From NeuroLex

Jump to: navigation, search

This content is also available in CSV

Definition Synonym Comment
3D T1 Weighted Scan I don't understand why this is a type of protocol. Does this refer to the image itself or to the process. I recommend that we get rid of this class.
4Pi microscopy Imaging assay that utilizes a 4Pi microscope, a laser scanning fluorescence microscope with an improved axial resolution. The typical value of 500–700 nm can be improved to 100–150 nm, which corresponds to an almost spherical focal spot with 5–7 times less volume than that of standard confocal microscopy. The improvement in resolution is achieved by using two opposing objective lenses both of which focused to the same geometrical location. Also the difference in optical path length through each of the two objective lenses is carefully aligned to be minimal. By this, molecules residing in the common focal area of both objectives can be illuminated coherently from both sides and also the reflected or emitted light can be collected coherently, i.e. coherent superposition of emitted light on the detector is possible. (adapted from Wikipedia:
Acceleration factor
Accelleration stimulus transduction The series of events involved in equilibrioception in which a sensory mechanical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. During equilibrioception, mechanical stimuli may be in the form of input from pressure receptors or from the labyrinth system of the inner ears. equilibrioception
sensory transduction of mechanical stimulus
Accession number Accession
Activity pattern In neurons, neural circuits or neural models refers to spatial or temporal patterns (or both) of spiking activity. Moved the Supercategory to: Pattern. Look here for a definition of pattern:
Adequate stimulus The particular type of stimulus energy to which a sensory receptor cell is sensitive
Affective neuroscience Branch of neuroscience involving the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion. This interdisciplinary field combines neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Aggregate field theory A theory of brain function, which states that individual mental functions or behaviors are performed by the brain as a whole, rather than by discrete portions of the brain.
Algorithm an algorithm is a plan which describes inputs, output of mathematical functions as well as workflow of execution for achieving an predefined objective. Algorithms are realized usually by means of implementation as computer programs for execution by automata.
Alternative title alt title
secondary title
Amperometric electrode recording protocol
Anatomical pathology Branch of pathology.
Anatomy branch of biology and Medicine that studies primarily the internal structure and design of the structure of living things.

It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). Anatomy is divided into various sub specialties in some of its facets anatomy is closely related to Embryology, Histology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution.

Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision with the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells).

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body including the clinical understanding of how damage to these structures effects other functions in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century including X-ray technology, Sonogram and MRI technology.

Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Animal physiology Branch of physiology concerned with animals.
Application programming interface
Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging protocol
Attenuation Attenuation is the reciprocal of gain. (adapted from the Axon Guide)
Attractor Neural Network
Audio recording An electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.
Auditory map A representation of the audible sound spectrum in the auditory cortex.
Augmentation A form of short-term synaptic plasticity associated with an increase in the number of synaptic vesicles that release their transmitter and acts at the second scale.
Author affiliation author adress
Author set
Autoradiography protocol A technique that uses X- ray film to locate radioactively labeled molecules or fragments of molecules by recording on a photographic plate or emulsion the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (adapted from NCI)
Axon transport The active movement of a neuron's constituents within the axon. axon cargo transport
axonal transport
Behavioral neuroendocrinology the study of hormonal processes and neuroendocrine systems that regulate behavior. Behavioral neuroendocrinologist
Behavioural neuroendocrinology
Behavioural neuroendocrinologist
Behavioral neuropharmacology Branch of neuropharmacology dealing with behavior.
Behavioral science From BRO: Behavioural science (or Behavioral science) is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through controlled and naturalistic experimental observations and rigorous formulations. (E. D. Klemke, R. Hollinger, and A. D. Kline, (ed) (1980)) - definition adapted from Wikipedia Behavior
Behavioural science
Behavioural scientist
Behavioral scientist
Bicarbonate stimulus transduction A sensory transduction event whereby chemoreceptors in the carotid body of higher mammals detect the amount of plasma bicarbonate communicating this signal to medullary neurons involved in control of respiratory rate. Higher pH derives primarily from higher plasma pCO2. The medullary neurons increase respiratory rate in response to a rise in pH, so as to vent more CO2 and thereby decrease pH back toward neutral (BB: 2008-03-13) pH stimulus transduction
Binary executable Binary executable is a digital entity consisting of the binary representation of machine instructions of a specific processor or they may be binary pseudocode for a virtual machine. A non-source executable file is also called an object program. It is assumed that the binary executable file contains properly-formatted computer instructions. (derived from Wikipedia, Nov 1, 2007) Software application
software program
I think we should make "software application" as the preferred label rather than "binary executable"
Biochemical specimen preparation protocol
Bioengineering The application of engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of biology and medicine. Neurotechnology
Neural Engineering
Technology development
Biofeedback The process of becoming aware of various physiological functions using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will
Bioinformatics From BRO: Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the field of molecular biology. The term bioinformatics was coined by Paulien Hogeweg in 1978 for the study of informatic processes in biotic systems. Bioinformatics now entails the creation and advancement of databases, algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems arising from the management and analysis of biological data. - definition adapted from wikipedia Bio-Informatics
Biology Branch of science concerned with studying living organisms.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that employs and develops theories and methods of the physical sciences for the investigation of biological systems. Studies included under the umbrella of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, nanotechnology, bioengineering, agrophysics and systems biology.

Molecular biophysics typically addresses biological questions that are similar to those in biochemistry and molecular biology, but the questions are approached quantitatively. Scientists in this field conduct research concerned with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis, as well as how these interactions are regulated. A great variety of techniques are used to answer these questions.

Fluorescent imaging techniques, as well as electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are often used to visualize structures of biological significance. Conformational changes in structure can be measured using techniques such as dual polarisation interferometry and circular dichroism. Direct manipulation of molecules using optical tweezers or AFM can also be used to monitor biological events where forces and distances are at the nanoscale. Molecular biophysicists often consider complex biological events as systems of interacting units which can be understood through statistical mechanics, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. By drawing knowledge and experimental techniques from a wide variety of disciplines, biophysicists are often able to directly observe, model or even manipulate the structures and interactions of individual molecules or complexes of molecules.

In addition to traditional (i.e. molecular and cellular) biophysical topics like structural biology or enzyme kinetics, modern biophysics encompasses an extraordinarily broad range of research. It is becoming increasingly common for biophysicists to apply the models and experimental techniques derived from physics, as well as mathematics and statistics, to larger systems such as tissues, organs, populations and ecosystems.
Biological Physics
Biostatistics From BRO: (a combination of the words biology and statistics; sometimes referred to as biometry or biometrics) is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. The science of biostatistics encompasses the design of biological experiments, especially in medicine and agriculture; the collection, summarization, and analysis of data from those experiments; and the interpretation of, and inference from, the results. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Block design Box_car_design
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent signal BOLD
Body system model
Book series volume
Botany branch of biology concerned with plants.
Bright-field imaging protocol
Bright-field transmission optical imaging protocol
Cable property A set of equations that describe the movement of electricity in a cable. These equations also describe the movement of electricity in axons. Cable properties
Calcium dynamics
Cardinality value
Cell biology Branch of biology concerned with the study of cells and cellular processes.

(formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, "container") is an academic discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level. Cell biology research encompasses both the great diversity of single-celled organisms like bacteria and protozoa, as well as the many specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans.

Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences. Appreciating the similarities and differences between cell types is particularly important to the fields of cell and molecular biology as well as to biomedical fields such as cancer research and developmental biology. These fundamental similarities and differences provide a unifying theme, sometimes allowing the principles learned from studying one cell type to be extrapolated and generalized to other cell types. Hence, research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and developmental biology. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Cell-attached single-channel recording protocol
Cell-detached inside-out single-channel recording protocol
Cell-detached single-channel recording protocol
Cellular Excitation The depolarization of a postsynaptic cell, increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated. Excitation
Chemical stimulus transduction * The series of events in which a sensory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. (GO:ai) (GO) * Sensory transduction where the binding of a specific molecular species is the direct stimulus being. sensory detection of chemical stimulus
Molecule binding stimulus transduction
Chemistry Branch of science concerned with properties of matter.

(from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth") is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. It is a physical science for studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes. Modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773).

