inputs from the spiral (cochlear) ganglion arise via the end bulbs of Held. Glutamate Bushy neuron
Bushy cell
ventral cochlear nucleus bushy cell
Ventral cochlear nucleus Cochlear nucleus (ventral) bushy cell.gif
Colliculus Inferior GABAergic Principal Cell Winer and colleagues (1996) first described that GABAergic neurons project to the medial geniculate body in cat. Peruzzi et al. (1997) showed that the cell type is also found in rats, and sends action potentials more rapidly than glutamatergic IC neurons. Ito and colleagues (2009) showed that the cell type is the largest neuron in the IC and receives dense VGLUT2-positive axosomatic terminals on the cell body. Other cell types such as glutamatergic neurons and small GABAergic neurons do not have such endings. GABA large GABAergic (LG) neurons Inferior colliculus Parvalbumin
Colliculus inferior intrinsic cell It is not established that there are "pure" local interneurons of which axons are restricted in the inferior colliculus (IC). However, even after a large injection of retrograde tracer into the medial geniculate body (MGB), a main target of IC projection, most small GABAergic neurons, which lack dense excitatory axosomatic terminals, were not labeled with the tracer. On the other hand, large GABAergic neurons send axons to the MGB. GABA small GABAergic (SG) neurons Inferior colliculus Parvalbumin
Colliculus inferior principal cell Around 80% of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) is glutamatergic (Ito and Oliver, 2012). They express vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 but not VGLUT1 or VGLUT3 (Ito and Oliver, 2010, 2011). Their main target is the medial geniculate body although they send axons to most auditory brainstem nuclei. Since majority of IC neurons are disc-shaped, which extend their dendrite parallel to isofrequency laminae (Oliver, 1984), majority of glutamatergic neurons are likely to be disc-shaped. Stellate neurons, which are less common and extend dendrite perpendicular to isofrequency laminae, also project to the medial geniculate body (Oliver, 1984). Glutamate Inferior colliculus principal neuron Inferior colliculus Vesicular glutamate transporter 2
Colliculus superior deep vertical fusiform cell Deep vertical fusiform cells have cell bodies about 20 micrometers wide and their dendrites extend from the upper margin of the zone of vertical cells to the depth of the zone of optic fibers perhaps even deeper. The superficial and deep fields are usually notably different in the manner in which the dendrites branch and spread, the over to all size of the fields, the shapes of the fields, the type and density of spines, and the caliber of the dendrites. deep vertical fusiform cell Superior colliculus
Colliculus superior intermediate vertical fusiform cell The intermediate vertical fusiform cells have cell bodies 12 to 18 micrometers in diameter in the upper portion of the zone of vertical cells and their dendritic fields extend from the collicular surface to the deep margin of the zone of vertical cells (fig. 12b, 13). Intermediate vertical fusiform cells most often have a superficial field with relatively fewer spines, straighter, more even caliber dendrites that branch less often but more equally than those in the deep field of the same cell (figs. 12b, 13). intermediate vertical fusiform cell Superior colliculus
Colliculus superior inverted pyramidal cell The inverted pyramidal cell is similar to the pyramidal cell except that the cell body lies within the deep portion of the zone of horizontal cells. The superficial field is a circumsomatic field and the deep field is elongated to reach into the deeper portion of the zone of vertical cells. The cell body is about the size of an intermediate vertical fusiform cell soma. The axon is similar, but more apt to have collaterals to the superficial zones. Inverted pyramidal cells fall within the definition of the narrow field vertical cells. inverted pyramidal cell Superior colliculus
Colliculus superior piriform cell The piriform cells have ovoid or cup shaped cell bodies, 10 to 15 micrometers in diameter, located within a narrow lamina along the deep margin of the zone of horizontal cells. The restriction of the piriform cell somata to the boundary between the zone of horizontal cells and the zone of vertical cells is remarkably accurate and consistent. The piriform cells give rise to 2 to 5 dendrites from the superficial surface, which course through the zone of horizontal cells to terminate just beneath the surface. As the ascending dendrites approach the surface they branch more frequently, almost always by equipartition, to form a complicated intermingling bouquet of slowly tapering dendrites, 150 to 350 micrometers in width and slightly less than 200 micrometers in depth. The axon most frequently takes its origin from the base of the soma, but sometimes it arises from one of the low order dendrites. From its origin the axon runs immediately down through the zone of vertical cells, occasionally with collaterals which may arborize within the superficial laminae. The axon is thin and smooth, occasionally with en passant varicosities. piriform cell
piriform neuron
Superior colliculus stratum opticum
Colliculus superior pyramidal cell Pyramidal cells are similar to vertical fusiform cells in most respects. They have a vertically elongated cell body, about 15 micrometers in transverse diameter, in the deeper half of the zone of vertical cells. The dendritic field is narrow and cylindrical, 100 to 250 micrometer in diameter, and extends from the upper margin of the zone of horizontal cells to the lower margin of the zone of vertical cells, about 500 micrometers. Rather than having superficial and deep fields, the pyramidal cell has the deep field reduced to a circumsomatic field, or a diminuitive basal field, and the superficial field is relatively elongated to accord with the deeper cell body. Pyramidal cells are usually multipolar, with one or two thick apical dendrites, which branch several times on the way to the surface, particularly in the upper portion of the zone of horizontal cells, and several smaller dendrites which form a small field about the cell body. It is of interest that smooth pyramidal cells tend to have two primary dendrites, like smooth vertical fusiform cells. The axon takes its origin from the soma or a low order dendrite and runs down into the deep zones. It is smooth and thin, about like that of the vertical fusiform cells. pyramidal cell Superior colliculus
Superior colliculus superficial gray layer
Colliculus superior stellate neuron The third major category of cells in the superior colliculus is the stellate cell. The cells are defined by the lack of overall orientation to the dendritic fields which extend symmetrically from the cell body. Stellate cells are multipolar with dendrites arising from any portion of the cell body. The dendrites may range anywhere from gnarled to radiate with the gnarled spiny cells most frequent in the zone of horizontal cells and the smooth radiate cells increasingly more frequent in the deeper zones until they are almost the only cell type in the zones below the stratum opticum. The dimensions of the cell bodies and dendritic fields are comparable to those of other cells in the same zone and the dendritic field is generally contained within the same zone as the cell body. The axons of stellate cells have both local and/or distant distributions and a morphology characteristic of intrinsic axons. As with all the other cell types, the axon may take its origin from the cell body or a low order dendrite. stellate neuron Superior colliculus
Colliculus superior type I ganglion cell Type I ganglion cells are the piriform cells. type I ganglion cell Superior colliculus
Colliculus superior wide field vertical cell There are two similar populations in the group of wide field vertical cells. The first lies in the deep margin of the zone of vertical cells where it looks very similar to the piriform cells relative to the zone of horizontal cells. Cajal called these the ovoid or triangular cells. The second population has its cell bodies distributed primarily to the upper portion of the zone of optic fibers. Cajal called these triangular or stellate cells. Cajal's nomenclature is rather bulky and, though descriptive, somewhat confusing because stellate cells are a distinct cell type in the nomenclature of this paper and triangular occurs in both names. For reasons developed below, the ovoid or triangular cells or wide field cells of the zone of vertical cells will be called Type II ganglion cells and the triangular or stellate cells or wide field cells of the zone of optic fibers will be called Type III ganglion cells. Type I ganglion cells are the piriform cells. Collator note: we assumed this class of neurons as projection neurons, because at least several subpopulations project to visually related areas. See Sefton et al., 2005; Mason and Groos, 1981; Mackay to Sim et al. 1983; Okoyama and Kudo, 1987). wide field vertical cell Superior colliculus
DN1 neuron DN (dorsal Period-expressing neuron of adult brain) whose cell body is located dorsal to the projections of the `s-LNv Pdf neurons` (FBbt_00003764). There are about 17 of these per cluster.
DN1a neuron Anteriorly located member of the Period-expressing DN1 cluster. There are two DN1a neurons per cluster located between 15 and 30 micrometers anterior to the DN1p cluster.
DN1p neuron Posteriorly located member of the Period-expressing DN1 cluster that expresses glass (FBgn0004618). There are 14-17 DN1p cells per cluster. Many, perhaps all cells in this cluster project through the dorsal fusion commissure (Helfrich-Forster et al., 2007). DN1p
DN2 neuron DN (dorsal Period-expressing neuron of adult brain) whose medium-sized cell body is located posteriorly in the dorsal superior brain, ventral to the projections of the `s-LNv Pdf neurons` (FBbt_00003764). There are 2 cells in each DN2 cluster.
DN3 neuron DN (dorsal Period-expressing neuron of adult brain) with a cell body located in the lateral-most cluster of Period expressing DN neurons. There are around 40 cells in each cluster.
DN3a neuron DN (dorsal Period-expressing neuron of adult brain) with a medium-sized cell body, located in the lateral-most cluster of per expressing DN neurons. There are two cells per hemisphere, each of which project anteriorly to the aMe (Helfrich-Forster et al., 2007).
Dendritic arborizing neuron Sensory multidendritic neuron of the PNS with branching dendrites that spread directly below and in close association with the epidermal cell layer. da neuron
Dentate gyrus HICAP cell "The Dentate gyrus HICAP cells (HIlar Commissural-Associational pathway related cells) are multipolar or triangular cells in the polymorphic layer with thin, aspiny dendrites that extend both within the hilus and within the molecular layer. the axons of these HICAP cells extend through the granule cell layer and branch profusely in the inner third of the molecular layer." GABA Hilar cell
Hilar neuron
Dentate gyrus
Dentate gyrus HIPP cell "The Dentate gyrus HIPP cell (HIlar Perforant Path-associated cell) is an interneuron in the Hippocampal formation. It is a long-spined multipolar cell that is conspicuous of distribution of copious, long and often branched spines over its cell body and dendrites. The axonal plexus can extend as much as 3.5mm along the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus. Since inhibitory interneurons typically have aspiny dendrites and relatively local axonal plexuses, this long spined multipolar/HIPP cell is a very atypical interneuron". GABA Dentate gyrus Somatostatin
Dentate gyrus IS-I cell The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. The Dentate gyrus IS-I class interneurons are visualized by immunostaining for Calretinin (CR) and establish multiple symmetrical synapses on the dendrites and somata of other CR-positive IS-I cells, Calbindin (CB) containing interneurons, and VIP-positive basket cells, but they do not innervate PV-containing interneurons. The dendrites of Dentate gyrus IS I neurons appear in all layers of Dentate gyrus and more characteristic feature of these dendrites is that they form long dendrodendritic junctions with each other. GABA DG Interneuron-specific cell Dentate gyrus Calretinin
Dentate gyrus IS-II cell The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. The Dentate Gyrus IS-II class interneurons are visualized by immunostaining for Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP). The dendrites of Dentate gyrus IS-II cells are present in all layers of Dentate gyrus. GABA DG Interneruon-specific II cell Dentate gyrus Calretinin
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Dentate gyrus MOPP cell The Dentate Gyrus MOPP cell (molecular layer perforant path-associated cell) is a interneuron in hippocampal formation. It is located deep in the DG molecular layer, has a multipolar or triangular cell body and gives rise to an axon that produces a substantial terminal plexus largely limited to the outer two thirds of the DG molecular layer. GABA Dentate gyrus
Dentate gyrus granule cell The dentate gyrus granule cell is the only principal cell of the dentate gyrus. Glutamate Dentate gyrus granule neuron
Granule cell of dentate gyrus
Dentate granule cell
DG granule cell
Dentate gyrus Dentate gyrus granule cell.gif
Dentate gyrus mossy cell Excitatory polymorphic intrinsic neuron of the dentate gyrus hilus Glutamate Mossy cell
Mossy neuron
Dentate gyrus mossy neuron
Dentate gyrus hilus
Dentate gyrus spiny CR cell The DG spiny CR cells are present mostly in regions where mossy fibers have a high density, i.e., in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and in stratum lucidum of CA3 subfield. The dendrites and somata frequently possess numerous long hair-like spines that penetrate into bundles of mossy fibers. GABA DG Spiny CR immunoreactive cell
DG Spiny CR-positive interneurons
Dentate gyrus Calretinin
Dentate gyrus trilaminar interneuron Neuron with soma in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. The dendritic arbor orientation and axon collateral distribution of this neuron resembles most the trilaminar neuron 0f CA1 region. The axon collaterals extend logitudinally into strata radiatum, pyramidale and oriens, some axon collaterals reaching the subiculum and a main branch entering the fimbria. The dendrites of these neurons run parallel with the pyramidal cell layer. Another special feature is these cells are calbindin-positive immunoreactive neurons. GABA Dentate gyrus Calbindin 28K
DesA neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a dorsal external sense (des) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
DesB neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a dorsal external sense (des) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
DesC neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a dorsal external sense (des) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
DesD neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a dorsal external sense (des) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
DesE neuron Most dorsal of the sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system that innervate a dorsal external sense (des) organ of the mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986).
Direct flight muscle motor neuron .
Dopaminergic PAL neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 5 cell bodies in the cortex located lateral to the dorsal portion of the vertical lobes in the middle of the superior lateral protocerebrum. PAL
Dopaminergic PAM neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 100 cell bodies in the cortex of the anterior inferior medial protocerebrum. At least some members of this group project to the medial tip of, and areas posterior to, the mushroom body medial lobe. PAM
Dopaminergic PPL1 neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 12 cell bodies in the cortex of the posterior inferior lateral protocerebrum. Members of this group project to various parts of the mushroom body: the tip of the alpha lobe, the tip of the alpha' lobe, the upper portion of the alpha lobe segment 2, alpha lobe segment 1 and the lower part of segment 2, and the pedunculus and spur. Other members of this group arborize in areas other than the mushroom body: the edge of the medial portions of the medial lobes, broad areas surrounding the ipsilateral vertical lobes, areas posterior to the ipsilateral vertical lobes, and the entire span of the superior arch. PPL1
Dopaminergic PPL2ab neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 6 cell bodies in the cortex of the posterior inferior lateral protocerebrum. Members of this group send processes to various parts of the brain: one group send processes to the calyx, the inferior portion of the lateral horn and broad areas in the middle superior medial protocerebrum, another group sends processes to the calyx, the entire lateral horn and broad areas of the middle superior protocerebrum, another subgroup innervates the lobula and broad protocerebral areas, and a final group innervates the posterior lateral protocerebrum. PPL2ab
Dopaminergic PPL2c neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 2 cell bodies in the cortex of the posterior lateral protocerebrum. PPL2c
Dopaminergic PPM1 neuron Dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a small cluster along the dorsoventral midline of the posterior superior medial protocerebrum. PPM1
Dopaminergic PPM2 neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 8 cell bodies in the cortex of the posterior inferior medial protocerebrum. PPM2
Dopaminergic PPM3 neuron A dopaminergic neuron whose cell body is located in a cluster of approximately 6-8 cell bodies in the cortex of the superior posterior slope. PPM3
Dopaminergic dorso-lateral neuron Dopaminergic neuron dorsolaterally located in each hemisegment of abdominal segments A1-A7.
Dopaminergic neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some dopamine (CHEBI:18243). DA neuron
Dorsal anterior lateral neuron of the protocerebrum A neuron whose cell body is located in the dorsal anteriolateral protocerebrum (Xia et al., 2005), extending its dendrites mainly in the superior dorsofrontal protocerebrum. It projects its axons in three different regions: where the dendritic tree is located and in the dorsolateral and inferior dorsofrontal protocerebrum domains. It establishes synaptic contacts with the pioneer mushroom body alpha / beta neurons in a small dorsal frontal domain of the mushroom body calyx (Chen et al., 2012). There are two pairs of DAL neurons per hemisphere (Xia et al., 2005). DAL neuron
Dorsal cibarial sense organ neuron Neuron innervating the dorsal cibarial sense organ.
Dorsal humeral crossvein campaniform sensillum neuron Neuron innervating the dorsal humeral crossvein campaniform sensillum.
Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the principal parasympathetic nucleus of the brain. Acetylcholine Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve
Dorsal root ganglion A alpha-beta non-nociceptive neuron Large cell located in the dorsal root ganglion with a single process that extends into the periphery and into the spinal cord. These neurons convey sensory information from the body. Glutamate Dorsal root ganglion neuron
Dorsal root ganglion cell
Dorsal root ganglion Neurofilament 200kD Dorsal root ganglion cell.jpg
Dorsal tegmental nucleus medium cell Medium sized neuron located in the dorsal tegmental nucleus pars ventralis characterized by an oval, oblong or round shaped cell soma, an irregularly shaped oblong nucleus with one or rarely two nucleoli and an indented nuclear envelope. The somatic surface is smooth with no smatic spines. any organelles are present in the cytoplasm, including well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum forming Nissl bodies. Dorsal tegmental nucleus medium neuron Dorsal tegmental nucleus pars ventralis
Dorsal tegmental nucleus small cell Small neuron located in the pars dorsalis of the dorsal tegmental nucleus characterized by a spindle or oval shaped neuronal somata, an irregularly-shaped deeply indented nucleus with a prominent nucleolus surrounded by a small rim of cytoplasm containing mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus (not well developed) and rough endoplasmic reticulum. These cells stain lightly in Nissl preparations. No somatic spines are observed on the cell soma. Dorsal tegmental nucleus small neuron Dorsal tegmental nucleus pars dorsalis
E-1 neuron Neuron associated with the anterior crossvein campaniform sensillum neuron, but does not possess a typical dendrite whose conspicuous distal tip can be seen near the surface of the epithelium (Murray et al., 1984).
EH neurosecretory neuron A neuron of the larval brain that expresses eclosion hormone. A single pair of these neurons is present per larva. Their processes extend the entire length of the central nervous system and also to the corpora cardiaca portion of the ring gland via the nervus corporis cardiaci. EH neuron
Eb-no neuron Small field neuron of the central complex that innervates only the ellipsoid body and the nodulus. CCI (no-eb1)
Eb-pb-vbo neuron Small field neuron of the central complex that connects a large dorso-lateral area of the ellipsoid body to a lateral glomerulus of the ipsilateral protocerebral bridge and to either the ipsilateral or contralateral lateral accessory lobe (ventral body). Forms club-like terminals in the protocerebral bridge and spiny arborizations in the ellipsoid body.
Embryonic / larval olfactory receptor neuron Any olfactory receptor neuron (FBbt_00005926) that is part of some larva (FBbt_00001727). larval ORN
Endocrine neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) endocrine hormone secretion (GO:0060986).
Eo neuron Sensory neuron that is part of an eo-sensillum and whose dendrite innervates the cuticular external sensory structure of that sensillum.
Extra LNd neuron LNd neuron characterized by having a slightly larger nucleus and cytoplasmic area compared to the other LNd neurons.
Extrinsic neuron An interneuron that extends projections between different neuropil domains.
Extrinsic no neuron Any extrinsic neuron (FBbt_00003660) that has synaptic terminals in some nodulus (FBbt_00003680).
Extrinsic pb neuron Any extrinsic neuron (FBbt_00003660) that has synaptic terminals in some protocerebral bridge (FBbt_00003668).
Facial nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the facial nucleus. Acetylcholine facial nucleus motor cell
7th nerve motor neuron
VIIth nerve motor neuron
Facial nucleus Facial nucleus motor neuron.jpeg
Fan-shaped neuron Neuron with a large arborization field that forms a quasi-horizontal strata within the fan-shaped body that fills it in both the transverse and longitudinal directions. They mostly extend caudally from the anterior margin of the fan-shaped body. This pattern makes some of them look like a fan, although the strata in most cases do not show a separation into 8 (or 16) segments. Some subtypes are specific to a single fan-shaped body layer. F neuron
Fan-shaped neuron F1 Any fan-shaped neuron (FBbt_00003657) that has synaptic terminals in some fan-shaped body layer 1 (FBbt_00007487). fan shaped neuron F1
Fan-shaped neuron F2 Any fan-shaped neuron (FBbt_00003657) that has synaptic terminals in some fan-shaped body layer 2 (FBbt_00007488). fan shaped neuron F2
Fan-shaped neuron F3 Any fan-shaped neuron (FBbt_00003657) that has synaptic terminals in some fan-shaped body layer 3 (FBbt_00007490). fan shaped neuron F3
Fan-shaped neuron F4 Any fan-shaped neuron (FBbt_00003657) that has synaptic terminals in some fan-shaped body layer 4 (FBbt_00007491). fan shaped neuron F4
Fan-shaped neuron F5 Any fan-shaped neuron (FBbt_00003657) that has synaptic terminals in some fan-shaped body layer 5 (FBbt_00007492). fan shaped neuron F5
Fan-shaped neuron F6 Any fan-shaped neuron (FBbt_00003657) that has synaptic terminals in some fan-shaped body layer 6 (FBbt_00007493). fan shaped neuron F6
Fb-eb neuron A small field neuron intrinsic to the central complex that arborizes in only the fan-shaped body and the ellipsoid body.
Fb-eb-no neuron A small field neuron intrinsic to the central complex that arborizes in only the fan-shaped body, the ellipsoid body and the nodulus.
Fb-ltr neuron A small field neuron of the adult central complex that innervates only the fan-shaped body and the bulbs (lateral triangles).
Fb-no neuron Small field neuron of the central complex that has small arborizations with club-like fiber endings in the fan-shaped body and terminates with spines and blebs in the contralateral nodulus. CCI (fb-no)
GABAergic neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some gamma-aminobutyric acid (CHEBI:16865). GABA-ergic neuron
Ganglion cell The neuron of a ganglion.
Giant fiber neuron A large, descending neuron that controls jump escape behavior (GO:0007630). Each adult has a bilaterally symmetric pair of these neurons, each with a large cell body at the posterior of the protocerebrum and a long primary neurite (GO:0070852) that branches to forms an extensive dendritic tree in the brain and an axon that projects, via the cervical connective, to the mesothorax. Targets of dendritic arborization include zone A of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) (Kamikouchi et al, 2009) and the inferior ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In the mesothorax, the axon forms electrical synapses with tergotrochanteral muscle motor neuron (TTMn) and peripherally synapsing interneurons (PSI)) of the mesothorax that in turn synapse to the motor neurons of the dorso-longitudinal flight muscles. GF
Giant sensillum of the dorsal radius neuron Large sensory neuron (approximately 20 by 10 micrometres) innervating the single large campaniform sensillum of the dorsal radius (Palka et al., 1979).
Globus pallidus principal cell Large neuron of he globus pallidus, both internal and external segment, characterized by a large and fusiform or trangular cell soma with long, thick aspiny dendrites that may extend for over 1 mm. GABA Globus pallidus
Glutamatergic neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some glutamic acid (CHEBI:18237).
Gravity sensitive Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron (JON) that is tonically activated by aristal deflection and is necessary for normal gravitaxis behaviour. These neurons form a broad 'ring' in the medial and outer layers of the JON array (Kamikouchi et al., 2009). gravity sensitive Johnstons organ neuron
Great commissural interneuron Any interneuron (FBbt_00005125) that fasciculates with some great commissure (FBbt_00007080).
Grid cell a neuron which fires when an animal is in any point of space which corresponds to a vertex of its triangular grid firing field. Entorhinal cortex
Gustatory receptor neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste (GO:0050912). GRN
Gustatory receptor neuron of terminal organ Gustatory receptor neuron associated with the terminal organ.
Gustatory receptor neuron of the dorsal organ Gustatory receptor neuron that innervates the dorsal organ. Projections from at least some of these neurons innervate `subesophageal ganglion area 3` (FBbt_00100141) (Colomb et al., 2007).
Gustatory receptor neuron of the epiphysis Gustatory receptor that innervates the epiphysis.
Gustatory receptor neuron of the hypopharyngeal sense organ Gustatory receptor organ that innervates hypopharyngeal sense organ.
Gustatory receptor neuron of the hypophysis Gustatory receptor neuron that innervates the hypophysis.
Gustatory receptor neuron of the ventral organ Gustatory receptor neuron that innervates the ventral organ.
Head direction cell Neurons which fire when an animal's head is facing in a particular direction of horizontal plane, regardless of location, behavior or position of body Head-direction cell Postsubiculum
Anterior Thalamus
Lateral mammillary nucleus
Hippocampus CA1 IS-I neuron The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. The CA1 Interneuron Specific (IS) Type I cells is one of the many IS cell types from the CA1 region. The soma is located in stratum radiatum and pyramidale with dendrites spanning most layers and the axon innervating mainly calbindin positive and other calretinin positive cells (Acsady et al. 1996b; Gulyas et al. 1996). The possible expression of VIP by these cells is not known. CA1 IS-I cell CA1 stratum radiatum
CA1 stratum pyramidale
Calretinin Hippocampus CA1 IS-I neuron.jpg
Hippocampus CA1 IS-II neuron The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. The CA1 Interneuron Specific (IS) type II cell is VIP+. The soma was reported mainly in stratum radiatum and the border with lacunosum-moleculare, and the dendrites are mostly in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (Acsady et al. 1996b; Gulyas et al. 1996). The axon innervates mainly CCK/VIP positive basket cells (Acsady et al. 1996b; Gulyas et al. 1996). The possible expression of calretinin by these cells is not known. CA1 IS-II cell CA1 stratum radiatum Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Hippocampus CA1 IS-III neuron The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. CA1 Interneuron Specific (IS) type III cells are VIP+, calretinin+ and terminals mGluR7a+. The soma is located mainly in stratum pyramidale and radiatum with radial dendrites crossing most layers (Acsady et al. 1996a,b). The axon innervates mainly O-LM cells (Acsady et al. 1996a; Ferraguti et al. 2004) and terminals express high level of mGluR7a in the presynaptic active zone (Somogyi et al. 2003). CA1 IS-III cell CA1 stratum radiatum
CA1 stratum pyramidale
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Calretinin
Terminals mGluR7a
Hippocampus CA1 LM(R) PP neuron CA1 lacunosum-moleculare radiatum PP neuron is a type of CA1 interneuron which is associated with perforant pathway. The cell bodies of these cells are in stratum radiatum or at the border of stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare. The dendritic field reaches the alveus and covers all layers (Hajos & Mody, 1997; Vida et al. 1998). CA1 lacunosum-moleculare radiatum perforant path associated cell
CA1 LM/R PP cell
CA1 LM PP cell
CA1 stratum radiatum
Hippocampus CA1 ivy neuron Ivy cells are highly abundant GABAergic interneurons when compared to basket, bistratified, or axo-axonic cells. "Ivy" cells are named after their dense and fine axons innervating mostly basal and oblique pyramidal cell dendrites. They express nitric oxide synthase, neuropeptide Y, and high levels of GABAa receptor aplha1 subunit and they are also identified as slow-spiking interneurons that regulate the excitability of pyramidal cell dendrites through slowly rising and decaying GABAergic inputs. GABA CA1 ivy cell
ivy cell
CA1 stratum pyramidale
Hippocampus CA1 lacunosum moleculare neuron CA1 Lacunosum-Moleculare (LM) interneurons are one of the inhibitory interneuron in the CA1 area. The L-M interneurons have been described as non-fast spiking cells (Kawaguchi and Hama, 1987) with membrane properties very different from those of pyramidal cells (Williams and Lacaille, 1993). Dendrites extend in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, radiatum, and oriens and have a very wide extension in the transverse slice (Lacaille and Schwartzkroin, 1988a). The axonal arborization seems to cover a wide area in both transverse and longitudianal directions, projecting in stratum pyramidale and sometimes in the stratum oriens (Lacaille and Schwartzkroin, 1988a). CA1 LM neuron CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare
Hippocampus CA1 neurogliaform neuron CA1 neurogliaform neuron is a GABAergic interneuron, these cells are positive for NPY and co-express the actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-2. They are not positive for PV and VIP. Characteristically these neurons has a round cell body and short, non-spiny dendrites that were arranged in a stellate patterns around the cell body, spatially localized to the SLM, and often enter the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. The axons are branched profusely close to soma occupying greater area than dendrites, like dendrites axons also tend to occupy mainly the SLM, often traveling fairly long distances along the SLM axis and mostly even entering the neighboring molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. CA1 NG cells
NG cells
CA1 stratum lacunosum moleculare Neuropeptide Y
Alpha-actinin-2
Hippocampus CA1 oriens lacunosum moleculare neuron CA1 Oriens Lacunosum Moleculare (O-LM) cell is a neuron, which is characterized as a non-pyramidal cell type and interneuron that is mostly immunoreactive to GABAergic markers with the soma and dendrites mainly located in the CA1 stratum oriens and alveus, and axons extend directly to the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, ramifying there to form a dense plexus, forming symmetrical inhibitory synapses with the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons while receiving excitatory input from CA1 recurrent collaterals in a disynaptic, feedback manner. GABA CA1 O-LM interneuron CA1 alveus
CA1 stratum oriens
Parvalbumin
Somatostatin
MGluR1
Hippocampus CA1 oriens lacunosum moleculare neuron.gif
Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cell Pyramidal neuron with a soma located in hippocampal area CA1. It receives input from Schaffer collaterals of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and sends its axon to the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. Glutamate Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neuron
CA1 pyramidal neuron
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell
CA1 stratum pyramidale Hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cell.jpg
Hippocampus CA1 stratum oriens neuron CA1 stratum oriens neuron is a neuron, which is characterized as an interneuron by inhibiting pyramidal cells through the activation of GABAa (Traub et al., 1987a) with soma located in CA1 stratum orines and alveus, dendrites extending into all strata (Lacaille and williams, 1990) and axons covering a wide area in the transverse direction, projecting onto basal dendrites and soma of pyramidal cells and other interneurons (Lacaille et al., 1987) in the hippocampus. vertical cells (Lacaille and williams
1990)
CA1 stratum oriens
CA1 alveus
GABA A-gated anionic channel
Hippocampus CA1 trilaminar neuron The CA1 trilaminar neuron is a neuron that is characterized by its axon densely innervating three layers stratum oriens, pyramidale and radiatum (Sik et al. 1995) projecting to subiculum and possibly to other regions, while the soma and long horizontal dendrites are in stratum oriens with strong immunoreactivity for the m2 receptor in the somato-dendritic domain and intense presynaptic mGluR8a decoration. It must also be noted that the same name has been used for various other cells with axon in at least three laminae (Hajos & Mody, 1997; Pawelzik et al. 2002). However, for this particular cell class the axons project to subiculum and possibly to other brain areas as well. CA1 trilaminar cell CA1 alveus
CA1 stratum oriens
M2 receptor
MGLuR8a
Hippocampus CA2 basket cell broad The CA2 basket cells are the largest group of interneurons whose vertically oriented dendrites extend across all layers from stratum oriens into stratum lacunosum-moleculare and whose axons ramify extensively in stratum pyramidale. The broad basket cells have significantly broader dendritic width, and axonal arbors than that of other types of CA2 basket cells or of CA1 basket cells. GABA CA2 basket cell Hippocampus
CA2
Parvalbumin
Hippocampus CA2 basket cell narrow The CA2 basket cells are the largest group of interneurons in the CA2 region whose vertically oriented dendrites extend across all layers from stratum oriens into stratum lacunosum-moleculare and whose axons ramify extensively in stratum pyramidale. The narrow basket cells are narrow and both dendrites and axons are confined to the region of origin. GABA CA2 basket cell CA2 stratum pyramidale Parvalbumin
Calbindin 28K
Hippocampus CA2 bistratified cell broad The CA2 bistratified cells have radially oriented dendrites that resemble CA1 bistratified cells, but they extend through stratum oriens and stratum radiatum without entering stratum lacunosum-moleculare. The broad CA2 bistratified cells have dendrites that extend horizontally into all three CA subfields. GABA CA2 bistratified cell CA2 stratum pyramidale Cholecystokinin
Hippocampus CA2 bistratified cell narrow A type of neuron found in hippocampal area CA2 characterized by radially oriented dendrites that resemble CA1 bistratified cells, but they extend through stratum oriens and stratum radiatum without entering stratum lacunosum-moleculare. The narrow CA2 bistratified cell dendrites and axons are more confined within the CA2 region. GABA CA2 bistratified cell CA2 stratum pyramidale Cholecystokinin
Hippocampus CA2 pyramidal neuron CA2 pyramidal cells are the primary excitatory cells of CA2 region of the hippocampus. These cells have shorter dendrites when compared to CA1 pyramidal cells. The axons arbors into stratum radiatum, as well as into stratum oriens of CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions. The CA2 pyramids are innervated by schaffer collaterals in stratum oriens and stratum radiatum and by input from entorhinal cortex in stratum lacunosum moleculare. Glutamate CA2 pyramidal cell CA2 Hippocampus CA2 pyramidal neuron.jpg
Hippocampus CA3 IS-I cell The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. CA3 IS-I neurons are visualized for CR and occur in all subfields of hippocampus and dentate gyrus. The CA3 IS-I cells has soma located in strata radiatum, oriens and pyramidale. The dendritic tree arborizes extensively in stratum radiatum but may also invade other layers. The characteristic feature of these dendrites is that they from long dendrodendritic junctions with each other. The main axons ramify in stratum radiatum, where they emit several collaterals that course in all directions. GABA CA3 Interneuron-specific I cell CA3 alveus
CA3 stratum oriens
CA3 stratum radiatum
CA3 stratum pyramidale
Calretinin