Scientific_disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the energy related studies of chemical systems at macro, molecular and submolecular scales; analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e.g. neurochemistry the chemical study of the nervous system (see subdisciplines). - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Chemotropism The hypothesis that developing axons are attracted toward diffusible factors secreted by particular groups of target cells. Chemoattraction
Ciliary displacement stimulus transduction Energy transfer between some physical force and primary sensory cilia displacement which to stimulation of the neurons (BB: 2008-03-13)
Citation record
Citation record element Those elements defined as a part of the PubMed DTD and used by many literature citation databases
Clarity A method for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Clarity protocol
Client program software client
Clinical finding
Clinical pathology Branch of pathology dealing with clinical aspects of pathological examination of excisions and postmortem analysis.
Clinical studies Branch of medicine which is concerned with human clinical trials. From BRO: studies or resources that help investigators do clinical studies or trials, including, epidemiology, outcome development, physiological human studies, interventional trials, etc
Code Profiler A performance analysis tool that measures the behavior of a program as it executes, particularly the frequency and duration of function calls. The profiling process helps to determine which subroutines (or just snippets of code) take longest to execute and which subroutines are called most often. Code profilers are used when you suspect that some part of your code is called very often and maybe there is a need to optimize it, which could significantly improve the overall performance. Profilers use a wide variety of techniques to collect data, including hardware interrupts, code instrumentation, instruction set simulation, operating system hooks, and performance counters.
Code testing framework A resource that provides a software environment created to investigate the quality of the product or service under test, with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs.
Cognitive psychology Branch of psychology concerned with the study of cognition
Coincidence detection Process by which a neuron, neural circuit or neural model detects simultaneous but spatially separate synaptic inputs. Coincidence Detector
Comment Note
Compiler A resource that provides a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a computer language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. A \\u201ccompiler\\u201d is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language or machine language), and is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: lexical analysis, preprocessing, parsing, semantic analysis, code generation, and code optimization.
Computational Linguistics Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. (from Wikipedia)
Computational biology From BRO: is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science, applied mathematics and statistics to address biological problems. The main focus lays on developing mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques. By these means it addresses scientific reaserch topics with their theoretical and experimental questions without a laboratory. - definition adapted from Wikipedia Note: this class may need to be collapsed with bioinformatics -AB
Computational model
Computer Axial Tomography imaging protocol CAT imaging protocol
CT Imaging protocol
Conference proceeding
Confocal imaging protocol confocal imaging
confocal microscopy
Connectional specificity The principle that neurons form specific functional interconnections, based on three anatomical observations: 1. there is no cytoplasmic continuity between nerve cells; 2. neurons do not connect indiscriminately to one another or form random networks; 3. each cell communicates with specific postsynaptic cells but not with others, and always at specialized sites (synapses).
Connectionist model A model of neural function with parallel and distributed processing components. Also neural net model. Neural net model
Connectivity matrix
Contrast enhancement protocol Protocol designed to add contrast to a biological organism or specimen for the purposes of imaging I would change the label of this class to "Contrast enhancement protocol" because these techniques can be used without microscopy
Convergence A pattern of connections between neurons in which several presynaptic neurons make a synaptic connection onto a common postsynaptic cell.
Cuff-electrode recording protocol Suction electrode recording protocol
Current clamp voltage recording protocol
Dark-field imaging protocol
Dark-field transmission optical imaging protocol
Data access protocol Functional specification
Data object Datum
Data transformation objective An objective specification to transformation input data into output data.
Decade a range of frequencies where the largest frequency is ten times the lowest frequency (adapted from the Axon Guide)
Decerebrate preparation Experimental animal in which the brain stem is cut at the level of the midbrain. Used to study spinal reflexes. Definition needs review. It is classified as a protocol but the definition refers to it as an animal. Should not conflate the two.
Deep brain stimulation A surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. DBS
Depolarization A decrease in the negative membrane potential of a cell. Depolarization increases the likelihood that a cell will fire an action potential.
Depolarization block Process wherea depolarization blocking agent or drug inhibits the depolarization of the membrane potential due to an external signa, for example, by blocking the channels responsible for depolarization or by opening K+ channels.
Desensitization The process whereby the binding of a ligand to a receptor leads to the decreased effectiveness of the receptor.
Detailed neuronal model The incorporation of real neuronal morphologies, membrane conductances, and network connectivity based on anatomical and neurophysiological data. Detailed Neuronal Models
Developmental biology Branch of biology concerned with the study of development.
Developmental psychology Branch of psychology that deals with development.
Differential interference contrast imaging protocol Differential interference contrast microscopy
Nomarski optical imaging protocol
Differential interference contrast optical imaging protocol Differential interference contrast microscopy
Nomarski optical imaging protocol
Diffusion constant The rate at which a particle moves in solution.
Diffusion kurtosis imaging protocol
Diffusion spectrum imaging protocol
Diffusion-tensor imaging protocol Diffusion tensor imaging
Diffusion tensor imaging protocol
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging protocol A magnetic resonance imaging protocol that is sensitive to the diffusion of water molecules.
Digital Object Identifier
Digital aggregate entity
Digital entity A digital entity is an information entity which is a collection of bits that can be interpreted by a computer. Two digital entities are the same if they are bitwise identical. OBI has this as a child of "non realizable information entity"; we may need to update the entire hierarchy (MEM)
Direction selectivity
Directive information entity An information content entity whose concretizations indicate to their bearer how to realize them in a process.
Discontinuous single cell voltage clamp An experimental protocol that prevents the opening and closing of voltage-gated channels and removes their influence on the membrane potential. A direct measure of membrane current can be obtained with this technique by recording the current that must be generated by the voltage clamp to keep the membrane potential from changing.
Discussion A resource that provides information related to a discussion among a group in some forum, public, private, or electronic, which may or may not be moderated, for example, a single discussion thread in a listserv (NLM).
Distributed processing Routing of information to a number of different areas in the brain
Divergence A pattern of conncetions between neurons in which a simgle presynaptic neuron forms synapses on several different postsynaptic cells.
Documentation generation software A resource that provides a programming tool that generates documentation intended for programmers (API documentation) or end users (End-user Guide), or both, from a set of specially commented source code files, and in some cases, binary files.
Duration (birnlex 2052)
Dynamic causal modeling
Dynamic polarization The principle that information within a neuron flows in a predictable and consistent direction. The principle of dynamic polarization
Dysmetria Error in the range and force of movement
Electrical recording protocol Electrophysiology
Electrocardiography recording protocol
Electroception stimulus transduction The series of events during electroception in which a sensory electrical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. electroception
sensory transduction
Electroencephalography recording protocol Electroencephalography
Electromyography surface recording protocol A macro-electrode recording technique for recording the activation signal of muscles through the use of surface electrode. EMG may also be performed intramuscularly by inserting a needle into the muscle (intramuscular EMG) Electromyography
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy imaging protocol Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
Electron microscopy imaging protocol Imaging protocol that employs any form of electron microscopy as the imaging assay, i.e., a protocol that forms images through the use of electrons (MM). Electron microscopy imaging protocol
Electron microscopy immunolabeling protocol Immunolabeling protocol used to localize proteins and other molecules in the electron microscope, e.g., immunogold Ultrastructural immunolabeling protocol
Electron tomography imaging protocol Electron microscopy imaging protocol in which the specimen is imaged as it is tilted along one or more axes.
Electronic laboratory notebook An electronic lab notebook is a software program designed to replace paper laboratory notebooks (adapted from Wikipedia). Electronic lab notebook
Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart. In neuroscience, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and particularly action potential activity. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Electrophysiology concept Term imported as part of the electrophysiology task force of INCF.
Electrophysiology theory Any theory that attempts to explain an aspect of neuronal function.
Electrosurgery Electrosurgery uses alternating current to achieve cutting and coagulation. The patient becomes part of the electrical circuit and current enters their body. Cautery uses direct current to coagulate. A heated wire or electrode comes in contact with tissue. Vary the voltage of the current and the pattern of electric pulses to achieve your desired cauterizing effect. Adapted from WPI
End page
Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorder of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Epigenomics The systematic study of the global gene expression changes due to EPIGENETIC PROCESSES and not due to DNA base sequence changes (MeSH) epigenetics