Hippocampus CA3 IS-II cell The IS (Interneuron-Specific) subpopulation of interneurons have axons that preferentially innervate other interneurons. CA3 IS-II cell type is visualized by immunostaining for VIP. IS-II neurons are characterized in hippocampus alone, where their somata are found in stratum radiatum. The dendritic tree consists of a tuft of smooth or sparsely spiny dendrites restricted to stratum lacunosum-moleculare, where they profusely arborize. The axon descends toward stratum pyramidale, thus forming weeping willowlike arbor. GABA CA3 interneuron-specific II cell CA3 stratum radiatum Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide
Hippocampus CA3 axo-axonic cell CA3 Chandelier cells of the hippocampus are very similar to those in the dentate gyrus. The cell bodies are located within or immediately adjacent to the pyramidal cell layer and possess radially oriented dendrites spanning all layers. According to the distribution of the dendritic tree, chandelier cells are in a position to receive excitatory input from all major sources of afferents in both the CA1 and CA3 subfields. GABA CA3 chandelier cell CA3 stratum pyramidale
Hippocampus CA3 basket cell The CA3 basket cell is an interneuron located in hippocampus area CA3 characterized by a triangular or fusiform soma, with one to three dendrites extending from the cell soma. One of the three dendrites originate from the apical pole of soma, which then branch profusely, ascend through stratum radiatum, and often penetrate stratum lacunosum-moelculare. Primary basal dendrites are more numerous. They also branch close to soma and fan out toward the alveus, spanning the entire depth of stratum oriens. GABA CA3 pyramidal basket cell CA3 stratum pyramidale
Hippocampus CA3 lacunosum moleculare neuron The CA3 Lacunosum Moleculare (LM) neurons are interneurons with somata in stratum lacunosum-moleculare that receive converging stimulation from the DG and entorhinal cortex as well as from within CA3. These LM neurons have dendrites that are oriented horizontally within the layer but occasionally have branches that extend into the pyramidal cell layer. The axon also takes a predominantly horizontal orientation and ramifies mainly in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare or superficial layer portion of the stratum radiatum. GABA CA3 LM interneurons CA3 stratum lacunosum moleculare
Hippocampus CA3 oriens interneuron The CA3 stratum oriens interneuron is a fast spiking interneuron in hippocampal area CA3 with a main dendrite arborization extending in the stratum oriens and a widespread axonal arborization in all strata (Kawaguchi et al., 1987). The vast majority of dendritic processes were confined to the same layers as the cell bodies (Kantona et al., 1999). GABA CA3 SO interneuron
CA3 SO neuron
Hippocampus CA3 stratum oriens interneuron
CA3 stratum oriens interneuron
CA3 s. oriens interneuron
CA3 alveus/oriens
Hippocampus CA3 oriens lacunosum moleculare neuron OLM cells (oriens/lacunosum-moleculare associated cell) has as its defining feature a dense axonal arbor that is confined to the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (also known as cells terminating in conjunction with entorhinal afferents). In principle the cell body and dendritic trees are located in the zones occupied by recurrent pyramidal cell collaterals. In CA3 this includes all strata except the stratum oriens. GABA OLM cell CA3 stratum oriens
CA3 alveus
Somatostatin
Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cell This is the major output neuron in area CA3 of the hippocampus. It receives input from mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus. Its axon projects to the contralateral hippocampus and subcortically to the septal nucleus, and sends axon collaterals called Shaffer collaterals to the nearby CA1 region. Glutamate Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neuron
CA3 pyramidal neuron
CA3 pyramidal cell
CA3 stratum pyramidale Hippocampus CA3 pyramidal cell.gif
Hippocampus CA3 radiatum neuron The CA3 Radiatum (R) neurons are interneurons with somata in stratum radiatum which receives converging stimulation from the DG and entorhinal cortex as well as from within CA3. The dendritic tree of R interneurons typically extend between the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus and the stratum pyramidale of CA3. The axonal branches often extend beyond their layer of somatic residence into stratum lacunosum-moleculare or stratum pyramidale. GABA CA3 R interneuron CA3 stratum radiatum
Hippocampus CA3 spiny CR cell The CA3 spiny CR cell is an interneuron in Hippocampus that is present mostly in regions where mossy fibers have a high density, i.e., in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and in stratum lucidum of CA3 subfield. The dendrites and somata frequently possess numerous long hair-like spines that penetrate into bundles of mossy fibers. GABA CA3 Spiny CR immunoreactive cell
CA3 Spiny CR-positive interneurons
CA3 stratum lucidum Calretinin
Hirudo P Cell A sensory neuron responsive to pressure stimuli of the skin. There are 4 of them in each segmental ganglia of the leech, and they are located in the lateral and posterior packets. Pressure Cell
P Cell
Segmental ganglia
Hirudo Retzius cell A large, serotonergic neuron located in the central packet of the segmental ganglion in the medicinal leech. Two of these cell are located in each segmental ganglia and are electrically coupled to each other. Serotonin Retzius
R Cell
Segmental ganglion
Histaminergic neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some histamine (CHEBI:18295).
Horizontal fiber system neuron Neuron whose cell body lies in the cortex just dorsal to the protocerebral bridge and that innervates a single glomerulus of the protocerebral bridge, a segment pair of the fan-shaped body and one of the two ventral bodies (lateral accessory lobes). Bundles of 3 or 4 horizontal fiber system neurons connect each glomerulus to a fan-shaped body segment and then run horizontally in layer 4 where they arborize in all 4 shells. Arborizations in the protocerebral bridge are spiny, terminals in the ventral bodies are blebs, both types of terminals are formed in the fan-shaped body. HFS
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb1 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 1, fasciculates with pb-fb tract Z, innervates the contralateral fan-shaped body segment pair X and the contralateral lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb2 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates the protocerebral bridge glomerulus 2, and fasciculates with pb-fb tract Z. Crossing contralaterally, it innervates both the fan-shaped body segment pair Y and the lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb3 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 3, fasciculates with pb-fb tract Y, innervates contralateral fan-shaped body segment pair Z and the contralateral lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb4 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates the protocerebral bridge glomerulus 4 and fasciculates with pb-fb tract Y. It also innervates the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment pair Z and the contralateral lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb5 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 5, fasciculates with pb-fb tract X, innervates the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment pair Y and the ipsilateral lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb6 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 6 and fasciculates with pb-fb tract X. It also innervates the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment pair X and the ipsilateral lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb7 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 7, fasciculates with pb-fb tract W, innervates the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment pair W and the ipsilateral lateral accessory lobe.
Horizontal fiber system neuron pb8 Horizontal fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 8, fasciculates with pb-fb tract W, innervates the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment pair W and the ipsilateral lateral accessory lobe.
Hypoglossal nucleus GABA neuron Neuron in hypoglossal nucleus characterized by a small spindle shaped or fusiform soma GABA hypoglossal GABA neuron Hypoglossal nucleus
Hypoglossal nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose soma lies in the hypoglossal nucleus Acetylcholine hypoglossal motor neuron
hypoglossal nucleus motoneuron
hypoglossal motoneuron
12th nerve motor neuron
XII nerve motor neuron
Hypoglossal nucleus
IP neuron Serotonergic neuron whose cell body is located in one of 2 (bilateral) clusters in the brain: in the larva these clusters occupy the ventral cortex (rind) adjacent to the esophagus aperture, in the adult they are located in the cortex of the inferior-medial protocerebrum.
Indirect flight muscle motor neuron .
Interneuron (FBbt Term) A neuron that is neither a sensory receptor nor a motor neuron.
Intrinsic neuron A neuron whose axonal projections do not leave the anatomical region in which its cell soma lies. local circuit neuron
interneuron
Intrinsic neuron (FBbt Term) A neuron arborizing exclusively within a given neuropil domain. Intrinsic (local) interneurons may be ipsilateral, restricted to one of side of a paired neuropil domain, or bilateral, extending a process across the midline and arborizing in both sides of a pair of bilaterally symmetric neuropil domains. local interneuron
Intrinsic pb neuron Interneuron that innervates only the protocerebral bridge.
Intrinsic vbo neuron Interneuron that innervates only the lateral accessory lobe (ventral body).
Johnston organ neuron Scolopidial (mechanosensory) neuron of Johnston's organ. Its axon innervates the antennal mechanosensory and motor center. JON
Johnston organ neuron activated by tonic anterior arista deflection Johnston's organ neuron tonically activated by anterior arista deflection and required for wind-induced suppression of locomotion behaviour (WISL, Yorozu et al., 2009). These neurons project to zone C of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center. Johnstons organ neuron activated by tonic anterior arista deflection
Johnston organ neuron activated by tonic posterior arista deflection Johnston's organ neuron tonically activated by posterior arista deflection and required for wind-induced suppression of locomotion behaviour (WISL, Yorozu et al., 2009). These neurons project to zone E of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center. Johnstons organ neuron activated by tonic posterior arista deflection
Johnston organ neuron phasically activated by arista deflection Johnston's organ neuron whose response is activated by small, bi-directional displacements of the antenna. Johnstons organ neuron phasically activated by arista deflection
Johnston organ neuron tonically activated by arista deflection Johnston's organ neuron whose response is maintained so long as unidirectional aristal deflection is sustained. Johnstons organ neuron tonically activated by arista deflection
Kenyon cell A Kenyon cell is an intrinsic neuron of the mushroom body. Its cell body, situated in the cortex above the calyx of the mushroom body, is smaller than those in the surrounding midbrain cortex. Four short fascicles extend from the cell bodies of the Kenyon cells into the calyx. Each fascicle corresponds to axons from a set of cell bodies descended from a single mushroom body neuroblast. These 4 smaller fascicles converge in the calyx where they arborize and form pre- and post-synaptic terminals (Christiansen et al., 2011).They emerge from the calyx as a thick axon bundle referred to as the peduncle that bifurcates to innervate the dorsal and medial lobes of the mushroom body. intrinsic cell of mushroom body
L1 GRN Gustatory receptor neuron responsive to low concentrations of salt (Montell, 2009).
L2 GRN Gustatory receptor neuron responsive to high concentrations of salt (Montell, 2009) and bitter compounds (Meunier et al., 2003).
LLN Local interneuron of the adult antennal lobe, from the lateral AL neuroblast lineage.
LN period neuron Period (FBgn0003068) expressing neuron of the adult brain whose cell body is located in the cortical region between the medulla and the central brain neuropil.
LNd neuron Lateral period-expressing neuron (LN) whose cell body is located in the dorsal-most cluster of LNs. These neurons project axons to the dorsal protocerebrum. These projections overlap with those of the DN neurons and many project contralaterally through the dorsal fusion commissure. Some dendrites from these neurons follow a complicated, looping path from the rest and project to the accessory medulla. LNd
LNv neuron Lateral period-expressing neuron (LN) whose cell body is located in the ventral cluster of LNs, at the level of the esophageal foramen (Helfrich-Forster, 1998). It has neurites associated with the accessory medulla (aMe) (Helfrich-Forster et al., 2007). The LN neuronal group are necessary and sufficient for generation of robust adult locomotor rhythms in the absence of environmental cues (Helfrich-Forster et al., 2007).
LP neuron Period-expressing neuron located in a cluster of 3-4 cells in the lateral central brain, medial to the LNd cluster and near the posterior of the brain (Shafer et al., 2006, Helfrich-Forster, 2005).
LP1 neuron Serotonergic neuron whose cell body is located in one of 2 (bilateral) clusters: in the larva these clusters occupy a mid-lateral position at the optic lobe margin and have axons that join a midline-crossing tract, in the adult they are located in the cortex of the lateral protocerebrum, anterior to the optic tract and project their axons centrally into the midbrain.
LP2 neuron Serotonergic neuron whose cell bodies are located in 2 pairs of clusters (a and b) in the adult brain in the cortex of optic peduncle, adjacent to the medulla layer. These cells are born during metamorphosis.
Large adult Pdf neuron of abdominal neuromere Larval Pdf neuron of the abdominal neuromere with a larger cell body than the larger Pdf neurons that are located more posteriorly (Helfrich-Forster, 1997).
Large field neuron Interneuron with one or more large arborization fields relative to the neuropil domain(s) it innervates.
Large field neuron of the central complex Large field neuron that innervates the central complex. Typically these neurons innervate a single neuropil domain with the central complex, arborizing in either the entire domain or some entire subdomain, as well as innervating additional regions external to the central complex.
Larval Pdf neuron Larval neuron that expresses Pdf (FBgn0023178).
Larval Pdf neuron close to calyx Larval Pdf (FBgn0023178) expressing neuron whose cell body lies in a cluster within the dorsal cortex. Pdf expression begins late in L1. Its process project into the median ventral brain dorsolateral to the esophagus. There are two to four of these neurons per cluster.
Larval dorsomedial neurosecretory cell Neurosecretory cell of the pars intercerebralis. Its axonal projection bifurcates, with one of the main branches projecting to the contralateral side and exiting the brain and bifurcating again. One of these secondary branches fasciculates with the nerve tracts that innervate the corpus cardiacum in the ring gland and also innervate the hypocerebral ganglion. The other follows the aorta and innervates the heart (Cao and Brown, 2001, Rulifson et al., 2002, Ikeya et al., 2002). The other main projection innervates the subesophageal ganglion and the esophagus (Rulifson et al., Ikeya et al., 2002). These cells are present in a bilateral cell body cluster of four to five cells in each hemisphere (Cao and Brown, 2001, Rulifson et al., 2002, Ikeya et al., 2002). MNC
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or13a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or13a (FBgn0030715). ORN (Or13a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or1a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or1a (FBgn0029521). ORN (Or1a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or22c Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or22c (FBgn0026396). ORN (Or22c)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or24a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or24a (FBgn0026394). ORN (Or24a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or30a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or30a (FBgn0032096). ORN (Or30a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or33a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or33a (FBgn0026392). ORN (Or33a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or33b / Or47a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or33b (FBgn0026391) and Or47a (FBgn0026386). ORN (Or33b)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or35a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or35a (FBgn0028946). ORN (Or35a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or42a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or42a (FBgn0033041). ORN (Or42a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or42b Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or42b (FBgn0033043). ORN (Or42b)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or45a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or45a (FBgn0033404). ORN (Or45a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or45b Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or45b (FBgn0033422). ORN (Or45b)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or49a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or49a (FBgn0033727). ORN (Or49a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or59a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or59a (FBgn0026384). ORN (Or59a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or63a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or63a (FBgn0035382). ORN (Or63a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or67b Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or67b (FBgn0036019). ORN (Or67b)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or74a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or74a (FBgn0036709). ORN (Or74a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or82a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or82a (FBgn0041621). ORN (Or82a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or83a Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or83a (FBgn0037322). ORN (Or83a)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or85c Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or85c (FBgn0037591). ORN (Or85c)
Larval olfactory receptor neuron Or94b Larval olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) that expresses Or94b (FBgn0039034). ORN (Or94b)
Larval pacemaker neuron Pacemaker neuron that is part of the larval nervous system.
Lateral fan-shaped neuron ExFl1 Extrinsic lateral fan-shaped neuron that projects posteriorly, arborizing in the middle inferior medial protocerebrum and lateral accessory lobe (ventral body), before projecting across the midline to circle around the contralateral side of the ellipsoid body, and innervates the fan-shaped body. Innervation of the lateral accessory lobes is presynaptic, whilst that of the fan-shaped body is postsynaptic. The cell bodies of neurons in this class cluster in the cortex dorsal to the antennal lobes.
Lateral fan-shaped neuron FE1 Lateral fan-shaped neuron that connects the fan-shaped body and the ellipsoid body.
Lateral fan-shaped neuron Fl Fan-shaped neuron with a fiber that reaches the fan-shaped body laterally and that extends along its anterior surface.
Lateral fan-shaped neuron Fl1 .
Lateral fan-shaped neuron Fl2 .
Lateral fan-shaped neuron Fl3 .
Lateral fan-shaped neuron Fl4 .
Lch3 neuron Scolopidial neuron of laterally located triscolopidial chordotonal organ lch3.
LesA neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a lateral external sense (les) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
LesB neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a lateral external sense (les) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
LesC neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a lateral external sense (les) organ of the abdominal, mesothoracic, metathoracic or prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
LesD neuron Sensory neuron of the peripheral nervous system that innervates a lateral external sense (les) organ of the prothoracic segment of the embryo / larva.
Leucokinin neuron Neuron that expresses leucokinin (FBgn0028418). LK neuron
Local interneuron of adult antennal lobe A local interneuron that is part of an adult antennal lobe. LI
Mauthner cell Giant reticulospinal neuron found in brainstem of most teleosts Acetylcholine M-cell Brainstem Mauthner cell-specific antibody
Calcium calmodulin protein kinase II
Zona occludens 1
Connexin 35
Mechanosensory neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception (GO:0050974).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 1 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 1 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 2 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 2 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 3 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 3 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 4 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 4 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 5 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 5 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 6 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 6 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 8 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 8 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Mechanosensory neuron of adult labial sensillum 9 Mechanosensory neuron innervating the adult labial sensillum 9 (Nayak and Singh, 1983).
Median fan-shaped neuron Fm Fan-shaped neuron that projects through the ellipsoid body canal via the median bundle to arborize with bleb-like terminals in the second layer of the fan-shaped body. Fm1
Median fan-shaped neuron Fm1 Median fan-shaped neuron Fm whose perikarya lie in a dorso-caudal cluster near to the mushroom body calyx and have a domain of spiny fibers in the dorso-lateral protocerebrum.
Median fan-shaped neuron Fm2 Median fan-shaped neuron Fm whose perikarya lie close to those of the R neurons (FBbt_00007507) whose projections they fasciculate with in the RF tract. They have spiny arborizations in the ipsilateral lateral accessory lobe (ventral body).
Median fan-shaped neuron Fm3 Median fan-shaped neuron Fm whose perikarya lie in a dorso-caudal cluster near to the mushroom body calyx and have a domain of spiny fibers in the dorso-medial protocerebrum.
Mesothoracic anterior fascicle neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that fasciculates with some mesothoracic intersegmental nerve (FBbt_00002104).
Mesothoracic posterior fascicle neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that fasciculates with some mesothoracic segmental nerve (FBbt_00002125).
Mesothoracic ventral neurosecretory neuron .
Metathoracic anterior fascicle neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that fasciculates with some metathoracic intersegmental nerve (FBbt_00002142).
Metathoracic posterior fascicle neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that fasciculates with some metathoracic segmental nerve (FBbt_00002163).
Metathoracic ventral thoracic neurosecretory neuron .
Midline neuron .
Motor neuron (FBbt Term) A neuron that sends movement impulses to the muscle system.
Multidendritic neuron Sensory neuron of the PNS having multiple dendrites. Type II neuron
Mushroom body (Honey bee) Kenyon cell A Kenyon cell is an intrinsic neuron of the mushroom body. Its cell body is situated in the soma rind of the calyx of the mushroom body. The primary neurite originates in the soma layer and projects to the calyx neuropil.Here it divides into a dendritic tree and an axon. The latter projects into the mushroom body peduncle and lobes. FMRFamid mushroom body intrinsic neuron Soma rind Kakusai gene
MKast gene
Mushroom body alpha / beta neuron Mushroom body neuron that bifurcates at the anterior end of the pedunculus and projects into the alpha and beta lobes of the mushroom body. The alpha / beta neurons are the last born of the Kenyon cells, born during the pupal stage. In the pedunculus, the alpha / beta neurons occupy the core stratum with the gamma axons at the periphery and the alpha' / beta' neurons in the intermediate stratum (Awasaki et al., 2006). It also arborizes in the calyx, forming pre- and post-synaptic terminals (Christiansen et al., 2011). alpha / beta Kenyon cell
Mushroom body alpha' / beta' neuron Mushroom body neuron that bifurcates at the anterior end of the pedunculus, projecting into the mushroom body alpha'-lobe and beta'-lobe. The alpha' / beta' neurons are the second born of the Kenyon cells, born during the mid-larval stage before the alpha and beta neurons, but after the gamma neurons. In the pedunculus, the alpha' and beta' neurons occupy the intermediate stratum between the gamma axons at the periphery and the alpha / beta neurons at the core. The alpha' / beta' neuron also arborizes in the calyx, forming post-synaptic terminals (Christiansen et al., 2011). mushroom body alpha / beta Kenyon cell
Mushroom body anterior inferior medial cell A neuron, whose cell body is part of a cluster of approximately fifty mushroom body intrinsic neurons per brain hemisphere, that is located in front of the anterior inferior medial protocerebrum, anterior to the vertical and medial mushroom body lobes. The cell body fiber enters the medial lobe through the gap between the gamma and beta' lobes. Within the gamma lobe, neurite projection is limited to the middle segment between the tip and the base of the lobe, named as gamma4. In the beta', neurites arborize in the lateral part of the beta'a stratum (beta'a1) and the medial segment of beta'm and beta'p strata (beta'm2 and beta'p2). At the medial edge of the beta'm and beta'p strata, some of the fibers project to the contralateral lobe. MB-AIM
Mushroom body calyx arborizing neuron 1 Neuron whose cell body is located at the posterior area of the lateral cell body region between the posteriorlateral protocerebrum and the optic lobe. There is only one of these per hemisphere. It projects dorsally towards the lateral horn before branching and extensively arborizing in the ventral part of the lateral horn, then turning medially and terminating in the calyx. MB-C1
Mushroom body calyx arborizing neuron 2 A neuron whose cell body is located on the posterior superior medial protocerebrum close to the pars intercerebralis. There are 3 of these per hemisphere. Their cell bodies form a cluster. The cell body fiber runs ventrally and bifurcates near the protocerebral bridge to form a laterodorsal and a lateroventral projection. The dorsal projection arborizes in the superior and inferior neuropils, with some branches entering the accessory calyx of the mushroom body. Some of these fibers connect the accessory calyx and the ventral peripheral zone of the main calyx. The ventral projection forms extensive arborization in the superior and inferior neuropils, and further projects to the posteriorlateral protocerebrum. MB-C2
Mushroom body calyx-pedunculus arborizing neuron 1 One of approximately two neurons per brain hemisphere whose cell body is located on the posteriorlateral protocerebrum, ventrolateral to the calyx. The cell body fiber projects to and arborizes with the pedunculus where it bifurcates, with one branch turning posteriorly to terminate in the calyx. The other branch projects anteriorly through the pedunculus, turns medially and runs below the medial lobe. The fiber then turns dorsally, enters the medial lobe and bifurcates in the gamma lobe. One of these fibers turns medially to the opposite medial lobe, whilst the other turns dorsolaterally and terminates in the inferior neuropils, posterior to the medial lobe. MB-C1
Mushroom body extrinsic neuron Neuron that innervates the mushroom body and other neuropils.
Mushroom body gamma neuron Mushroom body neuron that innervates the mushroom body vertical and medial lobes of larvae, but is pruned back during early pupal stages to innervate only the gamma lobe (Awasaki and Ito, 2004, Awasaki et al., 2006). The gamma neurons are the first born of the Kenyon cells, born before the alpha' and beta' neurons. In the pedunculus, the gamma axons occupy the periphery, with the alpha / beta neurons occupying the core stratum and the alpha' / beta' neurons in the intermediate stratum (Awasaki and Ito, 2004, Awasaki et al., 2006, Tanaka et al., 2008). The gamma neuron also arborizes in the calyx, forming pre- and post-synaptic terminals (Christiansen et al., 2011). gamma Kenyon cell
Mushroom body intrinsic neuron An interneuron that innervates only the mushroom body.
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 1 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of five or six neurons per brain hemisphere, whose cell body is located in front of the inferior neuropils, anterior to the middle part of the medial lobe. A neurite projects dorsolaterally and forms arborizations further in the inferior neuropils and within the superior neuropils. Some of these branches extend ventromedially and arborize in the medial-most segments of the gamma lobe and the beta-s and beta'-a strata. Some of the fibers further project to the contralateral medial lobes. MB-M1
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 2 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of approximately ten neurons per brain hemisphere, whose cell body lies on the inferior neuropils above the anterior surface of the middle part of the gamma lobe. The cell body fiber runs dorsally on the anterior surface of the gamma lobe, with one branch innervating the middle part of the gamma lobe. Another branch further bifurcates on the dorsal surface of the medial lobe. One of these branches terminates in the inferior neuropils behind the medial lobe, whilst the other turns medially through the border between the gamma and beta' lobes and enters the opposite hemisphere. The fibers from the opposite hemisphere run horizontally, enter the medial lobe through border between the gamma and beta' lobes and forms arborization in the middle part of the gamma lobe. MB-M2
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 3 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of two to five neurons per brain hemisphere, whose cell body is found on the inferior neuropils near the junction of the lobes. The cell body fiber arborizes in the inferior and superior neuropils. The main fiber runs medially towards the tip of the medial lobe. Before entering the beta lobe, fibers branch off to project to the opposite hemisphere. The fibers entering the beta lobe arborize in the medial segment. MB-M3
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 4 Neuron whose cell body is located on the superior neuropils of each hemisphere, anterior to the pars intercerebralis. The cell body fiber is sent ventrally towards the medial lobe. Arborizations occur in the inferior neuropils just dorsal to the beta' lobe. The main fiber enters the mushroom body between the gamma and beta' lobes and forms terminals in the medial segment of the beta' lobe. Fibers then further run medially to the opposite beta' lobe. There are two of these per hemisphere. MB-M4
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 5 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of approximately 5 neurons per brain hemisphere, whose cell body is located on the inferior neuropils, anterior to the vertical lobe. The cell body fiber travels medially and arborizes in the inferior neuropils above the middle part of the medial lobe. The main fibers then intermingle with the MB-M4 neurons and enter the medial lobe through the same pathway as MB-M4. MB-M5
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 6 A bilateral neuron whose cell body is located on the superior neuropils, anterior to the pars intercerebralis. The cell body fiber travels ventrally towards the medial lobe, running along the anterior surface of the gamma lobe, turning medially at the bottom of the gamma lobe and forming a terminal in the most medial segment of the gamma lobe. The main fiber then enters the opposite gamma lobe, runs dorsolaterally through the border between the gamma and beta' lobes, arborizing in the inferior and superior neuropils. MB-M6
Mushroom body medial lobe arborizing neuron 7 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of approximately two neurons per brain hemisphere, whose cell body is found in the inferior neuropils, anterior to the medial lobe. The cell body fibers project mediodorsally and bifurcate in the inferior neuropils. One branch arborizes here and the other runs ventromedially in the anterior surface of the medial lobe and innervates the gamma lobe. MB-M7
Mushroom body medial-vertical lobe arborizing neuron 1 A neuron whose cell body is located in the inferior neuropils, ventrolateral to the calyx of each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber projects towards the anterior of the inferior neuropils. On the way there it bifurcates with one branch turning ventrally and terminating in the ventral complex. The second branch further branches in the inferior neuropil close to the beta lobe. One of these branches runs medially to the opposite hemisphere. Another turns ventrolaterally and arborizes in the basal segments of the gamma lobe and the alpha lobe. The final branch arborizes in the anterior region of the inferior neuropil. MB-MV1
Mushroom body medial-vertical lobe arborizing neuron 2 A neuron whose cell body is located in front of the ventral complex, ventral to the junction of the lobes in each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber runs dorsomedially to the opposite hemisphere. The fiber from the opposite hemisphere runs laterally and bifurcates behind the tip of the beta' lobe. One of the fibers runs ventrally and enters the medial-most part of the beta lobe where it arborizes through the tip of the beta-p lobe to the lateral part of the beta lobe segment. The other fiber runs dorsolaterally towards the tip region of the vertical lobe and terminates in the superior neuropils. On the way, the fiber bifurcates and one of the branches terminates in the tip of the alpha' lobe. MB-MV2
Mushroom body pedunculus-medial lobe and vertical lobe arborizing neuron 1 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of at least seven neurons, whose cell body is located on the inferior neuropils, near the junction of the mushroom body lobes of each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber bifurcates in front of the vertical lobes. One of these branches turns ventromedially to the tip of the medial lobe, whereas the other runs dorsally. The first branch innervates the medial lobe through the border between the gamma and beta' lobes and bifurcates both medially and laterally at the border between the beta and beta' lobes. One bundle of fibers runs medially to the opposite lobe, whereas the other runs laterally to the basal segments of the beta and alpha lobe as well as the core of the pedunculus. The second of the initial branches diverges in the superior neuropils near the tip of the vertical lobe. One branch turns laterally, runs through the anterior side of the vertical lobe and terminates in the superior intermediate protocerebrum and superior medial protocerebrum. Another branch turns medially and terminates in the anterior dorsal superior medial protocerebrum. Some branches turn laterally, innervating the posterior dorsal superior medial protocerebrum and posterior dorsal superior lateral protocerebrum, and terminate in the anterior dorsal superior lateral protocerebrum. MB-MVP1
Mushroom body pedunculus-medial lobe and vertical lobe arborizing neuron 2 A neuron whose cell body is located on the inferior neuropils in each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber runs posteriorly and bifurcates laterally and medially. The lateral branch arborizes in the lateral-most spur area of the gamma lobe and the inner core of the pedunculus. The medial branch bifurcates in front of the middle segment of the medial lobe. One of the branches projects to the contralateral medial lobe. On the way to the opposite hemisphere, in the medial segment of the medial lobe, one fiber branches out, turns dorsolaterally and arborizes in the inferior neuropils. Some fibers extend further to the superior neuropils. The other branch turns dorsally, runs along the alpha lobe and terminates in the posterior tip of the alpha' lobe. MB-MVP2
Mushroom body pedunculus-medial lobe arborizing neuron 1 A neuron whose cell body is located on the inferior neuropils, lateral to the calyx of each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber runs anteriormedially and diverges above the ellipsoid body, with most of the branches arborizing in the anterior part of the inferior neuropils. One fiber turns dorsolaterally, runs in front of the anterior surface of the vertical lobe and terminates in the middle of the inferior neuropils. On the way, one fiber branches off and arborizes in the anterior and middle of the superior neuropils. Another fiber turns ventromedially and projects to the opposite hemisphere. A third fiber turns ventrolaterally, runs in front of the anterior surface of the gamma lobe and then below the gamma lobe, and arborizes in the spur of the gamma lobe and inner core of the pedunculus. MB-MP1