Equivalent circuit Representation of the electrical properties of individual neurons or groups of neurons in a conventional electrical circuit consisting only of conductors, resistors, batteries and capacitors.
Event-related design
Experimental psychology Experimental psychologists regard psychology as a natural science; research is conducted with the help of experimental methods. The concern of experimental psychology is discovering the processes underlying behavior and cognition. Experimental psychology is a methodological approach rather than a subject and encompasses varied fields within psychology. Experimental psychologists have traditionally conducted research, published articles, and taught classes on neuroscience, developmental psychology, sensation, perception, attention, consciousness, learning, memory, thinking, and language. Recently, however, the experimental approach has extended to motivation, emotion, and social psychology. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Extracellular electrode recording protocol
Extracellular field potential A potential difference in voltage between two spatial regions, both outside of cellular membrane. Extracellular Field
FI slope The slope of the current-discharge relationship from discharge threshold slope of FI curve
FR vs. I slope
NeuroElectro Term 17
Facilitation Facilitation Increase in the probability that an event of interest happens. Typically related to the probability of spiking in response to stimulation or to an increase in the efficacy of synaptic input.
Fast Fourier transform a mathematical algorithm that is used to indicate any algorithm attempting to determine the power versus frequency graph for a signal Fast Fourier transform
Feed-forward inhibition An inhibitory circuit in which a neuron both directly excites a target and indirectly inhibits it by exciting an interposed inhibtory neuron. This type of circuit, common in the reciprocal innervation activated by monosynaptic reflex systems, coordinates competing the inhibition of an extensor muscle. Reciprocal inhibition
Field electrode recording protocol Surface electrode recording protocol
Filtered R-weighted back projection
Firing frequency AP discharge rate firing rate
NeuroElectro Term 9
Fixation protocol Protocol specifying steps in the preparation of in vitro or in vivo specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements during subsequent procedures.
Flow-weighted magnetic resonance imaging protocol
Fluid-coupled ciliary displacement stimulus transduction Energy transfer between some physical force and a solid object which is coupled to primary sensory cilia and whose displacement leads to stimulation of the neurons (BB: 2008-03-13)
Fluorescence labeling protocol This class should probably be deleted as it is not orthogonal to the axis of classification.
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging protocol FRET protocol
Forum users interact by posting questions, comments, bug reports, feature requests etc., typically supporting responses and discussion threads around the posts. Includes Issue trackers, wikis, Q&A sites, and forums. (CINERGI)
Frequency code A method of coding whereby the strength of the stimulus is coded by the firing rate of a neuron
Gallyas silver stain Silver staining method for revealing neurofibrillary changes in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related models, developed by F. Gallyas.
Gating The active transition of an ion channel between open and closed states. Gating can be direct or indirect.
Gaussian Random Field A Gaussian random field is a random field involving Gaussian probability density functions of the variables. The initial conditions of physical cosmology generated by quantum mechanical fluctuations during cosmic inflation are thought to be a Gaussian random field with a nearly scale invariant spectrum.(WIkiPedia)
Gene regulatory network model Gene network model
General Linear Model The general linear model (GLM) is a statistical linear model. It may be written as Y = XB + U where Y is a matrix with series of multivariate measurements, X is a matrix that might be a design matrix, B is a matrix containing parameters that are usually to be estimated and U is a matrix containing errors or noise. The residual is usually assumed to follow a multivariate normal distribution. If the residual is not a multivariate normal distribution, generalized linear models may be used to relax assumptions about Y and U. The general linear model incorporates a number of different statistical models: ANOVA, ANCOVA, MANOVA, MANCOVA, ordinary linear regression, t-test and F-test. If there is only one column in Y (i.e., one dependent variable) then the model can also be referred to as the multiple regression model (multiple linear regression). Hypothesis tests with the general linear model can be made in two ways: multivariate and mass-univariate.(WIkiPedia)
Genome-wide association study A type of study that examines genetic variation across a given genome, designed to identify genetic associations with observable traits. In human studies, this might include traits such as blood pressure or weight, or why some people get a disease or condition. (Adapted from Wikipedia) genetic association study Not sure whether this is a type of protocol; consider this graph position temporary
Genomics From BRO: The study of the genomes of organisms. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts. The field also includes studies of intragenomic phenomena such as heterosis, epistasis, pleiotropy and other interactions between loci and alleles within the genome. In contrast, the investigation of the roles and functions of single genes is a primary focus of molecular biology and is a common topic of modern medical and biological research. Research of single genes does not fall into the definition of genomics unless the aim of this genetic, pathway, and functional information analysis is to elucidate its effect on, place in, and response to the entire genome's networks. Adapted from Wikipedia
Geoscience Branch of science that studies geology.
Goldman equation A formula for quantifying the membrane potential when it is determined by the flux of two or more ion species across the cell membrane. Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz voltage equation
Golgi staining protocol Any of several methods for staining nerve cells, nerve fibers, and neuroglia in which fixed tissue is impregnated with silver nitrate and potassium dichromate resulting in the complete staining of some nerve cells while other cells are not stained at all ( Golgi stain
Golgi impregnation
Government publication
Grant number
Grant sponsor
Grid electrode recording protocol
Ground state depletion microscopy A type of microscopy that uses the triplet state of a fluorophore as the off-state and the singlet state as the on-state, whereby an excitation laser is used to drive the fluorophores at the periphery of the singlet state molecule to the triplet state. (adapted from Wikipedia:
Group author collaborative author
Gustatory stimulus transduction The series of events in which a sensory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. (GO:ai) (GO) sensory detection of taste stimulus
sensory detection of gustatory stimulus
taste stimulus transduction
Hebb synapse "When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite a cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B is increased." Hebbian synapse
Hebb's rule
High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging Protocol
High-pressure liquid chromotography protocol HPLC protocol
Histochemical protocol Histochemistry
Human subject report patient report
Hydration sphere A cloud of water molecules that surrounds an ion in solution. Waters of hydration
Hydrophobicity model A mathematical description of the solvent interaction properties of an amino acid sequence based on the biophysical properties of the amino acid side chain moeties. Such models are used to indicate putative internal hydrophobic domains and transmembrane spanning regions in polypeptides. hydrophobicity analysis
hydrophobicity plot
Hyperpolarization An increasae in the negative membrane potential of a cell. Hyperpolarization decreases the likelihood that a cell will fire an action potential.
Identifying value
Image acquisition protocol Protocol that specifies the acquisition of imaging data Imaging
Imaging protocol
Asserted hierarchy is constructed largely (but not exclusively) based on type of electromagnetic radiation used as the imaging probe
Image reconstruction algorithm Algorithm used to compute a reconstruction from a set of images, e.g., R-weighted back projection.
Immunocytochemistry protocol immunocytochemistry
Immunogold protocol
Immunohistochemical protocol A protocol that specifies the process of immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry is the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. It takes its name from the roots "immuno," in reference to antibodies used in the procedure, and "histo," meaning tissue (compare to immunocytochemistry). (from wikipedia)
Immunolabeling protocol A means of localizing particular antigens within cells or tissue where the localization depends on the interaction of the binding region of an antibody with a specific epitope. The antibody itself may carry a detectable tag, e.g., a fluorophore, or the tag may be applied through additional steps.
Immunology Branch of medicine that concerns itself with the study of the immune system.
Immunoprecipitation protocol A protocol employing immunoprecipitation to separate an antigen from a solution based on antibody binding
In vivo Immunolabeling protocol An immunolabeling protocol in which the primary antibody is applied to living cells or tissues.
In-situ hybridization protocol
Independent Components Analysis A computational method for separating a multivariate signal into additive subcomponents supposing the mutual statistical independence of the non-Gaussian source signals. It is a special case of blind source separation. (from Wikipedia).
Influence of dendritic geometry The impact that the morphology or shape of the dendrites has on the propagation of electrical signals within a neuron.
Informatics Informatics is a field of study focusing on development and application of information technology.
Information content entity an information content entity is an entity that is generically dependent on some artifact and stands in relation of aboutness to some entity
Information entity
Information exchange A specification for how to expose a particular kind of data through a particular service protocol in a particular interchange format. The specification defines 1) an abstract content model for the information that defines the entity or entities of interest, their properties, and the logical data type to specify property values, possibly including controlled vocabularies; 2) implementation of the content model using a specific encoding scheme for transmission between agents; 3) the service protocol or protocols that will be used for accessing information. (CINERGI)
Integrative zone The initial segment of the axon where the decision is made to initiate an action potential.
International Geo Sample Number A 9-digit alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies samples taken from our natural environment (for example: rock specimens, water samples, sediment cores) as well as related sampling features (sites, stations, stratigraphic sections, etc.).