Mushroom body pedunculus-vertical lobe arborizing neuron 1 A neuron, which is part of a cluster of at least two neurons, whose cell body is located on the inferior neuropils, near the junction of the mushroom body lobes of each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber bifurcates near the vertical lobe. One of these fibers turns ventromedially to the tip of the medial lobe, whereas the other runs dorsally. The ventromedially directed branch innervates the medial lobe through the border between the gamma and beta' lobes. One branch runs medially to the opposite medial lobe whereas the other runs laterally to the basal segments of the alpha lobe and the inner core of the pedunculus. From the alpha lobe, one branch runs dorsally, turns dorsolaterally behind the alpha lobe and terminates in the posterior of the superior neuropils where it arborizes and further spreads laterally to the anterior dorsal superior lateral protocerebrum and the inferior neuropils. MB-VP1
Mushroom body ventral lobe arborizing neuron 1 A single neuron whose cell body is located on the superior neuropils lateral to the calyx of each brain hemisphere. The cell body fiber projects anterior-medially and forms branches in the superior neuropils posterior to the vertical lobes. One of these branches projects to the opposite hemisphere and others project to the vertical lobe and form extensive arborizations in the middle segment of both the alpha and alpha' lobes. MB-V1
Mushroom body ventral lobe arborizing neuron 3 A neuron, which is one of approximately two neurons per brain hemisphere, whose cell body is located in the dorsal-most area of the subesophageal ganglion, ventromedial to the antennal lobe. The cell body fiber ascends through the median bundle to the level of the gamma lobe, and then projects towards the tip of the alpha lobe where it forms extensive arborization. On the way to the alpha lobe, several fibers branch off with some arborizing in the superior neuropils, and others arborize in this region before turning anteriorly and terminating in the anterior dorsal superior medial protocerebrum. MB-V3
Mushroom body ventral lobe arborizing neuron 4 One of approximately two neurons per brain hemisphere whose cell body is located in the dorsal-most area of the subesophageal ganglion, ventromedial to the antennal lobe. The cell body fiber ascends through the median bundle to the level of the gamma lobe before making a steep lateral turn and forming extensive branches in the inferior neuropils. Some branches further arborize in the superior neuropils posterior to the vertical lobe. The main fiber further projects towards the vertical lobe and arborizes extensively in the alpha' lobe. MB-V4
Neocortex Cajal-Retzius cell Neurons of the human embryonic marginal zone which display, as a salient feature, radial ascending processes that contact the pial surface, and a horizontal axon plexus located in the deep marginal zone. These cells were first described by Retzius (Retzius, 1893, 1894) (see the cell labelled 'Retzius, 1893' in Fig. 1). There is consensus that homologous elements are present in the non-primate neocortex, where their morphology is much simpler, as initially described in 1891 by Cajal (Fig. 2) (Cajal, 1891). \\nThe definition of these cells has remained somewhat confusing, in part because Cajal and Retzius studied different species and different developmental stages, and also because their original publications have not been generally available. Meyer et al (1999)prefer to define 'Cajal\\u2013Retzius cells' loosely, as the family of Reln-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the marginal zone, and reserve the term of pioneer neurons for the early, Reln-negative preplate derivatives that settle in the MZ and project to sub-cortical levels. Adapted from Meyer et al. (1999) Cajal-Retzius Cell Brain marginal zone
Neocortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area layer 1 parvalbumin cell This neuron stains for Parvalbumin and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 1 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 1 Parvalbumin
Neocortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area layer 2 parvalbumin cell This neuron stains for Parvalbumin and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 2 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 2 Parvalbumin
Neocortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area layer 3 parvalbumin cell This neuron stains for Parvalbumin and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 3 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 3 Parvalbumin
Neocortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area layer 4 parvalbumin cell This neuron stains for Parvalbumin and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 4 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 4 Parvalbumin
Neocortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area layer 5 parvalbumin cell This neuron stains for Parvalbumin and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 5 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 5 Parvalbumin
Neocortex Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area layer 6 parvalbumin cell This neuron stains for Parvalbumin and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 6 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 6 Parvalbumin
Neocortex Dorsolateral prefrontal area layer 2 Calbindin cell This neuron stains for Calbindin-28K and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 2 GABAergic neurons. GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 2
Neocortex Dorsolateral prefrontal area layer 3 Calbindin cell This neuron stains for Calbindin-28K and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 3 GABAergic neurons. GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 3 Calbindin
Neocortex Dorsolateral prefrontal area layer 4 Calbindin cell This neuron stains for Calbindin-28K and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 4 GABAergic neurons. GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 4 Calbindin
Neocortex bouquet double cell Type of inhibitory cortical interneuron that provides inhibitory innervation of pyramidal neurons. Most commonly described in primates; may be absent in rodent (DeFelipe et al., 2001). Double Bouquet Cell Neocortex
Neocortex chandelier cell Type of cortical interneuron characterized by a bitufted appearance, with groups of dendrites extending from the upper and lower poles of an elongate cell body, but some cells have a more multipolar configuration. Cortical chandelier cell
Chandelier cell
Chandelier-type cell
Neocortex Chandelier cell.jpeg
Neocortex dorsolateral prefrontal area layer 5 calbindin cell This neuron stains for Calbindin-28K and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 5 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 5 Calbindin
Neocortex dorsolateral prefrontal area layer 6 calbindin cell This neuron stains for Calbindin-28K and is one of the subpopulation of DLPFC layer 6 GABAergic neurons GABA Neocortical interneurons
GABAergic interneurons
Inhibitory interneurons
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex layer 6 Calbindin
Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 2-3 cell This basic neuron type in the neocortex has a pyramidal-shaped cell body with apical and basal dendrites, with an axon that projects to other cortical areas as well giving rise to local collaterals. Glutamate Superficial cortical pyramidal cell Neocortex layer 2
Neocortex layer 3
Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 callosal cell This is a basic type of neocortical cell with a pyramidal shaped cell body and apical and basal spiny dendrites. Its axon gives off local collaterals and projects through the corpus callosum to the contralateral neocortex. It belongs to the group termed intra-telencepalic pyramidal cells. Glutamate Neocortex layer 5
Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticopontine-tectal cell This is a basic type of necortical cell with a pyramidal-shaped cell body and apical and basal spiny dendrites. Its axon projects subcortically to the midbrain tectum, and gives off local collaterals with the necortex. It belongs to the group termed infra-telencenphalic pyramidal cells. Glutamate Neocortex layer 5
Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticospinal cell This is a basic type of neocortical cell with a pyramidal-shaped cell body and apical and basal spiny dendrites. It has an axon that projects subcortically to the spinal cord, giving off collaterals to the thalamus, and local collaterals within the cortex. It belongs to the group termed infra-telencephalic pyramidal cells. Glutamate Upper motor neuron
corticospinal neuron
Betz cell
Neocortex layer 5B Ctip2
Fezf2
HCN1
Neocortex primary motor area pyramidal layer 5 corticostriate cell This is a basic type of neocortical cell with a pyramidal-shaped cell body and basal and apical spiny dendrites. Its axon projects to the neostriatum, and gives off local collaterals with the neocortex. It belongs to the group termed intra-telenchephalic. Glutamate Cortico-striate cell Neocortex layer 5
Neocortex primary motor area stellate layer 4 cell This basic type of neuron in the neocortex is characterized by a spherical cell body giving rise to multiple spiny dendrites radiating in many directions. . Glutamate Mostly neocortical layer 4
Neocortex primary visual layer 5 callosal cell Neuron in lower layer 5 of primary visual cortex with pyramidal or ovoid soma that project via the corpus callosum to the opposite visual cortex. At the area 17/18 border, callosal neurons are distributed evenly throughout the depth of layer 5. These neurons do not send projections to either the pontine nuclei or the superior colliculus. Apical dendrites of these cells were never observed to extend above layer 4. Basal dendrites were restricted to layer 5 and upper part of layer 6. 2-6 primary basal dendrites originated from the base of the pyramid or ovoid cell body. Visual cortex primary layer 5
Neocortex primary visual layer 5 corticopontine/tectal pyramidal cell Pyramidal neuron with soma located predominantly in the upper middle part of layer 5. These neurons have medium to large somas with 5 or 6 primary basal dendrites (4-7 primary basal dendrites) and a single apical dendrite ascending to layer 1. Double labeling experiments show that these cells send collaterals to the pontine nucleus and the superior colliculus. It is possible that all cells sending projections to these regions send collaterals, but the presence of populations of cells sending projections to only the superior colliculus or the pontine nuclei cannot be ruled out. Visual cortex primary layer 5
Neocortex pyramidal cell Pyramidal neuron of the cerebral cortex (not including hippocampus or olfactory cortex). The pyramidal cell of the neocortex is located in layers 2-3 and 5-6, has a pyramidal-shaped cell body which gives off a number of laterally-directed basal dendrites and usually a single apical dendrite which ascends to branch and terminate in layer 1; these dendrites are covered in dendritic spines. Glutamate Neocortical pyramidal cell
Neocortical pyramidal neuron
Cortical pyramidal neuron
neocortex pyramidal neuron
Neocortex NC Pyramidal Cell.gif
Neocortex pyramidal cell layer 5-6 The pyramidal cell of layer 5 of the neocortex has a pyramidal-shaped cell body which gives off a number of laterally-directed basal dendrites and usually a single apical dendrite which ascends to branch and terminate in layer 1; these dendrites are covered in dendritic spines. The axon descends through the internal capsule, giving off collaterals to the thalamus, to the medullary pyramids, where most of the axons cross controlaterally to descend and innervate the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Glutamate deep pyramidal cell
Neocortex pyramidal neuron layer 5-6
Layer 5-6 pyramidal cell
layer 5 pyramidal neuron
layer 5 pyramidal cell
Tufted layer 5 (TL5) pyramidal neurons
Neocortex layer 5
Neocortex layer 6
Neocortex pyramidal layer 2-3 cell This basic excitatory neuron type has a pyramidal-shaped cell body, with apical and basal dendrites. Typically, there is an axon that projects to other cortical and/or subcortical areas, as well as giving rise to local collaterals. Glutamate corticocortical cell
superficial pyramidal cell
Neocortex pyramidal neuron layer 2-3
Layer 2-3 pyramidal cell
Neocortical pyramidal neuron: superficial
deep layer (layer 5
6) pyramidal cell
Neocortex
Neocortex layer 2
Neocortex layer 3
Neocortex layer 5
Neocortex layer 6
Neocortex layer 4
?
Neocortex stellate smooth cell A non-pyramidal neuron class found primarily in layer IV of mammalian neocortex characterized by relatively smooth dendrites (While and Rock, 1980). Cortical Smooth Stellate Cell Neocortex layer 4
Neocortex stellate spiny cell A non-pyramidal neuron class found primarily in layer IV of mammalian neocortex characterized by a high density of dendritic spines (While and Rock, 1980). Cortical Spiny Stellate Cell Neocortex layer 4
Neostriatum cholinergic cell Large cholinergic interneuron in the caudate nucleus and putamen, extensive axon collaterals terminate on striatal medium spiny neurons Acetylcholine Giant cholinergic interneuron
Striatal cholinergic interneuron
large striatal aspiny neuron
cholinergic striatal neuron
Neostriatum cholinergic interneuron
Neostriatum giant cell of Kolliker
Neostriatal cholinergic interneuron
Aspiny type 1 neuron
Striatum Choline Acetyltransferase Neostriatum cholinergic cell.JPG
Neostriatum direct pathway spiny neuron The principal projection neuron of the caudate and putamen. GABA Medium spiny neuron
Neostriatal spiny neuron
Medium-sized spiny neuron
Striatal spiny neuron
Striatal medium spiny neuron
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Nucleus accumbens
Enkephalin
Substance P
Neostriatum gaba/parvalbumin interneuron A type of interneuron located in the striatum that stain intensely for GABAergic markers and for parvalbumin. The cells are medium sized with round somata and smooth, sometimes varicose dendrites. The axonal arborization banches extensively and often forms baskets on the somata of the spiny neurons. Intracellular staining studies suggest that these cells may be divided into two subgroups epending on whether their dendrites and axons ramify within 100-150 um of the soma or are more extended (up to 300 um) Adapted from The Basal Ganglia, Chapter 9, Shepherd, G. M. The synaptic organization of the brain, 5th ed, New York: Oxford University Press. GABA GABA/parvalbumin striatal interneuron
fast-spiking interneuron
FS Cell
Striatum Parvalbumin
Neostriatum indirect pathway spiny neuron The principal projection neuron of the caudate and putamen. GABA Medium spiny neuron
Neostriatal spiny neuron
Medium-sized spiny neuron
Striatal spiny neuron
Striatal medium spiny neuron
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Nucleus accumbens
Enkephalin
Substance P
Neuron of aristal sensillum Sensory neuron of aristal sensillum. Each sensillum contains a pair of sensory dendrites. The outer segment of these dendrites is encased in an electron-dense dendritic sheath and each of the pair has a distinct morphology: one is short and cylindrical proximally, but flattened distally, the other is larger and has a plasma membrane that form 2 interdigitating spiral whorls of lamellae and has periodically arranged electron dense particles protruding from the plasma membrane into the extracellular space (Foelix et al., 1989). The inner-segments of these dendrites are delimited from the outer segments by a ciliary region and are rich in vesicles, mitochondria and ribosomes. The somata sit in a small ganglion near the base of the arista. The axons project via the aristal nerve, which merges with the antennal nerve, and innervate glomeruli VP2 and / or VP3 of the adult antennal lobe. (Stocker et al., 1983).
Neurosecretory neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) hormone secretion (GO:0046879).
Nucleus ambiguus motor neuron Motor neuron whose soma lies within the nucleus ambiguus and whose axons project through the glossopharyngeal or vagus nerve to innervate the striated muscules of the pharynx and larynx (Heimer, The human brain and spinal cord, 2nd ed, 1995, pg 258 and table 11-1, pg 266). Acetylcholine Nucleus ambiguus
Nucleus laminaris principal neuron The nucleus laminaris (NL) in birds is the third-order auditory neurons located in the brainstem, analogous to the medial superior olive (MSO) in mammals. Neurons in NL and MSO are structurally and biophysically specialized to compute interaural time differences (ITDs), time disparities in the arrival of signals between the two ears, using low-frequency sounds. ITDs are the primary binaural cues for sound localization and segregation in humans and other low-frequency hearing vertebrates. While commonly used laboratory mammals such as mice and rats are high-frequency listeners and have a poorly developed MSO circuit, the structurally and functionally similar circuit in the chicken brainstem provides a particularly useful vertebrate model for basic research of ITD computation, due to its simple anatomy, well-characterized development and cell biology, and importantly, as a genetic tractable system. Glutamate Analogous to the Medial Superior Olive (MSO) in mammals Nucleus laminaris Voltage-gated potassium channel - type 1
Voltage-gated potassium channel - type 3
Sodium channel
High-molecular weight neurofilament
Plasma membrane ATPase
Microtubule-associated protein 2
Fragile x mental retardation protein
Translational elongation factor 2
Octopaminergic neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some octopamine (CHEBI:17134).
Oculomotor nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the oculomotor nucleus oculomotor nucleus motor cell
3rd nerve motor neuron
IIIrd nerve motor neuron
Oculomotor nuclear complex
Olfactory bulb (accessory) glomerular layer cell Small intrinsic neuron in the glomerular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, with cell bodies surrounding the olfactory glomerulus. Equivalent to the periglomerular cell of the main olfactory bulb, but the glomeruli are less clearly differentiated. The cell body is 6-8 um in diameter, from which arises a short bushy dendrite that arborizes within a glomerulus, where it receives synaptic input from olfactory receptor cell axon terminals, and engages in dendrodendritic interactions with mitral/tufted cell dendrites. The axon distributes laterally within the extraglomerular region. Shepherd, Chen, Greer. Olfactory bulb. In The synaptic organization of the brain, ed 5 New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. GABA
Dopamine
Glomerular layer cell
periglomerular cell
Olfactory bulb
Olfactory bulb accessory nucleus
Olfactory bulb accessory glomerular layer
Calcium binding protein Glomerular layer cell.jpg
Olfactory bulb (accessory) granule cell The main intrinsic neuron in the accessory olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. It resembles the granule cell in the main olfactory bulb, including the lack of an axon. Each cell gives rise to short central dendrites and a single long apical dendrite that traverses the granule cell layer, pierces the mitral cell body layer, and branches and terminates within the external plexiform layer among the lateral dendrites of mitral and tufted cells. The dendrites receive synaptic input from mitral and tufted cell dendrites, and have synaptic outputs to those dendrites through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. Shepherd, Chen, Greer. Olfactory Bulb. In The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, ed 5. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. The AOB granule cells are replaced in the adult through ongoing neurogenesis in the subventricular zone GABA Accessory olfactory bulb granule neuron
Accessory olfactory bulb granule cell
Olfactory bulb (accessory) granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb (accessory) mitral cell body layer
Parvalbumin
Olfactory bulb (accessory) mitral cell A principal neuron of the mammalian accessory olfactory bulb. Resembles the mitral cell of the main olfactory bulb, though somewhat smaller and less clearly differentiated. The cell bodies are arranged in a thin layer between the granule cell layer and the external plexiform layer. Each mitral cell is characterized by one (occasionally several) primary dendrite that traverses the external plexiform layer and terminates within an olfactory glomerulus in a tuft of branches where it receives input from the axons of sensory cells of the vomeronasal organ. Glutamate Mitral cell of the accessory olfactory bulb
accessory olfactory bulb mitral cell
Olfactory bulb (accessory) mitral cell body layer Tbr1
Tbr2
Tbx21
Olfactory bulb (main) Blanes cell Large, stellate-shaped short axon cell in the granule cell layer of the main olfactory bulb. GABA Blanes Cell
Olfactory bulb (main) deep short axon cell
short axon cell
Olfactory bulb main granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb (main) adult-born granule cell The olfactory bulb adult-born granule cell is a cohort of cell that comprise a large fraction of the vertibrate olfactory bulb granule cell layer. These neurons proliferate from from the subventricular zone, migrate through the rostral migratory stream and integrate into the olfactory bulb granule cell layer. Upon arriving in the olfactory bulb granule cell layer they migrate radially outward and mature with morphologies similar to neonate olfactory bulb granule cells. This process continues throughout the adult life of the vertibrate. There is some decline in adult neurogenesis in aged vertebrates and the presence of the subventricular proliferative zone is controversial in humans GABA Olfactory bulb main granule cell layer Parvalbumin
Olfactory bulb (main) granule cell The main intrinsic neuron in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. It lacks an axon. Each cell gives rise to short central dendrites and a single long apical dendrite that traverses the granule cell layer, pierces the mitral cell body layer, and branches and terminates within the external plexiform layer among the lateral dendrites of mitral and tufted cells. The dendrites receive synaptic input from mitral and tufted cell lateral dendrites, and have synaptic outputs on those dendrites through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. Shepherd, Chen & Greer. Olfactory Bulb. The Synaptic Organization of the Brain, ed 5. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. GABA Granule cell of olfactory bulb
Olfactory granule neuron
Olfactory bulb main granule cell layer
Olfactory bulb main mitral cell body layer
Parvalbumin Olfactory bulb (main) granule cell.gif
Olfactory bulb (main) mitral cell Principal neuron located in the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. The cell bodies are arranged in a thin layer between the granule cell layer and the external plexiform layer. Each mitral cell is usually characterized in the mammal by a single primary dendrite that traverses the external plexiform layer and terminates within an olfactory glomerulus in a tuft of branches which receives input from the axons of olfactory receptor neurons. Axons of the mitral cells project to a number of areas in the brain, including the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, olfactory tubercle, and amygdala. Glutamate Mitral neuron Olfactory bulb main mitral cell body layer T-box protein 21
Protocadherin gamma-C3
Olfactory bulb (main) mitral cell.gif
Olfactory bulb (main) periglomerular cell Small intrinsic neuron in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb, with cell bodies surrounding the olfactory glomerulus. The cell body is 6-8 um in diameter, from which arises a short bushy dendrite that arborizes within a glomerulus, where it receives synaptic input from olfactory receptor cell axon terminals, and engages in dendrodendritic interactions with mitral/tufted cell dendrites. Occasionally, bitufted PG cells connected to two glomeruli are seen. The axon distributes laterally within the extraglomerular region, extending as far as 5-10 glomeruli away. Some PG cells appear to lack axons. Subtypes may be identified based on their biochemical constituents. GABA
Dopamine
Periglomerular neuron
Olfactory bulb periglomerular cell
Olfactory bulb main glomerular layer Calbindin 28K Olfactory bulb (main) periglomerular cell.gif
Olfactory bulb (main) tufted cell (middle) Principal neuron located in the outer third of the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb in the mammalian central nervous system. Each tufted cell is characterized by usually a single short primary dendrite that traverses the outer external plexiform layer and terminates within an olfactory glomerulus in a tuft of branches, where it receives the input from olfactory receptor neuron axon terminals. Differentiated from external tufted cells. Axons of the tufted cells transfer information to a number of areas in the brain, including the piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, olfactory tubercle, and amygdala. Shepherd, Shen, Greer. Olfactory bulb. In The synaptic organization of the brain, ed 5 New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Glutamate Olfactory bulb (main) tufted cell (middle) Olfactory bulb
Olfactory bulb (main) internal plexiform layer outer part
Olfactory cortex deep pyramidal cell A cell with the classic pyramidal-shaped cell body and apical and basal dendritic trees, with cell body in layer III of the piriform (olfactory) cortex. Its axon arises from the deeper aspect of the cell body and gives rise to collaterals which terminate within the layer III on local intrinsic cells, and also recur to layer III and II where they form association fibers that connect to the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons and continue to become centrifugal fibers to the olfactory bulb. Glutamate Small pyramidal neuron
Olfactory cortex pyramidal neuron
piriform cortex deep pyramidal neuron
Piriform cortex layer 3
Anterior piriform cortex
Olfactory cortex pyramidal cell.gif
Olfactory cortex horizontal cell Medium-size interneuron in the superficial layer I of the olfactory cortex, with dendrites oriented parallel to the surface, and axon descending to layer II. They presumably receive excitatory input from the LOT fibers and are inhibitory in layer II. GABA Horizontal cell (olfactory)
olfactory horizontal cell
Piriform cortex layer 1
Olfactory cortex
Olfactory cortex multipolar cell A type of intrinsic neuron found in the deep part of layer III of the olfactory cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. Several subpopulations of deep multipolar cells may be distinguished based on morphology and physiology. The one described here has pyramidal cell-like spiny dendrites. Glutamate Olfactory cortex large multipolar neuron
Olfactory cortex large multipolar cell
Olfactory cortex
Olfactory cortex deep layer III
Olfactory cortex semilunar cell Projection neuron found in the superficial border of layer II (IIa) of piriform cortex similar in characteristics to a pyramidal cell and also resembling the granule cell of the dentate gyrus. It has an apical but no basilar dendrites. They project to other cortical areas but, in contrast to pyramidal cells, they do not project back to the olfactory bulb. Glutamate semilunar cell
semilunar neuron
Olfactory cortex layer 2a
Primary olfactory cortex
Anterior piriform cortex
Doublecortin
Olfactory cortex small globular cell A small stellate cell with globular somata found in all layers of the piriform cortex. GABA Olfactory cortex
Olfactory cortex superficial pyramidal cell A cell with the classic pyramidal-shaped cell body and apical and basal dendritic trees, with cell body in layer IIb and superficial layer III of the piriform (olfactory) cortex. Its axon arises from the deeper aspect of the cell body and gives rise to collaterals which terminate within the layer III on local intrinsic cells, and also recur to layer III, II and Ib where they form association fibers that connect to the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons and continue to become centrifugal fibers to the olfactory bulb. Glutamate Small pyramidal neuron
Olfactory cortex pyramidal neuron
Olfactory cortex layer IIb and superficial III
Olfactory cortex
Anterior piriform cortex
Olfactory cortex pyramidal cell.gif
Olfactory epithelium main sensory cell This is the sensory neuron of the main olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity that transduces odor molecules into receptor potentials, which give rise to the impulse trains that are sent further in the olfactory system.. It is a small bipolar cell in the pseudostratified olfactory epithelium, with cell body 8-15 um diameter giving rise to a single dendrite ending in a knob at the epithelial surface, from which arise several sensory cilia. A single unmyelinated axon descends through the basal lamina and turns to project to the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. Shepherd, Chen & Greer. Olfactory Bulb, In The Synaptic Organization of the Brain. 5th ed. 2004. Glutamate olfactory receptor cell
olfactory sensory neuron
Middle layer of pseudostratified olfactory epithelium Olfactory receptors expressed in the cilia Olfactory epithelium (main) sensory cell.gif
Olfactory epithelium main supporting cell So called supporting or sustentacular cell, that spans the depth of the olfactory epithelium, with cell bodies in an approximate layer near the surface, and microvilli extending into the overlying mucus. The cytoplasm contains large dense granules that are released into the mucus. Their electrophysiological properties are similar to those of glial cells (high membrane potential, low input resistance). They are coupled with each other through gap junctions. Glutamate sustentacular cell
supporting cell
sustentacular main olfactory epithelium supporting cell
Olfactory epithelium middle layer Olfactory receptors
Olfactory receptor neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell (GO:0050911). ORN
Olfactory receptor neuron of dorsal organ Odorant receptor expressing bipolar neuron whose dendrite innervates the central dome sensillum of the dorsal organ, whose cell body is part of the dorsal organ ganglion and whose axon is carried by the antennal nerve to innervate a larval antennal lobe glomerulus. DO ORN
Olfactory tubercle Islets of Calleja dwarf neuron The olfactory tubercle (anterior perforated substance in primates) contains clusters of cells appearing as caps made up of small cells surrounded by pyramidal cells, identified originally as "islets of Calleja" by Calleja (1893) and summarized by Cajal (1911). Islands of Calleja
Olfactory tubercle Islets of Calleja granule neuron Neuron located in the granule cell clusters in the olfactory tubercle characterized by a small soma with one to two small sparsely spiny varicose dendrites. The axon has not been observed to exit the clusters in Golgi preparations. Ultrastructurally, it is characterized by scant cytoplasm and a round nucleus (Meyer et al., 1989) Island of Calleja granule neuron
Island of Calleja granule cell
Islands of Calleja
Olfactory tubercle Islets of Calleja large Type 2 hilar cell Type of large hilar neuron located in the hilar region of the granule cell clusters (Islands of Calleja) or the olfactory tubercle that can be differentiated morphologically from other types of hilar neurons: it has several primary dendrites that branch relatively close to the soma but without forming bushlike or other special dendritic complexes; the dendrites do not go along the border of the granule cell clusters but approach them at right angles; the axon also arises from the cell soma (Millhouse, 1987). Islands of Calleja
Olfactory tubercle Islets of Calleja large hilar cell Large neuron associated with the hilar region of the granule cell clusters (Islands of Calleja) in the olfactory tubercle in the hilar region . It has two thick primary dendrites, 40-90 um long, that branch near the periphery of the granule cell cluster with several dendritic branches coming off of the main shaft close together in a bushlike manner (Millhouse, 1987). Olfactory tubercle large hilar neuron Islands of Calleja
Olfactory tubercle Islets of Calleja spiny granule neuron Granule cell found in the granule cell clusters (Islands of Calleja) in the olfactory tubercle characterized by a high density of dendritic spines (Millhouse, 1987) Island of Calleja spiny granule neuron Islands of Calleja
Oligo-glomerular lLN Local interneuron of the adult antennal lobe that is derived from the lateral AL neuroblast lineage and that innervates only some of the adult antennal lobe glomeruli.
Optic lobe neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that has synaptic terminals in some optic lobe (FBbt_00003701).
Pacemaker neuron Neuron that supports clock-gene oscillations under light:dark cycles or constant conditions, and participates in control of the diurnal rhythm of the organism.
Pb-eb-eb neuron A small field neuron of the adult central complex that innervates only the protocerebral bridge and two sectors of the ellipsoid body.
Pb-eb-no neuron A small field neuron of the adult central complex that innervates only the protocerebral bridge, the ellipsoid body and the ipsilateral nodulus. CCI (pb-eb-no1)
Pb-fb-eb neuron A small field neuron of the adult central complex that innervates only the protocerebral bridge, the ellipsoid body and the fan-shaped body.
Pb-fb-fb neuron A small field neuron of the adult central complex that innervates only the protocerebral bridge and either two adjacent segments of one layer of the fan-shaped body or adjacent layers of a single segment.
Pb-no neuron A small field neuron of the adult central complex that innervates only the protocerebral bridge and the noduli. CCI (pb-no1)
Pdf neuron Neuron that expresses Pigment-dispersing factor, Pdf (FBgn0023178). pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neuron
Pdf neuron close to calyx .
Pdf neuron close to tritocerebrum Neuron located anteroventrally to the tritocerebrum that expresses Pdf (FBgn0023178) strongly until 24hrs after eclosion, after which Pdf immunoreactivity in the soma disappears. Within 2-4 days post-eclosion, Pdf immunoreactivity is also lost from the arborizations.
Pdf neuron of abdominal neuromere Pdf positive neuron whose soma is located in the cortex of the fused adult abdominal ganglia. There are 4-6 of these, all of which project posteriorly, fasciculating with the abdominal nerve trunk.
Peptidergic neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some peptide (CHEBI:16670).
Peripherally synapsing interneuron .
Photoreceptor cell of Bolwig organ Photoreceptor cell that is part of a Bolwig's organ. Unlike the photoreceptors of the adult eye, eyelet and ocellus, these photoreceptors do not contain rhabdomeres, but instead have apical surfaces which are folded into numerous microtubule containing lamellae. photoreceptor cell of Bolwigs organ
Posterior fascicle sensory neuron Any sensory neuron (FBbt_00005124) that fasciculates with some segmental nerve (FBbt_00002037).
Projection neuron (FBbt Term) An interneuron that projects from some primary sensory neuropil (e.g. the antennal lobe) to a higher brain neuropil.
Prothoracic gland innervating neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that has synaptic terminals in some prothoracic gland (FBbt_00001724).
Prothoracic ventral neurosecretory neuron .
Protocerebral bridge lateral neuron PBl Large field neuron of the central complex that is intrinsic to the protocerebral bridge. Its fiber enters the protocerebral bridge laterally and arborizes in all 16 glomeruli. The soma of these neurons are located in the posterior cortex, medial and ventral to the Kenyon cell soma.
Pupal DN period neuron A Per (FBgn0003068) expressing neuron that is located in a dorsoanterior cluster in the pupal brain.
Pupal LN period neuron Laterally located period (FBgn0003068) expressing neuron of the pupal brain.
Pupal Pdf negative s-LNv neuron Pupal s-LNv neuron that does not express Pdf (FBgn0023178) (Kaneko et al., 1997). There is only one of these per ventral cluster of LN period neurons.
Pupal Pdf neuron Pdf expressing neuron that is part of the pupa.
Pupal Pdf neuron close to calyx Neuron of the pupa that is located dorsoanterior to the calyx of the mushroom body and that expresses Pdf (FBgn0023178).
Pupal Pdf neuron close to tritocerebrum Pupal Pdf expressing neuron whose soma is located in a cluster antero-ventral the tritocerebrum. There are 2-4 of these per cluster.
Pupal antennal lobes tachykinin neuron Pupal neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976), whose cell body is located in the cortex of the antennal lobes (Winther et al., 2003). pupal LPP2 neuron
Pupal large descending DN tachykinin neuron Pupal neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976), whose cell body is located in the lateral protocerebrum and that innervates the ventral nerve cord (Winther et al., 2003). pupal tachykinin DN neuron
Pupal pacemaker neuron Pacemaker neuron that is part of the pupa.
Pupal protocerebral LPP2 tachykinin neuron Pupal neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976), whose cell body is located in the lateral posterior protocerebrum and that innervates the superior median protocerebrum and fan-shaped body (Winther et al., 2003). pupal LPP2 neuron
Pupal s-LNv neuron Larval neuron of the period-expressing LNv cluster, with a small cell body and generally located more dorsally than the l-LNv neurons. There are 5 cells present in each cluster, all except one of which express Pdf (FBgn0023178).
Pupal tachykinin neuron of the central nervous system Pupal neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976) and that is located in the central nervous system (Winther et al., 2003).