IGSN:HRV003M16 (Registered object: Malachite specimen from Angola, registered by the Mineralogical Museum of Harvard University)

IGSN:WHO000BC7 (Registered object: Dredge CHAIN35-2 St18 D18, registered by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)


The IGSN is a “mostly unintelligent” identifier: The first three digits of the IGSN represent a name space (a unique user code) that uniquely identifies the person or institution that registers the sample. The last 6 digits of the IGSN are a random string of alphanumeric characters. The IGSN follows the syntax of the URN (Uniform Resource Name) which is composed of a ‘Namespace Identifier' (NID), a unique, short string, and the ‘Namespace Specific String’ (NSS).

The length of the IGSN has been limited to 9 digits to keep it short enough for use on sample labels and for inclusion in data tables of publications (the number of characters is similar to data, for example, Sr isotope data typically use a 8 character string such as 0.703456). The IGSN is long enough for large institutions such as repositories or museums to register large numbers of samples (with 10 numbers plus 26 letters for the 6 random digits after the user code, a total of 36^6 = 2,176,782,336 sample identifiers per registrant is available).
International GeoSample Number
International Standard Book Number An ISBN is a 10-digit or 13-digit number that identifies a book for purposes of commerce and supply chains. The last digit of the ISBN is a check digit used to detect transcription errors. This last digit is sometimes an "x".

13 digit ISBNs began to appear on January 1 2005, and all ISBN systems are required to support 13 digits by January 1, 2007.

The first number or numbers of a 10 digit ISBN identifies the country that issued the publishers prefix; this number is followed by a dash and the publisher prefix. 13-digit ISBN's start with either 978 or 979, and the 9 digits that follow correspond to the first 9 digits of a 10-digit ISBN.

The dashes (or spaces) in the ISBN occur in different places depending on the number and are meaningful, but are so frequently omitted that you can't really use the dashes for much.
International Standard Serial Number The ISSN is the standardized international code which allows the identification of any serial publication, including electronic serials, independently of its country of publication, of its language or alphabet, of its frequency, medium, etc. The ISSN number,therefore, preceded by these letters, and appears as two groups of four digits, separated by a hyphen , has no signification in itself and does not contain in itself any information referring to the origin or contents of the publication.

ISSN numbers are assigned by the ISSN national Centres coordinated in a network. All ISSN are accessible via the ISSN Register. The ISSN is not "just another administrative number". The ISSN should be as basic a part of a serial as the title.

  • As a standard numeric identification code, the ISSN is eminently suitable for computer use in fulfilling the need for file update and linkage, retrieval and transmittal of data.
  • As a human readable code, the ISSN also results in accurate citing of serials by scholars, researchers, information scientists and librarians.
  • In libraries, the ISSN is used for identifying titles, ordering and checking in, claiming serials, interlibrary-loan, union catalog reporting etc.
  • ISSN is a fundamental tool for efficient document delivery. ISSN provides a useful and economical method of communication between publishers and suppliers, making trade distribution systems faster and more efficient, in particular through the use of bar-coding and EDI (electronic data interchange).
Intracellular electrode recording protocol
Intracellular injection protocol
Intrinsic emission imaging protocol Intrinsic emission microscopy
Investigation design
Investigation record
Ion channel kinetics
Ion channel recording protocol
Ion-sensitive electrode recording protocol
Ionic current model Membrane current model
Journal article A written composition, usually nonfiction, on a specific topic, forming an independent part of a journal or other publication. Journal article resource
Labeled line code A method of coding information based on specific neuronal pathways, or private lines that distinguish activity in one pathway from that in another pathway.
Laser scanning confocal imaging protocol
Lesion A localized pathological or traumatic structural change, damage, deformity, or discontinuity of tissue, organ, or body part (adapted from NCI Metathesaurus)
Lexical processing algorithm Any text-based algorithm used to match strings against a controlled lexicon and/or infer syntactic structure or semantic conent from a corpus of unstructured text. Text-mining algorithm
Life Science Identifier
Light emitting optical imaging protocol fluorescence/chemiluminescence/phosphorescence optical imaging protocol
Light stimulus transduction The series of events in which a sensory light stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. (GO:ai) (GO) sensory detection of light stimulus
Light transmission optical imaging protocol
Link aggregation site A web site containing a curated set of links typically focussed on a particular topic or set of related topics.
Link classification site
Link clustering site
List Listserv or discussion group (as an entity, as opposed to a single discussion thread which uses the value "discussion") (NLM).
Literature corpus literature
Localization theory A theory of brain function, which states that individual mental functions or behaviors are performed by specific parts of brain, rather than by the brain as a whole.
Long term depression A process that modulates synaptic plasticity such that synapses are changed resulting in the decrease in the rate, or frequency of synaptic transmission at the synapse. Long-term depression
long term synaptic depression
The NIF ID should be deprecated and replaced with the GO term, as we are now using the biological process ontology; however, we have replaced the definition. The GO people should be engaged on this. Note: this concept is present in the Molecular function ontology (ID: GO:0060292), however the definition here is changed.
Long term potentiation The strengthening (or potentiation) of the connection between two nerve cells which lasts for an extended period of time (minutes to hours in vitro and hours to days and months in vivo). LTP can be induced experimentally by applying a sequence of short, high-frequency stimulations to nerve cell synapses. Long-term potentiation
Long lasting potentiation
long lasting synaptic potentiation
Gene Ontology Biological Process lists Long Term Potentiation etc. I think we should probably just use the GO for now and extend it for neuroscience., I have removed the synonym "Long term facilitation" because facilitation and potentiation on the cellular level have different underlying mechanisms, and Long term facilitation is associated with whole animal behaviors (for example, respiratory long-term facilitation following acute intermittent hypoxia PMID 17099064) and is not normally used in cellular behavior, where the term long term potentiation is used.
Long-term Synaptic Plasticity
Longitudinal magnetization
Longitudinal relaxation time
Longitudinal study design A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time , A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time, A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time
Macro-electrode recording protocol
Macroscopic anatomical structure model anatomical model
Magnetic field stimulus transduction The series of events involved in magnetoception in which a sensory mechanical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. The stimulus is in the form of torque on particles such as magnetite which respond to a magnetic field. magnetoception
sensory transduction of mechanical stimulus
Magnetic resonance imaging protocol A protocol that employs magnetic resonance imaging MR imaging protocol
MRI protocol
Map reorganization Changes to a map after a learning or a traumatic event, for example PMID: 2118613
Mathematical entity An information content entity that are components of a mathematical system or can be defined in mathematical terms (Adapted from Semantic Science Ontology via Bioportal).
Mathematical expression Formal representation of a calculus linking parameters and variables of a model.
Mathematics The study of numbers.
Maximum entropy models
Mechanical stimulus transduction The series of events in which a sensory mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. (GO:ai) (GO) sensory detection of mechanical stimulus
Micro-electrode recording protocol
Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interactions are regulated.

Writing in Nature, William Astbury described molecular biology as:

"(...)not so much a technique as an approach, an approach from the viewpoint of the so-called basic sciences with the leading idea of searching below the large-scale manifestations of classical biology for the corresponding molecular plan. It is concerned particularly with the forms of biological molecules and(...) is predominantly three-dimensional and structural—which does not mean, however, that it is merely a refinement of morphology. It must at the same time inquire into genesis and function." - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Molecular neuropharmacology Branch of neuropharmacology dealing with molecular interactions.
Molecular neuroscience is the study of the central nervous system at a molecular level.
Molecule flow stimulus transduction This is a stimulus where the flow of a specific molecular species is the direct event being detected
Motor map A homunculus measured in the motor cortex.
Multi-cell model tissue model
Multiphoton imaging protocol An imaging protocol that produces images using a microscopy in multiphoton mode Multiphoton microscopy
Multiphoton imaging
Two-photon imaging protocol
two-photon imaging protocol
2 photon imaging protocol
Multiple electrode extracellular recording protocol
Multiple-electrode voltage clamp recording protocol
Myelin staining protocol
NIH Manuscript Submission ID
Narrative object
Natural language processing algorithm Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. It studies the problems of automated generation and understanding of natural human languages. Natural language generation systems convert information from computer databases into normal-sounding human language, and natural language understanding systems convert samples of human language into more formal representations that are easier for computer programs to manipulate.
Natural science Branch of science that usually includes: Biology, Medicine, Botany, Zoology, and Pathology.
Negative result The outcome of an experiment where the null hypothesis is not refuted. Also, where the dependent variable is not related to the independent variable. negative finding
Nernst Equation Nernst potential
Equilibrium potential
Nerve cell functional model computational neuronal model
neuronal physiological model
Nerve cell structural model neuronal structure model
Network interaction model
Neural circuit neural network describes a population of physically interconnected neurons or a group of disparate neurons whose inputs or signalling targets define a recognizable circuit. Communication between neurons often involves an electrochemical process. The interface through which they interact with surrounding neurons usually consists of several dendrites (input connections), which are connected via synapses to other neurons, and one axon (output connection). If the sum of the input signals surpasses a certain threshold, the neuron sends an action potential (AP) at the axon hillock and transmits this electrical signal along the axon. In contrast, a neuronal circuit is a functional entity of interconnected neurons that influence each other (similar to a control loop in cybernetics). - definition adapted from Wikipedia Neural network
Neuronal signaling
Neural networks
Neural circuit model neural network model
circuit model
nerve cell circuit model
Neural coding
Neuroanatomy Branch of anatomy concerned with the nervous system.
Neurobiology Field of biology that is concerned with the study of the nervous system.
Neurochemistry Branch of science concerned with properties of matter that resides in the central nervous system.
Neuroeconomics Branch of economics that is concerned with neuroscience.
Neuroendocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorder of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones, which effect the nervous system.
Neuroethology Branch of ethology which uses an evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system. Ethology
Neurogenetics Studies the role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system. - adapted from Wikipedia
Neuroimmunology Branch of immunology concerned with the connection of the nervous system and the immune system.
Neurology Medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuronal birthday The time that a neuronal progenitor cell leaves the cell cycle and gives rise to a postmitotic neuron.
Neuronal tract tracing An assay in which a tracer is injected into one or more regions of the nervous system or its targets that is taken up by cells, axons or axon terminals in order to determine axonal projections to or from that region. The tract tracing assay is used to ascertain the cells of origin that innervate a brain region, the synaptic target of these cells and the route via which the axons travel in the nervous system. axonal tract tracing
neuronal tract tracing
neuronal tracing
Neuropathology Subfield of pathology dealing with excised or postmortem examination of the nervous system tissues. Psychopathology
Neuropharmacology Subdiscipline in pharmacology concerned with drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system. Psychopharmacology
Neurophysiology A discipline which utilizes physiological techniques to study the nervous system. Psychophysiology
Neuroplasticity is the changing of neurons and the organization of their networks and so their function by experience. This idea was first proposed in 1892 by Santiago Ramón y Cajal the proposer of the neuron doctrine though the idea was largely neglected for the next fifty years. The first person to use the term neural plasticity appears to have been the Polish neuroscientist Jerzy Konorski. The brain consists of nerve cells or neurons (and glial cells) which are interconnected, and learning may happen through changing of the strength of the connections between neurons, by adding or removing connections, or by adding new cells. "Plasticity" relates to learning by adding or removing connections, or adding cells. During the 20th century, the consensus was that lower brain and neocortical areas were immutable in structure after childhood, meaning learning only happens by changing of connection strength, whereas areas related to memory formation, such as the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, where new neurons continue to be produced into adulthood, were highly plastic. This belief is being challenged by new findings, suggesting all areas of the brain are plastic even after childhood. Hubel and Wiesel had demonstrated that ocular dominance columns in the lowest neocortical visual area, V1, were largely immutable after the critical period in development. Critical periods also were studied with respect to language; the resulting data suggested that sensory pathways were fixed after the critical period. However, studies determined that environmental changes could alter behavior and cognition by modifying connections between existing neurons and via neurogenesis in the hippocampus and other parts of the brain, including the cerebellum. - definition adapted from Wikipedia Plasticity
Brain plasticity
Cortical plasticity
Cortical re-mapping
Neuropsychology Branch of psychology that studies the structure and function of the brain related to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors.
Neuroscience Branch of science that deals with the study of the nervous system.
Neurosurgery The surgical discipline focused on treating nervous system disease. Neurosurgeon
Neurovirology The study of viruses and virus-like agents and how these effect the central nervous system.
Nissl staining protocol
Noise Sensitivity Measure of the relative changes in a variable of interest as a function of noise.
Non-realizable information entity
Nuclear medicine imaging protocol NMR
Number b=0 volumes number of imaging volumes acquired without any diffusion-weighting gradients applied
Number of b NE 0 volumes number of diffusion-weighted directions multiplied by the number of non-zero b-values
Number of b values number of distinct b-values used
Number of diffusion-weighted directions the number of gradient amplitude vectors used in each complete set of diffusion-weighted data
Nursing From BRO: medical profession focused on patient care.
Objective specification A directive information entity that describes an intended process endpoint.
Octave a range of frequencies where the largest frequency is double the lowest frequency (adapted from the Axon Guide)
Ohms law states that voltage is proportional to current and resistance. V=IR
Olfactory stimulus transduction The series of events in which a sensory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. (GO:ai) (GO) sensory detection of olfactory stimulus
smell stimulus transduction
sensory detection of smell stimulus
Oncology is the branch of medicine dealing with tumors (cancer). A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.
Ophthalmology Branch of medicine which deals with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways, including the eye, brain, and areas surrounding the eye, such as the lacrimal system and eyelids.
Optical imaging protocol An imaging protocol that uses any form of optical microscopy assay to form an image, i.e., an assay that employs light waves as the source of electromagnetic radiation. Light microscopy imaging protocol
Light microscopy
optical microscopy
PET imaging protocol * A technique for measuring the gamma radiation produced by collisions of electrons and positrons (anti-electrons) within living tissue. In positron emission tomography (PET), a subject is given a dose of a positron-emitting radionuclide attached to a metabolically active substance (for example, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), which is similar to a naturally occurring sugar, glucose, with the addition of a radioactive fluorine atom). When living tissue containing the positron emitter is bombarded by electrons, gamma radiation produced by collisions of electrons and positrons is detected by a scanner, revealing in fine detail the tissue location of the metabolically-active substance administered. (NCI04) (NCI) * An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and BRAIN. SPECT is closely related to PET, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower. (MSH) * For this type of scan, a person is given a substance that reacts with tissues in the body to release protons (parts of an atom). Through measuring the different amounts of protons released by healthy and cancerous tissues, a computer creates a picture of the inside of the body. PET images show the chemical functioning of an organ or tissue, unlike X-ray, CT, or MRI which show only body structure. Also called PET scan. (NCI) * detection of gamma rays emitted from tissues after administration of a natural substance such as glucose or fatty acids into which positron emitting isotopes have been incorporated; the paths of the gamma rays, which result from collisions of positrons and electrons, are interpreted by a computer algorithm, and the resultant tomogram represents local concentrations of the isotope containing substance. (CSP) Positron Emission Tomography imaging protocol
Positron Emission Tomography
PH-sensitive electrode recording protocol
Parallel processing deployment of several parallel neuronal pathways to convey similar information or to process different components of a common sensory modality, eg., processing of form and motion in vision.
Parameter Fitting
Parameter sensitivity In neural modeling, refers to how model results vary as model parameters are changed.
Part-of-speech tagging algorithm Part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging or POST), also called grammatical tagging, is the process of marking up the words in a text as corresponding to a particular part of speech, based on both its definition, as well as its context, i.e., relationship with adjacent and related words in a phrase, sentence, or paragraph. A simplified form of this is commonly taught school-age children, in the identification of words as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Once performed by hand, POS tagging is now done in the context of computational linguistics, using algorithms which associate discrete terms, as well as hidden parts of speech, in accordance with a set of descriptive tags.
Patch clamp technique A method for recording the electrical activity of neurons or small pathes of membrane by forming a tight seal between electrode and membrane Patching
Patent A set of exclusive rights granted by the national government to an inventor for a limited period of time in exchange for public disclosure of an invention.
Pathology From BRO: (from Greek πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids, and whole bodies (autopsies). The term also encompasses the related scientific study of disease processes, called General pathology. Medical pathology is divided in two main branches, Anatomical pathology and Clinical pathology. Veterinary pathology is concerned with animal disease whereas Phytopathology is the study of plant diseases. - definition adapted from Wikipedia General pathology
Pathway model signaling pathway model
regulatory network model
enzyme network model
Pattern A generalized representation of some repeatable concrete or informational item. (Adapted from Semantic Science Ontology via BioPortal) PATO no longer lists this term; needs to be updated.
Pediatric neuropsychology Medical and psychology specialty concerned with the study of brain-behavior relationships in children with known or suspected brain injury, neurodevelopmental disorders, learning disorders or other congenital disorders.
Pediatrics From BRO: Branch medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Paediatrics
Personal communication Informal communication
Pharmacokinetics pharmacodynamics From BRO: (in Greek: “pharmacon” meaning drug and “kinetikos” meaning putting in motion, the study of time dependency; sometimes abbreviated as “PK”) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. In practice, this discipline is applied mainly to drug substances, though in principle it concerns itself with all manner of compounds ingested or otherwise delivered externally to an organism, such as nutrients, metabolites, hormones, toxins, etc. Pharmacokinetics is often studied in conjunction with pharmacodynamics. Pharmacodynamics explores what a drug does to the body, whereas pharmacokinetics explores what the body does to the drug. Pharmacokinetics includes the study of the mechanisms of absorption and distribution of an administered drug, the rate at which a drug action begins and the duration of the effect, the chemical changes of the substance in the body (e.g. by enzymes) and the effects and routes of excretion of the metabolites of the drug. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Pharmacology is concerned with drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells. Neuropharmacology
Phase contrast imaging protocol Phase contrast microscopy
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, law, justice, validity, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing these questions (such as mysticism or mythology) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on reasoned argument. The word is of Greek origin: φιλοσοφία, philosophía, "love of wisdom". - adapted from Wikipedia
Phoenetics Branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones), and the processes of their physiological production, auditory reception, and neurophysiological perception. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Photoactivated localization microscopy A light microscopic imaging assay that builds up an image from many dark fluorophores that can be photoactivated into a fluorescing state by a flash of light. Because photoactivation is stochastic, only a few, well separated molecules "turn on." Then Gaussians are fit to their PSFs to high precision. After the few bright dots photobleach, another flash of the photoactivating light activates random fluorophores again and the PSFs are fit of these different well spaced objects. This process is repeated many times, building up an image molecule-by-molecule; and because the molecules were localized at different times, the "resolution" of the final image can be much higher than that limited by diffraction. (Adapted from Wikipedia) Photoactivated localization microscopy imaging
PALM imaging
photo-activated localization microscopy
Physical science Branch of science that usually includes: Physics, Chemistry and Engineering.
Physiological model A mathematical description of the complex physical and temporal dependencies between a set of related biological entities and their immediated environment. Physiological system model
Physiology From BRO: Branch of biology dealing with the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.