Retina B ganglion cell Sixty to eight neurons with small somata (12 to 24 micrometers in diameter), small dendritic fields (99 to 289 micrometers in diameter), and small axonal diameters (04. to 07. micrometers in diameter) make up Group RGB.We classified cells with a large soma and a large dendritic field as RGA, cells with a small to to medium to sized soma and a small to to medium to sized dendritic field as RGB, and cells with a small to to medium to sized soma but a medium to to to large dendritic field RGC. Retina ganglion cell B
Retina C ganglion cell Group RGC cells are defined as having small to to to medium cell bodies and medium to to to large dendritic fields. Their morphology was more heterogeneous than that of Groups RGA and RGB. We classified cells with a large soma and a large dendritic field as RGA, cells with a small to to medium to sized soma and a small to to medium to sized dendritic field as RGB, and cells with a small to to medium to sized soma but a medium to to to large dendritic field RGC. Retina ganglion cell C
Retina Giant-Melanopsin Ganglion Cell Recently discovered primate ganglion cell that expresses Melanopsin. Intrinsically photo-sensitive. Morphologically has dendritic arborization that is much wider than the Parasols. Thought to be involved in Pupillary responses. Retina Ganglion Cell Giant-Melanopsin
Retina Off-Midget Ganglion Cell Physiologically classified as the main ganglion cells with small receptive fields driven by center-off input. Matched with morphologically defined cell of extremely small dendritic arborization. As a population forms both a physical mosaic within retina as well as a receptive field mosaic of stimulus space. Both receptive field size and dendritic arborization are distinct from the corresponding On-Midget. P Cell
Retina Ganglion Cell Off-Midget
Retina Off-Upsilon Ganglion Cell Physiologically defined Primate Ganglion Cell. Characterized by large receptive fields, highly non-linear spatial summation and highly transient OFF response to diffuse light. No known Morphological counterpart. Retina Ganglion Cell Off-Upsilon Retina ganglion cell layer
Retina On-Midget Ganglion Cell Physiologically classified as the main ganglion cells with small receptive fields driven by center-On input. Matched with morphologically defined cell of extremely small dendritic arborization. As a population forms both a physical mosaic within retina as well as a receptive field mosaic of stimulus space. Both receptive field size and dendritic arborization are distinct from the corresponding Off-Midget Glutamate P-Cell
Retina Ganglion Cell On-Midget
Retina ganglion cell layer
Retina On/Off-Parasol Ganglion Cell Along with the On/Off-Midget cells, the Parasols form the majority of the Retina Ganglion Cells. Receptive fields and dendritic arborization are both larger than the Midget Cells. Highly sensitive to contrast. The On and Off Cells have slightly different receptive field size as well as a difference in Dendrite location. M-Cells
Retina Ganglion Cell On/Off-Parasol
Retina Retina narrow-field AII amacrine cell This subtype of amacrine (no axon) cell "sends a thick stalk to the ON level of the inner plexiform layer where it arborizes richly to collect chemical synapses from rod bipolar terminals" (Sterling and Demb, Syn Org of the Brain, p. 223). It also has numerous gap junctions with cone ON bipolar cell terminals. Retinal inner nuclear layer
Retina amacrine cell Cell in the inner plexiform layer of the retina, consisting of multiple dendrites and no axon. It makes synaptic connections with bipolar cell terminals and ganglion cell dendrites, as well as other amacrine cell dendrites. Amacrine II cells have gap junctions with bipolar terminals and other amacrine cells, which are switched on for night time vision. GABA
Glycine
Dopamine
Amacrine Neuron type II
Type II Amacrine cell
Retina inner plexiform layer Retina amacrine cell.jpeg
Retina bipolar cell Small cell in the retina with one peripheral process connecting to terminals of photoreceptors and horizontal cells and the other process connecting to dendrites of ganglion cells and amacrine cells. It provides the straight-through pathway for visual responses from photoreceptors to ganglion cells. Several varieties are related to specific processing pathways. O Glutamate Retinal Bipolar Neuron
retinal bipolar cell
Retina inner nuclear layer Retina bipolar cell.gif
Retina bistratified amacrine cell Collator note: bistratified amacrine cells are not explicitly defined by Perry and Walker. Perry and Walker describe three types of bistratified amacrine cells, having thef dendrites or spines distributed in two strata as the common character. bistratified amacrine cell
Retina ganglion cell The main principal neuron of the retina, whose axon projects to several sites in the brain: lateral geniculate nucleus on the pathway to visual cortex, superior colliculus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. It receives input from bipolar cells, and has synaptic inputs Glutamate Retinal Ganglion Neuron
Retinal ganglion cell
Retina
Retina ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell.gif
Retina ganglion cell B1 Twenty to six neurons were defined as RGB1 cells (Fig. 8A, Table1). One of their characteristic features is the fact that the cell body always lies outside within the confines of the dendritic tree. They have the highest eccentricity of body relative to dendritic field of all ganglion cell identified. The majority of RGB1 cells analysed stratify diffusely within the IPL; nevertheless, their dendritic trees are centred in either the on to or the off to sublaminae of the IPL (Table 1). RGB1 cells were found across the retina. 1 cells had curvy but generally radially branching dendrites (Fig. 5A). They ramified in the outer IPL close to the middle. retinal ganglion cell B1 Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell B2 Fourteen neurons were defined as RGB2 cells (Figs. 2D, 8B). These cells are easy to distinguish by the very dense nature of their small dendritic trees. This high density is due to frequent, irregular branching of fine dendrites, which curve, twist, and overlap extensively (Fig. 2D). Their cell body is generaly located well within the confines of the dendritic tree. RGB2 cells were found across the retina (Fig. 9). RGB2 cells had a very small but very dense dendritic field (Fig. 5B), featuring numerous tiny branches bearing spines. They ramified almost in the middle of the IPL. retinal ganglion cell B2 Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell B3 Twenty to four cells were defined as RGB3 cells (Fig. 8C). The shape and branching patterns of their dendritic trees resemble those of RGA2 cells, although dendritic fields are much smaller. The somata are centrally located within the dendritic field. RGB3 cells show a greater range in dendritic field sizes than other RGB subgroups (Fig. 9), which suggests further heteronegeitiy. RGB3 cells had curvy, recursive dendrites, forming a relatively sparse dendritic field (Fig. 5C). retinal ganglion cell B3 Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell C others The Group RGc cells, as mentioned above, are a heterogeneous population: we labelled several neurons that could not be classified as RGC1 or RGC2. Includes previously described exmples of Type III or Class III cells (Perry, 1979, Dreher et al., 1985), with their small somata and, in some cases, very large dendritic fields. retinal ganglion cell C others Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina ganglion cell C1 Five RGc1 cells were labelled that have small somata and large asymmetrical dendritic fields (Figs. 10A, 12). Although only a small number of them were labelled, they resemble the medial terminal nucleus (MTN) to projecting cells described by Dann and Buhl (1987). Compared with neurons in Group RGA, RGC1 cells have smaller cell bodies, a higher density of dendritic branching, and usually asymmetrical dendritic fields. The RGC1 cells exhibited smooth, small caliber, recursive dendrites extending from large primary ones. Dendritic field was of medium density (Fig. 6A). The RGC1 stratified mostly in the inner IPL. Their morphology is very similar to the MTN to projecting cells characterized by Dann and Buhl (1987). retinal ganglion cell C1 Retina
Ganglion cell layer
Retina horizontal cell Cell in the external nuclear layer whose processes receive connections from the photoreceptors and make connections with photoreceptors and bipolar terminals in the external plexiform layer. In the cat, one type of horizontal cell has only dendrites; another type has a dendritic arborization and a long axon and large axonal arborization, each of which has independent inputs and outputs. GABA horizontal cell (retina) Retina external plexiform layer Retina horizontal cell.jpg
Retina midget bipolar cell Small cell with short bipolar processes that transmit from cone photoreceptors to midget ganglion cells. Glutamate Midget cell
Retina bipolar cell midget
Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina narrow-field bistratified amacrine cell The third type of cell in the wide to field unistratified class of amacrine cell has a distinct dendritic pattern. The mean soma size, 11.4 micrometers, is larger than the other two types range (10.0 to 13.0 micrometers; N = 10). Usually three but sometimes two large dendrites arise from the cell in the same layer as the soma. After a short distance a very fine branch comes off each of the larger branches, again in the same plane as the cell soma. narrow-field bistratified amacrine cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor L cone cell Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 570 nanometers, i.e. relatively long wavelengths ("L") mediating blue color, compared with green (M for medium) and blue (S for short) cones. Glutamate Retina photoreceptor cone L Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor M cone cell Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 550 nanometers, i.e. relatively medium wavelengths ("M") mediating green color, compared with blue (S for short) and red (L for long) cones. Glutamate M-cone cell
Retina photoreceptor cone M
Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina photoreceptor S cone cell Photoreceptor with peak spectral sensitivity at 420 nanometers, i.e. relatively short wavelengths ("S") mediating blue color, compared with green (M for medium) and L (for red) cones. Glutamate Retina photoreceptor cone S Retina photoreceptor layer Retina photoreceptor cone S rhodopsin
Retina photoreceptor cone cell One of the two photoreceptor cell types in the vertebrate retina. In cones the photopigment is in invaginations of the cell membrane of the outer segment. Cones are less sensitive to light than rods, but they provide vision with higher spatial and temporal acuity, and the combination of signals from cones with different pigments allows color vision. (MSH) Glutamate Cone cell
cone
retinal cone
Retina outer nuclear layer Cones.jpg
Retina photoreceptor rod cell One of the two photoreceptor cell types of the vertebrate retina. Primarily used in night vision. Rods significantly outnumber cones. The photopigment is in stacks of membranous disks separate from the outer cell membrane. Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but rod mediated vision has less spatial and temporal resolution than cone vision. Glutamate rod cell
rod
retinal rod photoreceptor
Retina outer nuclear layer Retinal Rod cell.jpg
Retina stratified amacrine cell Stratified amacrine cells have their dendrites confined to one or several places within the inner plexiform layer.
Retina stratified diffuse amacrine cell Stratified diffuse amacrine cells have their dendrites lying in more than one plane but not extending the full of the inner plexiform layer. In the rat retina the arrangement of the dendirtes is visualized more readily in vertical sections than in whole mounts, and the dendritic filed is found to terminate in either the inner or the outer half of the inner plexiform layer, although the latter is more common. The cells have a mean soma size of 8.9 micrometers (range 7.5 to 10.5 micrometers; N = 15). Usually a single process leaves the cell soma and passes into the inner plexiform layer before a tight field of short branches is formed (see figure 8, plate 2, and figure 17); the mean dendritic size is 30 micrometers (range 20 to 46 micrometers; N = 15). stratified diffuse amacrine cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina thick dendrite horizontal cell One of two types of horizontal cell, it has thick dendrites and apparently no axon. It connects to other horizontal cells and to cone terminals. These cells are extensively interconnected by gap junctions (electrical synapses) as well as to cone terminals. They have wide receptive fields. Not known H cell Retina outer nuclear layer
Retina thin dendrite horizontal cell One of two types of horizontal cell, with thin dendrites and a long very thin axon ending in a profuse arborization. There is classical evidence that the dendrite connects to cones and axon arborization connects to rods, and that the axon does not support an action potential but serves to separate the two arborizations. However, this issue is under investigation. This cell type has a narrow receptive field and connects weakly to other horizontal cells. Retinal inner nuclear layer
Retina type 2 cone bipolar cell Type 2 and type 3 CBs have similar (with type 1 CB) dendritic tree shapes but show diffuse stratification at different levels of the outer half of the IPL, that is in strata 1 to 2 and 2, respectively. ... the axon terminal system of type 2 looks a bit disordered. type 2 cone bipolar cell Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina type 3 cone bipolar cell Type 2 and type 3 CBs have similar (with type 1 CB) dendritic tree shapes but show diffuse stratification at different levels of the outer half of the IPL, that is in strata 1 to 2 and 2, respectively. ...the axon terminal of type 3 shows a and quot;well to arranged and quot; treelike branching pattern. type 3 cone bipolar cell Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina type 4 cone bipolar cell Type 4 (n = 4, Fig. 1E) is a diffuse CB stratifying in both strata 1 and 2. type 4 cone bipolar cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 5 cone bipolar cell Type 5 and type 6, both have a very narrow ramification. By using Normaski optics, the two cell types can be distinguished by their stratification level within the IPL relative to a band of higher optical density, which is localized at the border of strata 3 and 4 and represents the inner cholinergic band. type 5 cone bipolar cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 6 cone bipolar cell Type 5 and type 6, both have a very narrow ramification. By using Normaski optics, the two cell types can be distinguished by their stratification level within the IPL relative to a band of higher optical density, which is localized at the border of strata 3 and 4 and represents the inner cholinergic band. type 6 cone bipolar cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina type 7 cone bipolar cell Type 7 and type 8 are diffuse CBs with their axonal terminal systems in the inner part of the IPL. Type 7 stratifies in strata 3 and 4....Both cell types (type 7 and type 8) have slender cell bodies. type 7 cone bipolar cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Retina wide field diffuse amacrine cell This cell type has a mean soma size of 10 micrometers (range 8.3 to 13.5 micrometers; N = 14). The extent of its dendritic field is difficult to define precisely; there is a core of short branches that extend vertically through the inner plexiform layer, and this core is surrounded by a number of branches that take an oblique course through the inner plexiform layer before terminating at variable distance from the cell soma at the level of ganglion cells. The dendrites of these cells have a characteristic varicose appearance and the ends of the dendrites often terminate with one of these swellings. Retina inner nuclear layer
Retina wide-field bistratified amacrine cell These wide to field bistratified cells have a process that leaves the soma and passes almost vertically through the inner plexiform layer before branching near the ganglion cell layer, but in addition they also have processes that run laterally at the level of the inner nuclear layer. wide-field bistratified amacrine cell Retina
Inner nuclear layer
Ring neuron A large field neuron that forms ring-shaped arborizations in the ellipsoid body that circle the ellipsoid body canal. These arborizations may form complete or partial rings.
S cell Gustatory receptor neuron responsive to sugars (Montell, 2009), and also amino acids (Dunipace, et al., 2001).
S-LNv neuron Neuron of the period-expressing LNv cluster, with a small cell body and generally located more dorsally than the l-LNv neurons (Helfrich-Forster, 1998). There are 5 cells present in each cluster, all except one of which express Pdf (FBgn0023178). s-LNv
SOG ventral unpaired median neuron Octopaminergic neuron (Sinakevitch and Strausfeld, 2006) whose cell body is located in a cluster around the ventral midline of the subesophageal ganglion (Tanaka et al., 2008). SOG VUM neuron
SP1 neuron Bilaterally paired neuron of the embryo / larva. Each(?) abdominal segment contains a pair of SP1 neurons with an axon that crosses the ventral midline as part of the anterior commissure, wraps around the cell body of its contralateral partner and then extends anteriorly as part of the longitudinal connective. During development, these axons pioneer the anterior commissure and longitudinal connectives.
SP3 neuron Larval neuro-secretory neuron whose cell body is located in the superior medial protocerebrum. There is one cell per brain hemisphere (McCormick and Nichols, 1993) and its axon innervates the corpus cardiacum (Wegener et al., 2011).
Scolopidial neuron Sensory neuron of chordotonal organ. The tip of its dendrite is associated with a rod-like structure called a scolopale.
Segmental nerve pioneer neuron Neuron that, along with one or two other neurons, pioneers the segmental nerve. The cell bodies of this cluster of 2-3 neurons are located posterior and slightly more lateral than the aCC and pCC neurons. SN-pioneer
Sensory neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception (GO:0050906).
Sensory neuron of trichoid sensillum Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that is part of some sensillum trichodeum (FBbt_00005184).
Serotonergic neuron (FBbt Term) Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some serotonin (CHEBI:28790). serotonin neuron
Serotonergic-abdominal giant neuron Serotonergic neuron of the dorso-posterior tip of the thoracico-abdominal ganglion with a large cell body. It fasciculates posteriorly with the abdominal nerve trunk and it branches to innervate the testicular ducts, the seminal vesicle, the accessory glands and the anterior ejaculatory duct (Lee et al., 2001). The cell bodies of these neurons are arranged as a cluster of 8 cells at the dorsal tip of the thoracico-abdominal ganglion (Lee and Hall, 2001). s-Abg
Small adult Pdf neuron of abdominal segment Larval Pdf neuron of the abdominal neuromere with a smaller cell body than the larger Pdf neurons that are located more ventral and anteriorly (Helfrich-Forster, 1997).
Small field neuron An interneuron whose arborization fields are small.
Small field neuron of the central complex A small field neuron that innervates the central complex. The majority of small field neurons of the central complex are intrinsic to it, and they typically connect one central complex domain to another. Some also connect subdomains within a single central complex domain. columnar neuron of central complex
Solitary tract nucleus HSD2 neuron A subgroup of neurons in NTS that express glucocorticoid to inactivating enzyme 11 to beta to hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2), a signature of aldosterone to sensitive tissues. Similar neurons are found in other brain regions. The NTS population may represent a unique phenotype. HSD2 neuron
HSD2 cell
Solitary nucleus Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2
Solitary tract nucleus principal cell projects Glutamate Solitary nucleus
Central subnucleus
Sound activated Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron (JON) activated by near-field sound ranging from 19 Hz to 952 Hz, maximally at 90dB (Kamikouchi et al., 2009, Yorozu et al., 2009). Cells preferentially activated by low-frequency vibration are loosely distributed as a ring in the middle layer of JON cell bodies. Higher frequencies preferentially activate JON neurons with cell bodies likely located mainly in the inner layer, directly surrounding the antennal nerve (Kamikouchi et al., 2006). These neurons are also transiently activated by the onset and offset of arista displacement. sound activated Johnstons organ neuron
Spinal cord border cell Neuron in the ventral horn of lower thoracic/upper lumbar levels in rat, cat and monkey, regarded as the origin of the ventral spinocerebellar tract Spinal border cell
spinal border neuron
Thoracic spinal cord ventral horn
Lumbar spinal cord ventral horn
Spinal cord dorsal horn substantia gelatinosa islet neuron Neuron found in substantia gelatinosa of spinal cord. Perikarya were found throughout layer II. Most of their dendrites traveled rostrocaudally. Their dendritic arbors were shaped like cylinders with their long axes parallel to the long axis of the spinal cord. Islet cell axons arborized in the immediate vicinity of their dendritic territories, within layer II.

Islet cells had one or more dendrites that demonstrated a characteristic branching pattern in which the dendrite bifurcated with one daughter branch continuing in the same direction as its parent while the other daughter branch curved back towards the perikarya.