Physiology has traditionally been divided between plant physiology and animal and all living things physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells may also apply to human cells.

The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human animal species. Plant physiology also borrows techniques from both fields. Its scope of subjects is at least as diverse as the tree of life itself. Due to this diversity of subjects, research in animal physiology tends to concentrate on understanding how physiological traits changed throughout the evolutionary history of animals. Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out of physiology research include biochemistry, biophysics, paleobiology, biomechanics, and pharmacology. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Plan specification a directive information entity that when concretized it is realized in a process in which the bearer tries to achieve the objectives, in part by taking the actions specified. Plan specifications includes parts such as objective specification, action specifications and conditional specifications.
Plant physiology Branch of physiology concerned with the study of plants.
Polarization contrast imaging protocol Polarization microscopy
Polynomial coefficient scaling coefficient
proportionality coefficient
Population code A method of coding the properties of a stimulus strength or quality in terms of number of responding neurons.
Population genetics Branch of genetics concerned with genetic variability in a given species.
Population spike Is an extracellular voltage shift, representing of a group of cells firing action potentials at the same instance in time. In hippocampus, when recording from the cell body region the population spike is a strong, fast onset negative shift in voltage cutting through a positive field-EPSP.
Post-Tetanic Potentiation is a form of short-term synaptic plasticity resulting from an increased calcium concentration in the presynaptic terminal during relatively high frequency activation of the axon. Posttetanic potentiation
Post tetanic potentiation
Postsynaptic inhibition The hyperpolarization of a postsynaptic cell, reducing the likelihood of or preventing an action potential in the postsynaptic cell
Pressure stimulus transduction This is a stimulus where the the direct physical property being sensed is the local pressure, such as with the baroreceptors in the the aortic arch and carotid sinuses of higher mammals.
Presynaptic facilitation Action by a presynaptic neuron at an axo-axonic synapse increasing the amount of neurotransmitter released by the postsynaptic cell onto a third cell.
Presynaptic inhibition action by a presynaptic cell at an axo-axonic synapse to reduce the communication of the postsynaptic cell with any downstream cell. Axo-axonic inhibition
Primary key
Primatology is the study of primates. It is a diverse discipline and primatologists can be found in departments of biology, anthropology, psychology and many others. It is a branch of Physical anthropology, which, in itself, studies the genus Homo, especially Homo sapiens. The fields cross over in the study of the hominids, which include all ape-like ancestors of man and the other great apes (for a list of common ancestors with other living species see The Ancestor's Tale). Modern primatology is an extremely diverse science. It ranges from anatomical studies of primate ancestors and field studies of primates in their natural habitat, to experiments in animal psychology and ape language. It has cast an immense amount of light on basic human behaviors and ancient ancestry of these behaviors. - adapted from Wikipedia
Protein folding model
Protein structure classification A mathematical description of the related structural domains of a collection of amino acid sequence based on the consensus sequences with defined structural properties (e.g., alpha helix, beta sheet, etc.). These models are typically used to infer phylogenetic relatedness of proteins (families/superfamilies) based on structural properties. protein classification
Protocol A plan specification which has sufficient level of detail and quantitative information to communicate it between domain experts, so that different domain experts will reliably be able to independently reproduce the process (Ontology of Biomedical Investigations OBI_0000272).
Psychiatry Medical specialty officially devoted to the treatment, study and prevention of mental disorders.
Psycholinguistics Part of psychology concerned with the study of language.

The study of the processes through which learners acquire language. By itself, language acquisition refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants' acquisition of their native language, whereas second language acquisition deals with acquisition of additional languages in both children and adults.

One hotly debated issue is whether biology contributes capacities specific to language acquisition, often referred to as universal grammar, or the language acquisition device (LAD). For fifty years, some linguists, notably Noam Chomsky and the late Eric Lenneberg, have argued for the hypothesis that children have innate, language-specific abilities that facilitate and constrain language learning.

Other researchers, including Elizabeth Bates, Catherine Snow, Brian MacWhinney, and Michael Tomasello, have hypothesized that language learning results from general cognitive abilities and the interaction between learners and their surrounding communities. Recent work by William O'Grady proposes that complex syntactic phenomena result from an efficiency-driven, linear computational system. O'Grady describes his work as "nativism without Universal Grammar."

One of the most important advances in the study of language acquisition was the creation of the CHILDES database by Brian MacWhinney and Catherine Snow. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Language acquisition
Psychology Branch of science concerned with the study of human mental functions and behavior.

(Greek: Ψυχολογία, lit. "study of the mind", from ψυχή psykhē "breath, spirit, soul"; and -λογία, -logia "study of") is an academic and applied discipline involving the systematic, and often scientific, study of human mental functions and behavior. Occasionally, in addition or opposition to employing the scientific method, it also relies on symbolic interpretation and critical analysis, although it often does so less prominently than other social sciences such as sociology. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior and interpersonal relationships. Some, especially depth psychologists, also study the unconscious mind.