Islet cells in deep lamina II (lamina IIb) did not respond to noxious stiumuli whereas those in lamina IIa (outer lamina II) specifically responded to noxious stimuli.
islet cell
Spinal cord substantia gelatinosa islet cell
Substantia gelatinosa
Spinal cord dorsal horn substantia gelatinosa vertical neuron Neuron found in the substantia gelatinosa (Rexed lamina II) of spinal cord, with perikarya situated along the superficial border of layer II. Most of their dendrites traveled ventrally while spreading out rostrocaudally, giving their dendritic arbors a fan-like shape. Stalked cell axons arborized largely in layer I. Cell soma size ranged from 16 to 22 pm stalked cell
Spinal cord substantia gelatinosa stalked cell
Substantia gelatinosa
Spinal cord motor neuron parasympathetic Spinal cord parasympathetic motor neuron located in the sacral spinal cord Acetylcholine Sacral spinal cord
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V0C Spinal cord ventral horn V0 interneuron that expresses Pitx2 and use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter Acetylcholine V0c interneuron
spinal cord V0c interneuron
Spinal cord Pitx2
Choline Acetyltransferase
Vesicular acetylcholine transporter
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V0G Spinal cord ventral horn V0 interneuron that expresses Pitx2 and vGlut2 Glutamate V0G interneuron
spinal cord V0G interneuron
Spinal cord Vesicular glutamate transporter 2
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V2 Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron derived from an Lhx3+ progenitor cell V2 interneuron Spinal cord ventral horn
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V2a V2 spinal cord ventral horn interneuron characterized by Chx10+ Glutamate V2a neuron
V2a interneuron
Chx10
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V2b Type of V2 spinal cord ventral horn interneuron chacterized by GATA2/3 Spinal cord ventral horn GATA2
GATA3
Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron V3 Spinal cord ventral horn interneuron derived from the Nkx2.2 p3 progenitor cell domain (Stepian and Arber, Neuron 60:1, 2008) Glutamate V3 interneuron Spinal cord ventral horn Sim1
Spinal cord ventral horn motor neuron alpha Large lower motor neuron of the brainstem and spinal cord. They innervate extrafusal muscle fibers of skeletal muscle and are directly responsible for initiating their contraction. Alpha motor neurons are distinct from gamma motor neurons, which innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles. Acetylcholine
Glutamate
alpha motoneuron
lower motor neuron
alpha motor neuron
Spinal cord ventral horn
Spinal cord ventral horn motor neuron gamma Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal muscle fibers, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the muscle spindles to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length (MSH). Acetylcholine fusimotor neuron
Gamma motor neuron
Spinal cord ventral horn
Stomatogastric ganglion anterior burster neuron Identified individual neuron. Only non-efferent neuron of the pyloric central pattern generator circuit. Has endogenous bursting properties and is part of the pyloric pacemaker kernel. Graded inhibitory synapses onto pyloric and gastric mill circuit neurons within the stomatogastric ganglion, ascending axons to anterior ganglia. Glutamate Stomatogastric ganglion
Subiculum pyramidal cell Pyramidal neuron whose cell body is located in the subiculum Glutamate Subiculum pyramidal neuron Subiculum Subiculum pyramidal cell.JPG
Substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic cell Principal neuron of the substantia nigra pars compacta Dopamine substantia nigra dopaminergic cell
Nigral dopaminergic cell
Substantia nigra pars compacta Tyrosine Hydroxylase
Superior colliculus stellate cell of the zone of optic fibers Collator note: this cell type is not explicitly defined, but is considered here as distinct, based on the definition of the stellate cells class (category) and Table 1 page 407. stellate cell of the zone of optic fibers
Superior colliculus stellate cell of the zone of vertical cells Collator note: this cell type is not explicitly defined, but is considered here as distinct, based on the definition of the stellate cells class (category) and Table 1 page 407. stellate cell of the zone of vertical cells
Superior colliculus type II ganglion cell The Type II ganglion cells, like the piriform cells, have all or almost all of their dendritic field superficial to the cell body. The 15 to 25 micrometers cell body lies within a narrow range of depths at the deep margin of the zone of vertical cells from which it may send 3 to 7 primary dendrites vertically or obliquely towards the surface to form a dendritic field in excess of 400 micrometers in diameter and about 500 micrometers deep. The primary dendrites may derive from any portion of the cell body surface, but they usually arise from the dorsal or lateral surfaces. The dendrites of Type II ganglion cells intermingle, giving them a dense arbor of dendrites that extend over large regions of the superior colliculus. The axon may originate from the cell body or a low order dendrite. It may project into the region superficial to the cell body (figs. 9, 14) or into the deep zones (fig. 15). The axon of the superficial projection is similar to other intrinsic axons except for being thicker. It branches frequently to form an arbor approximately as wide as the dendritic field, which it overlaps, but they are not necessarily coincident, nor is one contained within the other. type II ganglion cell
Superior colliculus type III ganglion cell The Type III ganglion cells resemble Type II ganglion cells in most respects. They are multipolar with 3 4 primary dendrites, a cell body 20 to 25 micrometers in major diameter, and a dendritic field which may be more than 1000 micrometers in diameter. They differ in that some of their dendrites extend below the cell body and their cell bodies lie in the zone of optic fibers. The axon almost invariably runs down into the deep portion of the colliculus. Type III ganglion cells tend to have fewer, but thicker, dendrites passing through the first two zones than is usual for Type II ganglion cells. The dendrites are less spiny, branch less often, but like the other types of ganglion cells, they break up into many fine branches as they approach the surface, particularly in the upper portion of the zone of horizontal cells. type III ganglion cell
Suprachiasmatic nucleus principal neuron Neuron located in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus. Has a role in the generation and/or propagation of circadian rhythms. Vasopressin
Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Gastrin-releasing peptide
GABA
Somatostatin
Enkephalin
SCN neuron Suprachiasmatic nucleus
Tachykinin neuron Neuron that expresses tachykinin (FBgn0037976). LTK-LI
Tergotrochanteral muscle motor neuron Motor neuron that innervates the tergotrochanteral muscle and is electrically synapsed to the giant fiber neuron. It functions in jump response escape behavior. TTMn
Terminal organ neuron of dorsal organ ganglion Neuron whose dendrite innervates the terminal organ but whose soma is located in the dorsal organ ganglion rather than the terminal organ ganglion. The axons of these neurons project via the antennal nerve into area 4 of the subesophageal ganglion. There are 3 of these neurons per terminal organ. TODO neuron
Thalamus geniculate nucleus (medial) principal neuron Principle neuron in ventral division of medial geniculate nucleu characterized by strongly tufted dendrites, with overall discoid dendritic fields extending dors-ventrally and antero-posteriorly on average of 200 um. Neurons are arranged in parallel laminae, seen in transverse or horizontal sections of the pars lateralis. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1261345/?page=8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1261345/?page=8 Ventral nucleus of medial geniculate body
Thalamus medial geniculate nucleus interneuron small Type of small thalamic interneuron GABA medial geniculate Golgi IIa cell
medial geniculate small interneuron
Thermosensory neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that functions in (some) detection of temperature stimulus involved in thermoception (GO:0050960).
Tracheal innervating neuron Multidendritic neuron with several dendritic branches that innervate trachea.
Trapezoid body medial nucleus principal cell Principal cell of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body that receives input from the ventral cochlear nucleus at a specialized synaptic ending termed the Calyx of held. Glycine Principal Cells Medial Nucleus Trapezoid Body
Trapezoid body medial nucleus principal neuron
Medial nucleus of trapezoid body
Trigeminal nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve Acetylcholine trigeminal nucleus motor cell
5th nerve motor neuron
Vth nerve motor neuron
Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve
Tritonia dorsal swim interneuron One of three serotonergic neurons on the dorsal surface of the Tritonia cerebral ganglion. Projects an axon contralaterally to the pedal ganglion. Fires stereotypical bursts of action potentials during a swim motor pattern. Serotonin Cerebral Serotonergic Posterior Neuron
Dorsal swim interneuron
DSI
Cerebral ganglion Unknown
Trochlear nucleus motor neuron Motor neuron whose cell soma lies within the trochlear nucleus. trochlear nucleus motor cell
4th nerve motor neuron
IVth nerve motor neuron
Trochlear nucleus
Tuberomammillary nucleus large histamine neuron Large neuron in the tubermammillary nucleus that contains histamine and projects widely to the cerebral cortex Histamine
GABA
Tubermammillary histaminergic neuron Tuberomammillary nucleus
Twin sensillum of margin 1 neuron Neuron innervating the twin sensillum of margin 1. This neuron, which begins axonogenesis 1hr AP, pioneers the segment of nerve L1 which joins the L3 bundle (Murray et al., 1984).
Twin sensillum of margin 2 neuron Neuron innervating the twin sensillum of margin 2. This neuron begins axonogenesis at approximately 9-10 hours AP (Murray et al., 1984).
Type A lLN An Ipsilateral local interneuron of the adult antennal lobe that is derived from the lateral antennal lobe neuroblast and whose terminal arbors do not form glomerular shapes.
Type B lLN A local interneuron of the adult antennal lobe that is derived from the lateral antennal lobe neuroblast and whose terminal arbors form glomerular shapes. Many of these neurons are oligo-glomerular - making connections with only subsets of glomeruli.
Tyraminergic neuron Any neuron (FBbt_00005106) that releases as a neurotransmitter, some tyramine (CHEBI:15760).
U neuron Motor neuron developing from the neuroblast NB7-1 lineage. The U neurons collectively innervate the following muscles: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 19, and 20. U / CQ neuron
U1 neuron Motor neuron developing from the first ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U1sib neuron Sibling neuron to the U1 neuron developing from the first ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U2 neuron Motor neuron developing from the second ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U2sib neuron Sibling neuron to the U2 neuron developing from the second ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U3 neuron Motor neuron developing from the third ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U3sib neuron Sibling neuron to the U3 neuron developing from the third ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U4 neuron Motor neuron developing from the fourth ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U4sib neuron Sibling neuron to the U4 neuron developing from the fourth ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U5 neuron Motor neuron developing from the fifth ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
U5sib neuron Sibling neuron to the U5 neuron developing from the fifth ganglion mother cell that differentiates from neuroblast NB7-1.
Unilateral intrinsic neuron An intrinsic neuron that does not cross the midline. ipsilateral local interneuron
Usib neuron Sibling neuron to the U neuron deriving from a ganglion mother cell. Differentiation from the ganglion mother cell initially produces eve (FBgn0000606) positive cells. Whereas the Usib neuron remains eve positive, the Usib cell rapidly downregulates eve.
VesA neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval prothoracic segment (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). It lies on the anterior border, ventral to vesB.
VesB neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval prothoracic segment (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). It lies on the anterior border, dorsal to vesA.
V'es2 neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval abdominal segments 1-7 (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). It is located posterioventral to lesA.
V'es3 neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval pro-, meta- or mesothoracic segments (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). It is located dorsal to v'esB neuron.
V'esA neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval abdominal segments 1-7, the pro-, meta- or mesothoracic segments (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). In the abdominal segments it is located dorsal to vesC, and ventral to v'esB. In the thoracic segments 2 and 3 it is located ventral to the cluster of vesA-E neurons, but is located anterior to it in thoracic segment T1.
V'esB neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval abdominal segments 1-7, the pro-, meta- or mesothoracic segments (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). In the abdominal segments it is located anterodorsal to v'esA. In the thoracic segments it is located ventral to v'es3.
VLN Local interneuron of the adult antennal lobe, from the ventral AL neuroblast lineage.
Ventral cibarial sense organ neuron of distal sensillum Neurons that innervates the distal sensillum of the ventral cibarial sense organ. There are four of these per sensillum.
Ventral cibarial sense organ neuron of middle sensillum Neuron that innervates the middle sensillum of the ventral cibarial sense organ. There are two of these per sensillum.
Ventral cibarial sense organ neuron of proximal sensillum One of two neurons innervating the proximal sensillum of the ventral cibarial sense organ.
Ventral dopaminergic cell Principal neuron of the ventral tegmental area
Ventral group vA neuron Peptidergic neuron located at the ventral surface of the larval ventral nerve cord in abdominal segments A2-A4. VA neuron
Ventral humeral crossvein campaniform sensillum neuron Neuron innervating the ventral humeral crossvein campaniform sensillum.
Ventral multidendritic neuron Any multidendritic neuron (FBbt_00005209) that is part of some embryonic / larval thoracic / abdominal ventral sensory cluster (FBbt_00007295).
Ventral sensillum of wing vein 3 neuron Neuron innervating the ventral sensillum of wing vein 3.
Ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron Principal neuron of the ventral tegmental area Dopamine Ventral tegmental area DA cell
ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neuron
VTA dopaminergic neuron
Ventral tegmental area
Vertical fiber system neuron Small field neuron of the central complex that arborizes in a single glomerulus of the protocerebral bridge, layer one or two of the fan-shaped body and the contralateral nodulus. Fibers of two adjacent glomeruli join into bundles that run ipsilaterally to the fan-shaped body and enter it in the fourth layer without crossing each other. VFS
Vertical fiber system neuron pb1 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 1, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment X and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb2 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 2, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment X and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb3 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 3, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment X and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb4 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 4, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment X and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb5 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 5, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment X and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb6 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 6, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment X and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb7 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 7, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment W and the contralateral nodulus.
Vertical fiber system neuron pb8 Vertical fiber system neuron that innervates protocerebral bridge glomerulus 8, the ipsilateral fan-shaped body segment W and the contralateral nodulus.
VesA neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval abdominal segments 1-7, the pro-, meta- or mesothoracic segments (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). In the abdominal segments it is located ventral to vesB.
VesB neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval abdominal segments 1-7, the pro-, meta- or mesothoracic segments (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). In the abdominal segments it is located dorsal to vesA and ventral to vesC.
VesC neuron Sensory PNS neuron of embryonic / larval abdominal segments 1-7, the pro-, meta- or mesothoracic segments (Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1986). In the abdominal segments it is located dorsal to vesB.
Vestibular type 1 hair cell A mechanoreceptor hair cell located in the acoustic maculae and the semicircular canals that mediates the sense of balance, movement, and head position. The vestibular hair cells are connected to accessory structures in such a way that movements of the head displace their stereocilia. This influences the membrane potential of the cells which relay information about movements via the vestibular part of the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain stem. Glutamate Vestibular hair cell Otolith organs
Semicircular canal
Calretinin
Parvalbumin
Oncomodulin
Myosin VI
Myosin VII
Myosin 1c
Vestibular hair cell.gif
Vestibular type 2 hair cell A mechanoreceptor hair cell located in the acoustic maculae and the semicircular canals that mediates the sense of balance, movement, and head position. The vestibular hair cells are connected to accessory structures in such a way that movements of the head displace their stereocilia. This influences the membrane potential of the cells which relay information about movements via the vestibular part of the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain stem. Glutamate Otolith organs
Semicircular canals
Calretinin
Parvalbumin
Oncomodulin
Myosin VI
Myosin VII
Myosin 1c
Vestibular hair cell.gif
W cell Gustatory receptor neuron responsive to water (Montell, 2009).
Wind sensitive Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron (JON) tonically activated by arista deflection and required for 'wind-induced suppression of locomotion' behaviour (WISL, Yorozu et al., 2009). The cell bodies of these neurons form a broad ring in the medial and outer layers of the JON array (Kamikouchi et al., 2006). wind sensitive Johnstons organ neuron
Zoidberg Neuron The "Zoidberg Neuron" is a name for a recently mapped Starburst Amacrine Cell. The name was chosen via EyeWire, a neural mapping 'game', to any player who completed over 100 cubes. Prior to the competition, the specific neuron was known as the 'n00b neuron' by EyeWirers. However, the name was soon officially dubbed as the 'Zoidberg Neuron' during YouTube Geek Week. The name 'Zoidberg' is a reference to the Futurama character, Zoidberg. GABA
Acetylcholine
Starburst Neuron
Starburst Amacrine Cell
n00b neuron
Zoidberg cell
Figeyewire.jpg
Zone A Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron that innervates zone A of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). The cell bodies of these neurons are located mainly in the inner layer of Johnston's organ, directly surrounding the antennal nerve. zone A JON
Zone B Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron that innervates zone B of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). The cell bodies of zone B Johnston organ neurons are distributed as a ring in the middle layer of cells within the Johnston's organ (Kamikouchi et al., 2006). zone B JON
Zone C Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron that innervates zone C of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). The cell bodies of these neurons are co-mingled with those of zone E Johnston organ neurons, forming a broad ring mainly in the medial and outer layers of the Johnston's organ. zone C JON
Zone D Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron that innervates zone D of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). zone D JON
Zone E Johnston organ neuron Johnston's organ neuron that innervates zone E of the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). The cell bodies of these neurons are co-mingled with those of zone C Johnston organ neurons, forming a broad ring mainly in the medial and outer layers of the Johnston's organ. zone E JON


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