Psychological knowledge is applied to various spheres of human activity, including issues related to everyday life—such as family, education and employment—and to the treatment of mental health problems. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the underlying physiological and neurological processes. Psychology includes many sub-fields of study and applications concerned with such areas as human development, sports, health, industry, media and law. Psychology incorporates research from the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. A professional theorist or practitioner of psychology is called a psychologist. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
Psychometrics From BRO: is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of educational and psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. The field is primarily concerned with the study of measurement instruments such as questionnaires and tests. It involves two major research tasks, namely: (i) the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and (ii) the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement. - definition adapted from Wikipedia
PubMed Central ID PMC ID
PubMed ID
Q-ball imaging protocol
Quantitative value
R-weighted back projection A reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography. In R-weighted backprojection, each horizontal line of input data is filtered to weight each spatial frequency proportional to its radius in Fourier space. This is radial weighting, and the filter is referred to as a radial filter.
Rabies-virus-mediated tracing protocol Transynaptic, retrograde tracing protocol that uses a modified rabies virus to trace neuronal circuitry from its source rabies virus mediated tracing
Radiolabeling protocol
Rate-coding model neurons
Recapitulation Changes to a map consistent with an earlier or embryonic representation.
Receptive field The area of the receptor sheet that excites a neuron. For example, an area of skin or retina.
Reconstituted bilayer electrical recording protocol
Reconstituted bilayer single-channel patch recording protocol Procedure by which a part of cellular membrane is recorded from. The notion is to isolate a single or at least a small number of channels in a "patch" of membrane. patch recording
patch clamp
Region of Interest A Region of Interest, often abbreviated ROI, is a selected subset of samples within a dataset identified for a particular purpose. The concept of an ROI is commonly used in medical imaging. For example, the boundaries of a tumor may be defined on an image or in a volume, for the purpose of measuring its size. The endocardial border may be defined on an image, perhaps during different phases of the cardiac cycle, say end-systole and end-diastole, for the purpose of assessing cardiac function.There are three fundamentally different means of encoding an ROI: * burned in to the dataset, with a value that may or may not be outside the normal range of normally occurring values * as separate purely graphic information, such as with vector or bitmap (rasterized) drawing elements, perhaps with some accompanying plain (unstructured) text annotation * as separate structured semantic information (such as coded value types) with a set of spatial and/or temporal coordinates (WIkiPedia)
Regulation of synaptic transmission
Relaxation time
Report A document assembled by an author for the purpose of providing information for the audience. A report is the output of a documenting process and has the objective to be consumed by a specific audience. Topic of the report is on something that has completed. A report is not a single figure. Examples of reports are journal article, patent application, grant progress report, case report (not patient record). (OBI pending final vetting)
Resource:Zygote Body 3D interactive whole body which allows the user to zoom in onto any structure of the body and remove/add layers, focus on specific structures and label. It has a very detailed nervous brain anatomy representation. This program has been developed in association with Google Body. 3D anatomical products from Zygote have been seen in applications online, in broadcast television, films, computer games, educational software, and in medical illustrations and animations. Google Body
Zygote Body & 3D Data
This resource has proven to be very useful to me to grasp the global organization of the nervous system. The 3D modeling is very powerful and the overall quality is impeccable. I highly recommend this resource for getting to know the global structure of the nervous system (and of all the body really).
Reward-modulated STDP
SEM imaging protocol Scanning electron microscopy imaging protocol
SPECT imaging protocol * A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image. (MSH) * method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy: the camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the subject to capture images at multiple positions along the arc; the computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the three-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. (CSP) Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography imaging protocol
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
STDP Changes in the efficacy of a synapse due to precise timing differences in the presynaptic and postsynaptic activity. spike timing dependent plasticity
STEM imaging protocol Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging protocol
Scientific discipline a branch of scientific knowledge. Academic discipline
Area of research
Area of study
Sensory stimulus transduction Sensation
Sequence analysis A sequence analysis objective is a data transformation objective which aims to analyse some ordered biological data for sequential patterns.
Sequence homology model A mathematical description of the phylogenetic relatedness of a set of nucleic acid sequences based on a correlative comparison of linear sequence. homology model
Sequence-based model A mathematical description of the relatedness of a set of nucleic acid or amino acid sequences based on a correlative comparison of the sequences or properties derived from those sequences.
Serial number number
Serial publication element
Serial title Journal title
Short-term Synaptic Plasticity Changes in the Input(presynaptic cell APs)/Output(firing pattern or sub-threshold voltage responses) of a cell reflecting changes in the strength of the connection between cells or changed ionic conductances of the postsynaptic cell (usually over a half second to second). STP
Signal processing algorithm A mathematical separation and/or combination of time-series data typically performed in real-time and utilizing Fourier transform methods to manipulate the distinct frequency components of a set of an input data stream to produce an output data stream. DSP algorithm
Digital signal processing algorithm
Silver stain Staining method that uses silver to selectively alter the appearance of a target in microscopy of histological sections; in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels (adapted from Wikipedia:
Simplified Model
Single electrode extracellular recording protocol
Single tilt electron tomography imaging protocol Electron tomography protocol where the specimen is imaged at intervals as it is rotated along a single axis
Single-electrode voltage clamp recording protocol
Size principle The order of recruitment of motor neuron by the size of the cell
Slice preparation protocol Protocol in which slices of tissue are excised from an animal and kept alive in vitro. Slice preparation
Social psychology Branch of psychology concerned with the study of social interactions. Social neuroscience
Social science Branch of science that usually includes: Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology
Software development environment A resource that provides the entire environment (applications, servers, network) that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An SDE typically includes an integrated development environment (IDE, comprising source code editor, compiler, build automation, debugger), requirement management tools, design modeling tools, documentation generation tools, code analysis tools, and so on.
Software development tool Resource that provides access to software, application, or toolkit that enable generic tools for software development, engineering and deployment. (BRO)
Solid object-coupled ciliary displacement stimulus transduction Energy transfer between some physical force and a solid object which is coupled to primary sensory cilia and whose displacement leads to stimulation of the neurons (BB: 2008-03-13)
Somatic reprogramming protocol
Somatomotor map
Somatosensory map A homunculus measured in the somatosensory cortex. Humunculus Doesn't homonculus also pertain to a motor map? Doesn't it mean human? I'm not sure it is a synonym.
Space constant The distance at which a local change in membrane potential has decayed by 63% of its initial value. Length constant
Membrane length constant
Spatial summation Addition of two or more individual currents, which have distinct locations.
Spatial value
Spatio-temporal activity pattern In neural tissue or in models of neural networks, patterns of spiking activity that change over both space and time. Spike train has no space so is not a superclass but instead something related.
Specification A description of the essential technical attributes/requirements for an object or procedure, and may be used to determine that the object / procedure meets its requirements/attributes.
Specimen preparation protocol
Spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging protocol Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging
MRS imaging
Spectroscopic optical imaging protocol Spectroscopic microscopy
Staining protocol
Start page
Static HTML document
Statistical Parametric Mapping Statistical Parametric Mapping refers to the construction and assessment of spatially extended statistical processes used to test hypotheses about functional imaging data. These ideas have been instantiated in software that is called SPM. The SPM software package has been designed for the analysis of brain imaging data sequences. The sequences can be a series of images from different cohorts, or time-series from the same subject. The current release is designed for the analysis of fMRI, PET, SPECT, EEG and MEG (
Statistics Branch of mathematics dealing with statistical phenomena.
Stimulated emission depletion microscopy A light microscopic imaging protocol that uses simulated emission depletion microscopy, a type of microscopy that uses two laser pulses, the excitation pulse for excitation of the fluorophores to their fluorescent state and the STED pulse for the de-excitation of fluorophores by means of stimulated emission (adapted from Wikipedia ( Stimulated emission depletion microscopy
Stimulated emission depletion imaging
STED imaging
Stimulus transduction Encoding and movement of sensory information.
Structural model A coordinate-based mathematical description of a collection of biological structures.
Subject report
Summation Addition of two or more individual currents. Summation
Surgical protocol
Synaptic Integration Integration of postsynaptic currents.
Synaptic Plasticity Refers to capability for change in synaptic efficacy.
Synaptic depression The weakening of the connection between two nerve cells.
Synaptic modulation of active current Modification of channel-mediated currents that follows postsynaptic activation.
Synchronization Simultaneous occurance of neural events such as coincident spiking or in phase oscillations in activity in neurons or neuronal networks.
Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience which studies the function of neural circuits and systems, most commonly in awake, behaving intact organisms. It is an umbrella term, encompassing a number of areas of study concerned with how nerve cells behave when connected together to form neural networks: vision, for example, or voluntary movement. At this level of analysis, neuroscientists study how different neural circuits analyze sensory information, form perceptions of the external worlds, make decisions, and execute movements. Researchers concerned with systems neuroscience focus on the vast space that exists between molecular and cellular approaches to the brain and the study of high-level mental functions such as language, memory, and self-awareness (which are the purview of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience). Systems neuroscientists typically employ techniques for understanding networks of neurons while they function in vivo (e.g. electrophysiology (single or multi-electrode recording), in vivo imaging, fMRI, PET). The term is commonly used in an educational framework: a common sequence of graduate school neuroscience courses consists of cellular/molecular neuroscience for the first semester, then systems neuroscience for the second semester. It is also sometimes used to distinguish a subdivision within a neuroscience department at an academic institution. - definition adapted from Wikipedia Systems
T1 relaxation time
T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging protocol T1 weighted imaging protocol
T1 imaging protocol
T2 relaxation time transverse relaxation time
T2* relaxation time T-two-star
T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging protocol T2 weighted protocol
TA MRI acquitision time
TE MRI echo time
TEM imaging protocol Transmission electron microscopy imaging protocol
TR MRI repetition time
Temperature stimulus transduction The series of events in which a sensory temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. (GO:ai) (GO) sensory transduction of temperature stimulus
Temporal Pattern Generation Refers to process where networks of neurons or neural network models exhibit patterns of activity (membrane potential or actional potentials) that vary over time. Single neurons or neuron models may also exhibit temporal patterns of activity such as changes in action potential frequency. Is this the same as central pattern generator? No, CPG is more specific (an example of a temporal pattern) and relates to motor systems only. Temporal patterns can be more general.
Temporal characteristic value
Temporal summation Addition of two or more individual currents, which are distinct in time but not necessarily space.
Tetanus A pattern of stimuli that are generally close in time and relatively intense.
Thesis A document submitted in support of candidacy for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. dissertation
Threshold stimulus The level of stimulus energy that is just sufficient to elicit a response at the receptor, or brain area of study. Note, in most sensory systems the threshold value will differ depending on the level of sensory system.
Time constant The time it takes the membrane potential to move 63% of the way toward its final value in response to step change in current. Membrane time constant
Timm's stain A staining technique used to visualize a variety of metals in brains and other tissues, including trace metals essential for life, such as Zn, Cu, Fe, Co, and Ni, as well as toxic metals, e.g., Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Bi, TI, Au and Ag. This method, originally developed by Timm (1958), was later modified. The technique is based on sulphide-precipitation of metals in tissue followed by a physical development. During the latter stage the metal sulphides catalyze the reduction of silver ions by reducing agents. This technique has proven to be particularly useful in visualizing zinc-containing neurons and the detection of newly sprouted axons and axon terminals within the central nervous system (Adapted from ( Timm's sulfide silver staining
Timm's method
Title primary title
Title set
Topographic map The orderly arrangement of neurons at successive levels of information processing in a pathway, such that the spatial relationships of stimuli are preserved from the organ of perception to the brain. Neural map
Total internal reflection imaging protocol Total internal reflection microscopy
Total internal reflection optical imaging protocol Total internal reflection microscopy
Touch stimulus transduction The series of events involved in the perception of touch in which a sensory mechanical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
Toxicology From BRO: Branch of science which studies the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms.
Tract tracing protocol Methods used to determine connectivity between brain structures or neuron populations
Tractography a 3D modeling technique used to investigate and visualize neural tracts using data collected by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). It uses special techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computer-based image analysis. The results are presented in two- and three-dimensional images (modified from Wikipedia). tractography protocol
Transverse magnetization
Tuning curve An input output function used in the sensory systems where the average firing rate of the neuron as a function of relevant stimulus parameters is plotted. For example, the tuning of a neuron is 2000 Hz if the neuron fires at a maximum frequency to the 2000 Hz tone presentation, while firing less to a 1800 Hz or 2200 Hz tone. Similarly, a somatosensory neuron is tuned to the left index finger if it fires more intensely to touch of the left index finger, than other fingers.
Two electrode voltage clamp A technique to measure the ion currents across the membrane of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level, while using two electrodes, one holds the membrane potential steady while the other measures current and the feedback circuit used to bridge the electrodes.
Ultrasonographic imaging protocol * RAEB: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections of echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz. (MSH99) (NCI) * The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections of echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz. (MSH) * Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes. Employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz. (DCTD-DIP) (NCI) * high frequency sound waves used to identify and examine internal organs and structures without the invasive hazards of X xays, dyes, or fluoroscopy. (CSP) Echography
Ultrasonic imaging protocol
Ultrasound imaging protocol
Ultrasound imaging procedure
Unfiltered R-weighted back projection
Universal Trial Number The aim of the Universal Trial Number (UTN) is to facilitate the unambiguous identification of clinical trials. The UTN is not a registration number.

The UTN is a number that should be obtained early in the history of the trial. The UTN should:

  • become permanently attached to the trial
  • be used whenever information about the trial is communicated
  • become part of the trial's identity
  • be documented in the trial protocol
  • be submitted every time the trial is registered
It is recognized that some UTNs will be attached to trials that do not progress; that is, trials that never become fully developed protocols and that never recruit participants. Some UTNs will therefore never appear attached to a registered trial.
Version source control system A resource that provides a system for the management of multiple revisions of the same unit of information. It is most commonly used in engineering and software development to manage ongoing development of digital documents like application source code, art resources such as blueprints or electronic models, and other projects that may be worked on by a team of people. Revision control
Version control (system)
(source) code management
Source control
Version-controlled repository
Virology The study of viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit cells for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Virology is often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology. - adapted from Wikipedia
Visual map A representation of the retina in the visual cortex.
Voltage clamp current recording protocol
Volume (birnlex 2391)
Web service A resource that provides a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. Web services are frequently Web APIs that can be accessed over a network, such as the Internet, and executed on a remote system hosting the requested services.

NITRC definition: Specific functions provided to applications via standard Internet protocols (XML, SOAP, WSDL, UDDI).
Website A connected group of pages on the World Wide Web regarded as a single entity, usually maintained by one person or organization and devoted to a single topic or several closely related topics.
Western blot protocol A protocol that uses a Western blot assay to identify and quantify a binder protein interaction. A mixture of protein is first submitted to an electrophoresis in denaturing condition and then electro-transferred from the gel to a membrane. The membrane is then incubated with a primary antibody specific for a given protein or a specific residue modification in the sample under analysis. A secondary antibody, radiolabelled or fused to fluorophore or to a chromogenic enzyme, targets the first antibody and allows the visualisation of the protein band on the membrane. (Adapted from the Protein Affinity Reagent ontology)
Whole-cell voltage clamp recording protocol
Wide-field fluorescence imaging protocol
Winner-take-all Computational approach where after some time only one neuron in a network remains active corresponding to the largest of a set of inputs.
X ray microscopy protocol An X ray imaging protocol that employs X ray microscopy to form an image, i.e., a type of microscopy that employs soft X rays as the electromagnetic radiation source that forms the image (adapted from Wikipedia:
X-ray imaging protocol Imaging protocol that employs an X-ray imaging assay to form images, i.e., an an imaging assay that uses X rays as the electromagnetic radiation source (MM)
Zoology Branch of biology that focuses on the structure, function, behavior, and evolution of animals. The correct pronunciation of "zoology" is /zoʊˈɑləʤɪ/. zoölogy


Admin, Akash, Slarson


*Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information.